Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "A new and complete statistical gazetteer of the United States of America : founded on and compiled from official federal and state returns, and the seventh national census"

See other formats


NEW AND COMPLETE 



STATISTICAL GAZETTEER 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 



FOUNDED ON AND COMPILED FROM 



OFFICIAL FEDERAL AND STATE RETURNS, 



SEVENTH NATIONAL CENSUS. 



EICHAED SWAINSON FISHEE, M.D., 

AUTHOR OF THE "BOOK OF THE WORLD;" THE "PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES;" A "STATISTICAL 

ACCOUNT OF AMERICA," ETC., ETC. ; ALSO, LITERARY EDITOR OF " COLTON's AMERICAN 

ATLAS;" AND EDITOR OF THE "AMERICAN RAILWAY GUIDE." 



NEW YORK: 

PUBLISHED BY J. H. COLTON, 

No. 86 CEDAR STREET. 
1853. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1853, by 

J. H. COLTON, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of 

New York. 



N. T. Stekeottpe Association, Pudmey & Eussell, Printers, 

201 "William Street 79 John Street, N T. 



EXPLANATION OF ABBREVIATIONS, ETC. 



MADE USE OF IN THE PREPARATION OF THIS WORK. 



bush bushel 

cap. ... capital 

co county 

cr creek 

C. H. court-house 

dist district 

dwell dwelling 

fr. col free colored 

hund hundred 

isl island 



lat latitude 

long longitude 

manuf. manufacture 

m mile 

mtn. . mountain 

par parish 

pop population 

p.b post borough 

p. c per centum 

p. o post office 



p. v. post village" 

pt port 

R. R railroad 

r river 

si slaves 

sq. m square miles 

sta. station 

t town 

ter territory 

v village 



Ma Alabama 

Ark Arkansas 

Calif. California 

Col Columbia 

Conn Connecticut 

Del Delaware 

Flor Florida 

Ga Georgia 

Ind Indian 

Ind Indiana 

El Hlinois 

la Iowa 

-Ky Kentucky 

La Louisiana 



Me Maine 

Mass Massachusetts 

Md Maryland 

Mich Michigan 

Minn Minnesota 

Miss Mississippi 

Mo Missouri 

AT. Eng New England 

N. Hamp New Hampshire 

N. Jer New Jersey 

JV*. Mex New Mexico 

JV. Y. New York 

JV. Car. . , North Carolina 

jY. West North-West 



Nebr. Nebrs 

Ohio Ohio 

Oreg Oregon 

Penn Pennsylvania 

R. I. Rhode Island 

S. Car South Carolina 

Tenn Tennessee 

Tex Texas 

Utah Utah 

Verm Vermont 

Virg Virginia 

Wash Washington 

Wise Wisconsin 

U. S United States 



%* Where no date is affixed to statistics, they must be understood as referring to the year 1850 
— the year of the statistical series used as the basis of the work. 

%* The distances of places from the capitals of the several States, unless otherwise expressed, 
are by direct lines. When distances are given by railroad, canal, post-road, or river, it is so ex- 
pressed. 



A STATISTICAL ACCOUNT 

OP THE 

UNITED STATES OE AMERICA. 



The United States, a confederacy of sovereign States, and the most influential republic of the 
world, occupies the middle portion of North America. This confederation, consisting originally of 
thirteen States, but now of xhirty-one States, the federal district, and several territorial append- 
ages, lies between the parallels of 24° and 49° north latitude, and the meridians of 10°east and 48° 
west from Washington, or 67° and 125° from Greenwich, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
Ocean, and from the British colonies on the north, to the republic of Mexico and the great Gulf on 
the south. The whole extent of this boundary is now definitely settled by treaty.* The greatest 
width of this country, from east to west, is 2,900 miles, and the greatest depth, from north to south, 
1,730 miles. Its area may be estimated at 3,260,000 square miles, including California, Texas, etc. , 
recently acquired. It has a frontier of about 10,000 miles, of which 4,400 is sea-coast, and 1,500 
lake-coast. 

The territory of the United States is traversed by two principal chains of mountains, the Alle- 
ghanies on the east side, and the Rocky Mountains on the west. These divide the country into 
three distinct regions : the Atlantic slope, the valley of the Mississippi, and the declivity from the 
Rocky Mountains to the Pacific. 

The Alleghanies are less a chain of mountains than a long plateau, crested with several chains 
of mountains or hills, separated from each other by wide and elevated valleys. East of the Hudson 
the mountains are chiefly granitic, with rounded summits, often covered at their tops with bogs and 
turf, and distributed in irregular groups without any marked direction. Some peaks of the Green 
Mountains, in Vermont, and the White Mountains, in New Hampshire, rise to the height of 5,000 
to 6,400 feet above the sea. After passing the Hudson, the structure of the mountains seems to 
change. In Pennsylvania and Virginia they assume the form of long parallel ridges, varying in 
height from 2,500 to 4,000 feet and occupying a breadth of one hundred miles. In North Carolina, 
the highest culmination is 6,476 feet ; but in the northern part of Georgia and Alabama, where 
they terminate, they again lose the form of continuous chains, and break into groups of isolated 
mountains, touching at their base, some of which attain a considerable elevation. 

The Rocky Mountains are on a much grander scale than the Alleghanies. Their base is 300 
miles in breadth, and their loftiest summits, covered with everlasting snow, rise to the height of 10 
to 14,000 feet. These vast chains may be considered as a continuation of the Cordilleras of Mexico. 
They are distant from the Pacific Ocean from 5 to 600 miles, but between them and the coast several 
minor ranges intersect the country, of which the Maritime Range is the most conspicuous. 

The immense valley included between these two ranges of mountains is intersected by the Mis- 
sissippi River, which runs, from north to south, all through the United States. The country west 
of the Mississippi, with little exception, is yet a wilderness, inhabited by roving bands of Indians, 
and beyond the limits of the organized States the whites have scarcely a settlement ; but the 
country east of that river is thickly populated, and in the highest state of cultivation. The most 
remarkable feature in the face of the country is the low plain, from 50 to 100 miles wide, which 
extends along the Atlantic coast. Beyond this plain the land rises toward the interior till it ter- 
minates in the Alleghanies. The rest of the country east of the Mississippi is agreeably diversified 

* The treaties relative to these boundaries are, 1. Treaty of Paris, 1783. 2. Treaty of London, 1794. 3. Louisiana Treaty, 
1808. 4. Treaty of Ghent 1814 5. Convention of London, 1818 and 1828. 6. Florida Treaty, 1S19. 7. Treaty with Mex- 
328. -.. Treaty with Russia, 1824. 9. Ashburton Treaty, 1342. 10. Texas Annexation Resolutions, 1845. 11. Oregon 
Treaty, 1846. 12. Treaty of Guadalupe, 1S48. 

5 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



with hills and valleys, plains and mountains. The soil of the low country, except on the banks of 
creeks and rivers, is sandy, and comparatively unproductive ; but the remainder has a strong, fertile 
soil, capable of supporting a dense population. The Pacific section is a highly varied country, 
abounding in wild and majestic scenery, and traversed by magnificent rivers. Much, however, of 
its interior is desert, and will probably never be inhabited by civilized man. The great California 
desert, indeed, is one of the dreariest regions of the world, the solitude being relieved only by a 
few oases in the neighborhood of streams, or on the borders of its numerous lakes ; on these alone 
is there even an aboriginal population. 

The shores of the United States are washed by three seas : the Atlantic Ocean, on the east, the 
Gulf of Mexico, on the south, and the Pacific Ocean, on the west. The principal bays and sounds 
on the Atlantic border are Passamaquoddy Bay, which lies between the State of Maine and the 
British province of New Brunswick ; Massachusetts Bay, between Cape Ann and Cape Cod ; Long 
Island Sound, between Long Island and the coast of Connecticut; Delaware Bay, which sets up 
between Cape May and Cape Henlopen, separating the States of New Jersey and Delaware ; Chesa- 
peake Bay, which communicates with the ocean between Cape Charles and Cape Henry, extending 
in a northern direction for 200 miles, through the States of Virginia and Maryland; Albemarle 
Sound, and Pamlico Sound, on the coast ofNorth Carolina. There are no large bays or sounds on 
the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. On the Pacific coast, however, there are several excellent bays, 
but the principal and only one necessary to mention is the Bay of San Francisco, in the State of 
California. It is one of the finest bays in the world, and capable of containing the navies of all the 
European powers at one time. 

With the exception of Michigan and Champlain, none of the great lakes of North America lie 
wholly within the territory of the United States ; the rest are on the northern boundary, where they 
form a connected chain, extending through a distance of more than 1,200 miles. The first in the 
chain is Lake Superior, the largest body of fresh water on the globe. Few persons are really aware 
of the magnitude of these great lakes ; they are truly inland seas, and navigation is as dangerous, 
and subjected to all the vicissitudes which are connected with the navigation of the Baltic, the 
Black Sea, or the Mediterranean. The following is a tabular statement of the extent of these fresh- 
water seas, with the mean depth of their waters, and their elevation above the sea. 

Names. ' Mean Length. Mean Breadth, Area, Mean Depth. Elev. above the Sea. 

Lake Superior 400 miles 80 miles 32,000 sq. m 900 feet 596 feet 

" Michigan 320 " TO " 22,400 " 1.000 " 5T8 " 

" Huron 240 " 80 " 20,400 " 1,000 " 5TS " 

" GreenBay 100 " 20 " 2,000 >< 1,000 " 5T8 " 

" Erie 240 " 40 " 9,600 " 84 " 565 " 

" Ontario ISO " 35 " 6,300 " 500 " 232 " 

" St. Clair 20 " 14 " 360 " 20 " 570 " 

Lake Champlain, lying between Vermont and New York, is 128 miles long, and from 1 to 16 miles 
wide, and discharges its waters through the Sorel into the St. Lawrence. It is computed that the 
lakes contain above 14,000 cubic miles of water — a quantity more than five-sevenths of all the fresh 
water on the earth. The extent of country drained by the lakes, from the north-western angle 
of Superior to the St. Lawrence, including also the area of the lakes themselves, is estimated at 
335,515 square miles. 

The principal rivers of the United States may be divided into four classes. First, the Mississippi 
and its wide-spread branches, which drain the waters of the whole country included between the 
Alleghany and Rocky Mountains ; second, the rivers east of the Alleghany Mountains, which, 
rising from their eastern declivity, water the Atlantic plain, and hence flow into the ocean ; third, 
the system of rivers flowing into the Gulf of Mexico, which may be subdivided into those flowing 
from the southern slope of the Alleghanies, and those having their source in the north-western 
highlands of Texas ; and, fourth, those streams on the west of the Rocky Mountains, which flow 
into the Pacific Ocean. 

The Mississippi rises west of Lake Superior, in latitude 47° 47' north, amid lakes and swamps, 
dreary and desolate beyond description ; and after a south-east course of about 500 miles, reaches 
the Falls of the St. Anthony, where it descends perpendicularly 16 feet, and where are numerous 
rapids. From these falls it pursues at first a south-easterly, and then a southerly direction ; and, 
after forming the boundary between Iowa, Missouri, and Arkansas, on the west, and Wisconsin, 
Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi, on the east, passes through Louisiana, and discharges 
itself through a delta of many mouths into the Gulf of Mexico. It is nearly 3,200 miles in length , 
and is navigable, with few obstructions, to the Falls of St. Anthony. 

Its principal tributaries from the east are — 1. The Wisconsin, which joins it between the paral- 
lels of 42° and 43° north latitude ; — 2. The Blinois, a navigable river, which joins it near latitude 
6 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



88° 40' north ; — 3. The Ohio, "which is itself formed by the junction of the Alleghany and Monon- 
gahela rivers at Pittsburg. It flows in a south-westerly direction for 945 miles, separating the 
north-western States from Virginia and Kentucky, and falls into the Mississippi in 37° north lati- 
tude. The chief tributaries of the Ohio are the Wabash, the Cumberland, and the Tennessee, 
which last is formed of several streams from the western parts of Virginia and the Carolinas, which 
unite a little west of Knoxville, in the State of Tennessee, and runs at first south-west into Alabama, 
where it turns and runs north-west, through Tennessee into Kentucky, and joins the Ohio 10 miles 
below the mouth of the Cumberland ; and — 4. The Yazoo, which rises in the northern part of the 
State of Mississippi, and, running south-west, joins the Mississippi 100 miles above Natchez. 

The tributaries from the west are — 1. The Minnesota, or St. Peter's, which joins it about nine 
miles below the Falls of St, Anthony, after a south-east course of several hundred miles ; — 2. The 
Des Moines, which joins it near the parallel of 40° north latitude, after a south-easterly course of 
more than 800 miles ; — 3. The Missouri, which is formed by three branches, called Jefferson's, 
Madison's, and Gallatin's rivers, all of which rise and unite in the Rocky Mountains. The whole 
length, from the highest point of Jefferson's River, to the confluence with the Mississippi, is, by 
actual course, about 2,500 miles, and to the Gulf of Mexico nearly 4,000 miles ; during the whole 
of which distance there is no cataract or considerable impediment to the navigation, except at Great 
Falls, which are above 2,000 miles from the Mississippi. At these falls the river descends, in the 
distance of 18 miles, 362 feet. The principal tributaries of the Missouri are the Yellow Stone, which 
rises in the Rocky Mountains, and joins it after a north-easterly course of 600 miles ; the Nebraska, 
or Platte, which rises also in those mountains, and, after an easterly course of 800 miles, joins the 
Missouri in latitude 41° north ; and the Kansas, which joins it near latitude 39° north, after an 
easterly course of more than 600 miles ; — 4. The Arkansas, which rises in the Rocky Mountains, 
and pursuing a south-easterly course, forms, for some distance, the boundary between the Indian 
Territory and Texas ; after which its course lies principally in the State of Arkansas, till it joins 
the Mississippi in 34° north latitude. Its length is more than 1,300 miles; — 5. The Red River, 
which also rises in the Rocky Mountains, below Sante Fe, and, after a south-easterly course of 
more than 1.000 miles, falls into the Mississippi in latitude 31° north. 

The principal rivers east of the Alleghanies are — 1. The Connecticut, which rises in the highlands 
separating the United States from Canada, and running southerly, divides New Hampshire from 
Vermont, and passing through Massachusetts and Connecticut, falls into Long Island Sound. It is 
navigable for sloops for fifty miles to Hartford, and by means of canals and other improvements, 
has been rendered passable for boats 250 miles farther ; — 2. The Hudson, which rises west of Lake 
Champlain, and pursuing a southerly course of more than 300 miles, falls into the Bay of New 
York, after receiving numerous affluents. It is navigable for ships to Hudson, 130 miles, and for 
sloops and steamboats to Troy, 40 miles farther. It is connected with Lakes Champlain, Erie, and 
Ontario by means of canals from Albany, and with the Delaware by a canal from Rondout ; — 
3. The Delaware, which rises in New York, and flowing southerly, separates Pennsylvania from New 
York and New Jersey, and falls into Delaware Bay, after a course of 300 miles. It is navigable for 
ships of the line 40 miles, to Philadelphia, and for sloops 35 miles farther, to the head of the tide 
at Trenton Falls ; — i. The Susquehanna, which also rises in New York, and, pursuing a southerly 
zig-zag course through Pennsylvania, falls into the head of Chesapeake Bay, near the north-east 
corner of Maryland. During the last 50 miles the navigation is obstructed by an almost continued 
series of rapids ; — 5. The Potomac, which rises in the Alleghanies, and, after forming, during its 
whole course, the boundary between Maryland and Virginia, falls into Chesapeake Bay. It is 
navigable for ships of the largest dimensions to Washington, the federal capital, about 200 miles 
from the ocean ; but in the upper part of its course there are numerous obstacles, many of which, 
however, have been overcome by canals ; — 6. James River, which rises in the mountains, and falls 
into the southern part of Chesapeake Bay ; and — 7. The Savannah, which forms the dividing line 
between South Carolina and Georgia, and falls into the Atlantic in latitude 32° north. It is navi- 
gable for large vessels to Savannah, 17 miles ; and for boats to Augusta, 130 miles farther. 

The principal rivers which rise south of the Alleghanies, and fall into the Gulf of Mexico, are — 

1. The Appalachicola, which discharges itself into Apalachee Bay, in Florida. It is formed by the 
union of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers, the former of which rises in the northern part of 
Georgia, and flowing south, receives the Flint at the south-west extremity of the State. During the 
latter part of its course, the Chattahoochee forms the boundary between Georgia and Alabama ; — 

2. The Mobile, which discharges itself into Mobile Bay. It is formed by two large rivers, the Ala- 
bama and Tombigbee, which unite near latitude 31° north, after having pursued each a separate 
course of many hundred miles. There is another system of rivers flowing into the Gulf from the 

7 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



highlands of northern Texas, consisting of the Sabine, Trinity, Brazos, etc., which need only be 
mentioned here, as the geography of Texas -will be minutely described elsewhere. 

The rivers flowing from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific, consist of — 1. The Columoia, which 
rises near latitude 55° north, and running south-west, falls into the ocean in latitude 46° 15', after 
a course of 1,500 miles. Its principal tributaries are Clark's River, Lewis' River, and the Multno- 
mah or Willamette, all of which join it on its left bank. This river was discovered in 1792, and 
settlements were made in the neighborhood by Americans in 1810. The mouth of the river is ob- 
structed by flats, but vessels of 300 tons can ascend to the distance of 125 miles, and large sloops 
farther; — 2. The Sacramento and San Joaquin, emptying into the Bay of San Francisco; — 3. The 
Buenaventura, rising in the coast range of the California Mountains, empties into Monterey Bay ; 
— 4. The Colorado, and River Gila (which separates Mexico from the United States), flow from the 
mountains near Santa Fe, and would, if not received by the Gulf of California, empty into the 
Pacific ; they belong, however, to the same system of rivers. 



The government of the United States is a federal democratic republic. It is based on the consti- 
tution of 1787, and amendments thereto. 

The electors of the most numerous branch of the several State Legislatures are qualified electors 
in the States respectively for all elective officers of the general government. 

All legislative powers are vested in Congress, which consists of a Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

The " House of Representatives" is composed of members chosen every second year by the people 
of the several States, and in number in accordance with the population of each, and in order to 
ascertain the number each State is entitled to, a census is taken every ten years, excluding from 
the enumeration for this object two-thirds of the slaves, and all Indians not taxed. Each State is 
entitled to at least one representative. Vacancies are filled by intermediate elections. The House 
chooses its speaker and other officers. No person under twenty-five years of age, who has been 
less than seven years a citizen of the United States, and who is not a resident of the State electing 
him, is qualified for representative. 

The constitution provided for a specific number of representatives from each State to compose the 
House until the ascertainment of the population under the census of 1790 ; but since then legisla- 
tion has decennially fixed the number to be elected. From the 3d March, 1793, the apportionment 
was one representative to every 33,000 of the representative population; after 1803, one to every 
33,000 also ; after 1813, one to every 35,000 ; after 1823, one to every 40,000 ; after 1833, one to every 
47,000; after 1843, one to every 70,680; and after 3d March, 1853, 233 representatives to be di- 
vided pro rata to the several States. The following table shows the number of representatives to 
which each State has been entitled since the establishment of the government : 

States. 1787. 1793. 1803. 1813. 1823. 1833. 18J3. 1853. 

Maine _.._„_.._.. 7.. 8.. 7 . . 6 

New Hampshire 3.. 4 . . 5.. 6.. 6.. 5.. 4.. 3 
Massachusetts.. . 8 . . 14 . . 17 . . 20 . . 13 . . 12 . . 10 . . 11 
Rhode Island .. 1 . . 2.. 2.. 2.. 2.. 2.. 2.. 2 
Connecticut .... 5.. 7.. 7.. 7.. 6.. 6.. 4.. 4 

Vermont — .. 2.. 4.. 6.. 5.. 5.. 4.. 3 

New York 6 . . 10 .. 17 . . 27 .. 34 .. 40 .. 34 .. 83 

New Jersey .... 4.. 5.. 6.. 6.. 6.. 6.. 5.. 5 
Pennsylvania. . . 8 . . 13 . . IS . . 23 . . 26 . . 28 . . 24 . . 25 

Delaware 1 . . 1 . . 1 . . 2.. 1 ., 1 . . 1 . . 1 

Maryland 6.. 8.. 9.. 9.. 9.. 8.. 6.. 6 

Virginia 10 . . 19 . . 22 . . 23 . . 22 . . 21 . . 15 . . 13 

North Carolina.. 5 . . 10 . . 12 . . 13 . . 13 . . 13 . . 9 . . 8 
South Carolina.. 5.. 6.. 8.. 9.. 9.. 9.. 7.. 6 

Georgia 8.. 2.. 4.. 6.. 7.. 9.. 8.. 8 

Alabama _.._.._.._.. 3.. 5.. 7.. 7 

In addition to these representatives from States, the House admits a delegate from each organized 
Territory, who has the right to debate on subjects in which his Territory is interested, but can not 
vote. California has two members by a special aft. 

The " Senate" consists of two members from each State, elected by the Legislatures thereof 
respectively for six years. One-third the whole body is renewed biennially, and if vacancies hap- 
pen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the executive 
of such State makes a temporary appointment until the next meeting of the Legislature, which 
fills such vacancy. Senators must be at least thirty years old, must have been citizens of the United 
States for nine years, and be residents of the State by which chosen. Each senator has one vote. 
The Vice-president of the United States is ex officio President of the Senate, but a president pro tem- 
pore is elected by and from among the Senators, who, in the absence of the president, acts in his stead. 
8 



States. 1787. 1793. 1803. 1813. 1823. 1833. 1843. 1853. 

Mississippi — .. — .. — .. — .. 1 . . 2.. 4.. 5 

Louisiana — .. — .. — .. — .. 3.. 3.. 4.. 4 

Tennessee — .. — .. 3 . . 6 . . 9 . . 13 . . 11 . . 10 

Kentucky — .. 2.. 6 . . 10 . . 12 . . 13 .. 10 . . 10 

Ohio _.._.._.. 6 .. 14 .. 19 .. 21 .. 21 

Indiana — .. — .. — .. — .. 3.. 7.. 10.. 11 

Illinois — .. — .. — .. — .. 1.. 3.. 7.. 9 

Missouri — .. — .. — .. — .. 1 . . 2.. 5.. 7 

Arkansas — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. 1 . . 2 

Michigan — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. 3.. 4 

Florida — .. — .. — .. — .. — ..—.. 1 . . 1 

T«xas — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. 2.. 2 

Iowa — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. 2.. 2 

Wisconsin — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. 3.. 3 

California . — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. — .. 2.. 2 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



The constitutional government went into operation on the 4th March, 1789, but a quorum of the 
first Congress, which met at the city of New York, was not formed until the 6th April, nor was the 
first president of the United States inaugurated before the 30th April. The following is a complete 
list of sessions of Congress held up to the present time : 



Con- 
gress. 

lst< 

2d -< 
3d^ 

4th j 
5ttn 
6th 



Session. Commenced. Terminated. Duration 
1st 6 April, 1TS9 29 Sept., 17S9 176 

2d 4Jan., 1790 12 Aug., 1790 221 

3d 6 Dec, 1790 8 Mar., 1791 SS 

1st 24 Oct., 1791 SMay, 1792 19S 

2d 5 Nov., 1792 2 Mar., 1793 US 

1st 2 Dec, 1793 9 June, 1794 190 

2d 3 Nov., 1794 3 Mar., 1795 121 

1795....... Uune, 1796 17S 



1st 7 Dec., 

2d. 



1st 15 May, 

2d 13 Nov., 



7th | 
Sthj 

9th-! 



10th 



l 1 

11th -J 
12 th j 
18th \ 
14th -I 



1796 3 Mar., 1797 

1797 lOJulv, 1797 57 

1797 16 "• 179S 246 

3d 3 Dec, 179S 3 Mar., 1799 91 

1st 2 " 1799 14Mav, 1S00 165 

2d 17Nov., 1S00 SMaf., 1801 107 

1st 7Dec, 1S01 SMay, 1S02 14S 

2d 6 " 1S02 3 Mar., 1S03 88 

1st 17 Oct, 1S03 27 « 1S04 163 

2d 5 Nov., 1S04 3 " 1S05 119 

1st 2 Dec, 1S05 21 April, 1806 141 

2d 1 " 1S06 3Mar., 1S07 93 

1st 26 Oct., 1S07 25 April, 1S03 1S3 

2d 7Nov., 1S0S 3Mar., 1809 117 

1st 22May, 1809 2S June, 1S09 38 



.156 
. 91 

.246 



2d 27 Nov., 1809 1 May, 1S10. 

3d 3 Dec, 1S10 3 Mar., 1S11. 

1st 4Nov., 1S11 6July, 1S12. 

2d 2 " 1S12 3Mar., 1S13 122 

1st 24Mav, 1S13 2 Aug., 1S13 71 

2d 6 Dec 1S13 18 April, 1S14 134 

3d 19 Sept, 1S14 3 Mar., 1S15 165 

1st 4 Dec, 1815 30 April, 1S16 149 

2d 2 " 1S16 3Mar., 1817 92 



15th 



1st. 
2d. 



.151 
.108 
.162 
.111 



Commenced. 

SDec, 1821 



Terminated. 



Days of 
Duration. 

8 May, 1822 157 

" ' 1S22 3 Mar., 1823 92 

" 1823 27Mav, 1S24 179 

" 1S24 3 Mar., 1S25 88 

" 1825 22May, 1826 169 

" 1826 8 Mar., 1S27 90 

" 1S27 26 May, 1828 176 

" 1S2S 3 Mar., 1S29 93 

" 1829 31 Mav, 1830 176 

" 1S30 3 Mar., 1831. 88 

" 1S31 14 July, 1S32 223 

" 1S32 3Mar., 1833 91 

" 1833 30 June, 1S34 211 

" 1834 3 Mar., 1835 93 

" 1S35 4/Tuly, 1836 211 

" 1S36 3 Mar., 1837 89 

Sept., 1837 16 Oct., 1837 43 

Dec, 1837 9 July, 1S38'. 218 

" 183S 3 Mar., 1S39 91 

" 1839 21 July, 1840 233 

" 1S40 3Mar., lSdl S7 

May, 1S41 13 Sept., 1S41 106 

Dec, 1841 31 Aue;., 1842 263 

" 1S42 3 Mar., 1S43 SS 

" 1813 17 June, 1S44 196 

" 1844 3 Mar., 1845 91 

" 1S45 10 Aug., 1846 253 

" 1846 3Mar., 1S47 S7 

" 1S47 14Aug., 184S 252 

" 184S 3 Mar., 1S49 S9 

" 1849 30 Sept., 1850 301 

" 1S50 3 Mar., 1851 91 

" 1851 31 Aug, 1852 274 

" 1S52 3 Mar., 1853 88 

" 1S53 1S54 — 

'• 1S54 3 Mar., 1855 S9 



. 1 " 1S17 30 April, 1S18. 

.16 Nov., 1S18 3 Mar., 1819. 

1Rl . (1st 6 Dec, 1S19 15 May, 1820. 

IDln ( 2d 13 Nov., 1820 3 Mar., 1821. 

Besides its ordinary legislative capacity, the Senate is vested with certain judicial functions, and 
its members constitute a High Court of Impeachment. No person can be convicted by this court 
unless on the finding of a majority of Senators, nor does judgment extend further than to removal 
from office and disqualification. Representatives have the sole power of impeachment. 

The Executive Power is vested in a President, who is elected by an Electoral College, chosen by 
popular vote, or by the Legislature of the State, the number of electors being equal to the number 
of Senators and Representatives from the States to Congress. His term of office is four years, but 
he is eligible for re-election indefinitely. The electors forming the college are themselves chosen 
in the manner prescribed by the laws of the several States. A majority of the aggregate number 
of votes given is necessary to the election of President and Vice-president, and if none of the can- 
didates has such a majority, then the election of President is determined by the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and that of the Vice-president by the Senate, from among the three candidates having 
the highest number of electoral votes, and in doing so, the vote is taken by States, the representa- 
tives of each State having only one vote, which must, of course, be determined by a majority of 
their number. No person can be President or Vice-president who is not a native-born citizen, of 
the age of thirty-five years, and who has been a resident of the United States for fourteen years. 
The President is commander-in-chief of the army and navy, and of the militia when in the service 
of the Union. With the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senate, he has the power to make treaties, 
appoint civil and military officers, levy war, conclude peace, and do all that rightly belongs to the 
executive power. He has a veto on all laws passed by Congress, but so qualified, that notwithstand- 
ing his disapproval, any bill becomes a law on its being afterward approved of by two-thirds of 
both houses of Congress. The President has a salary of 025,000 per annum, and " the white 
house" at Washington for a residence during his official term. The Vice-president is ex-officio 
President of the Senate; and in case of the death, resignation, or other disability of the President, 
the powers and duties of that office devolve upon him for the remainder of the term for which the 
President had been elected. This provision of the constitution, for the first time since the founda- 
tion of the government, came into operation in 1841, on the demise of the late lamented General 
Harrison, who died 4th April, just one month after his inauguration, when John Tyler, the Vice- 
president, succeeded. Vice-president Fillmore also succeeded President Taylor under this provi- 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



sion. In case of the disability of the Vice-president, the President of the Senate pro tempore 
takes his place. The offices of President and Vice-president have been occupied by the following 
gentlemen since the adoption of the constitution : 

Presidents. ' Vice presidents. Terms of Office. 

1. George Washington John Adams 30th April, 17S9, to 4th March, 1793 

2. Do. do Do. do 4th March, 1793, " 

3. John Adams Thomas Jefferson 

4. Thomas Jefferson Aaron Burr 

5. Do. do George Clinton 

6. James Madison Do. do. (d. 20th Apr., 1S12) 

7. Do. do Elbr. Gerry (d. 23d November, 1814) 

8. James Monroe Daniel D. Tompkins 

9. Do. do Do. do. 

10. John Quincy Adams John C. Calhoun 

11. Andrew Jackson Do. do 

12. Do. do Martin Van Buren 

13. Martin Van Buren Richard M. Johnson 

... J William Henry Harrison John Tyler 

li - ( John Tyler (on the death of General Harrison) 4th April, 1S41 " 4th March, 1845 

15. James K. Polk George M. Dallas 4th March, 1845 " " 1849 

16 j Zachary Taylor Millard Fillmore " 1849 " 9th July, 1850 



1793, " 


« 


1797 


1797 " 


a 


1801 


1801 " 


(C 


1805 


1S05 " 


cc 


1809 


1809 " 


" 


1813 


1813 " 


" 


1817 


1817 " 


" 


1821 


1821 " 


(t 


1825 


1825 " 


c< 


1S29 


1829 " 


" 


1S33 


1833 " 


u 


1837 


1837 " 


u 


1841 


1841 " 4th 


April, 


1841 



| Millard Fillmore (on the death of General Taylor) 9th July, 1850 " 4th March, 1S53 

17. Franklin Pierce Wm. Eufus King (d. IS Ap., 1853). 4th March, 1853 " " 1857 

The administrative business of the nation is conducted by several officers, "with the title of secre- 
taries, etc., who form what is termed the " Cabinet." These are the Secretary of State, the Secre- 
tary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Postmaster-general, 
the Secretary of the Interior, and the Attorney-general — the last being the official law authority 
for advisement in administrative affairs. Each of these presides over a separate Department. 

The " Department of State" was created by an act of Congress of the 15th of September, 1789 ; 
by a previous act of the 27th of July, 1789, it was denominated the Department of Foreign Affairs. 
It embraced, until the establishment of the Department of the Interior in 1849, what in some other 
governments are styled the Department of Foreign Affairs and Home Department ; but the duties 
now being divided, it confines its operations almost entirely to foreign matters, and hence its original 
title might with propriety and convenience be restored. 

The Secretary of State conducts all treaties between the United States and foreign powers, and 
corresponds officially with the public ministers of the government at foreign courts, and with min- 
isters of foreign powers, resident in the United States. He is intrusted with the publication of all 
treaties with foreign powers, preserves the originals of all treaties and of the public correspondence 
growing out of international intercourse ; grants passports to American citizens visiting foreign 
states, etc. He has charge of the Great Seal of the United States, but can not affix it to any com- 
mission until signed by the President, nor to any instrument without authority of the President. 

Secretaries of State — Salary $6,000 per Annum. 



Thomas Jefferson, Ya. . . 26 Sept., 17S9 
Edmund Randolph, Ya. . 2 Jan., 1794 
Timothy Pickering, Ya. . 4 Feb., 1795 
John Marshall, Ya, .... 13 May, 1S00 

James Madison. Ya 5 Mar., 1801 

Robert Smith, Md 6 « 1S09 

James Monroe. Ya 25 Nor., 1S11 

J. Q. Adams, Mass 5 Mar., 1817 



Henry Clav, Ky 8 Mar., 1S25 

M. Van Buren, A r .F..... 6 " 1829 

Ed. P. Livingston, La... 1S31 

Louis M-Lane, Del 7 Mar., 1S33 

John Forsvth, Ga 1834 

D. Webster, Mass. 5 Mar., 1S41 

H. S. Legare, S. C. 9 May, 1S43 

A. P. Upshur, Ya 24 June, 1S43 



John Nelson, Md, 29 Feb., 1844 

J. C. Calhoun, 8. C. 6 Mar., 1844 

J. Buchanan, Pa 5 " 1S45 

J. M. Clayton, Del 6 " 1849 

D. Webster, Mass 20 July, 1S50 

Edward Everett 1852 

William L. Marcy, N. Y. 5 Mar., 1853 



This department has subject to it the Diplomatic Bureau, and the Consular Bureau. The United 
States are represented by Ministers Plenipotentiary at the Courts of Great Britain, France, Rus-, 
sia, Prussia, Spain, Mexico, Central America, Brazil, and Chili ; by Commissioners at the court of 
Pekin, China, and at the Sandwich Islands; by a Minister Resident at the Sublime Porte, and to 
the Swiss Confederation, and at other courts by Charges des Affaires ; and United States' Consuls 
are stationed at all the important commercial ports in the world. Foreign Ministers accredited to 
the government of the United States are, Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary 
from Great Britain, Russia, the Argentine Republic, France, Spain, Chili, New Grenada, Brazil, 
Mexico, and Peru; Ministers Resident from Portugal, Prussia, and Belgium; and Charges des 
Aifairs from Denmark, Austria, Holland, Sweden, Naples, Sardinia, Venezuela, and Nicaragua. 
Foreign Consuls from all commercial nations reside in the several Collection Districts of the Union 

The " Department of the Interior" was established by an act of Congress of the 30th of March, 
1849. The Secretary of the Interior is intrusted with the supervision and management of all 
matters connected with the public domain, Indian affairs, pensions, patents, public buildings, the 
census, the penitentiary of the District of Columbia, the expenditures of the Federal Judiciary, 
etc. Each of these interests is managed in a separate bureau or office, the immediate head of which 
is styled Commissioner, Superintendent, or Warden, as the case may be. 
10 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



Secretaries of the Interior — Salary $6,000 per Annum. 

Thomas H. Ewinsr, Ohio 6 Mar., 1S49 I T.M.T. M'Kennon (dec.) S Aug., 1S50 I Eobert M'Clelland, Mich,, 5 Mar., 1S53 
James A. Pearee (decl'd) 20 July, I860 | Alex. H. H. Stuart, Va, . .10 Sept., 1S50 | 

The " Department of the Treasury" was created by an act of Congress of the 2d of September, 
1789. The Secretary of the Treasury superintends all the fiscal concerns of the government, and 
upon his own responsibility recommends to Congress measures for improving the condition of the 
revenue. All public accounts are finally settled at this department ; and for this purpose it is 
divided into the office of the Secretary, who has the general superintendence, the offices of the two 
Controllers, the offices of the Six Auditors, the office of the Commissioner of Customs, the Treas- 
urer's office, the Registrar's office, the Solicitor's office, and the office of the Coast Survey. Assist- 
tant Treasurers' offices are also established at Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Charleston, New 
Orleans, and St. Louis. 

Secretaries of the Treasury — Salary $6,000 per Annum. 



Alex. Hamilton, A 1 ". Y. . .12 Sept., 1789 

Oliver Wolcott, Ct. 4 Feb., 1T95 

Samuel Dexter, Mass 31 Jan., 1802 

Albert Gallatin, Pa 26 Jan., 1S02 

George W. Campbell, Ct, 9 Feb., 1814 

Alex. J. Dallas, Va 6 Oct., 1814 

Win. H. Crawford, Ga,. 5 Mar., 1S17 



Eichard Eush, Pa 7 Mar., 1S25 

Samuel D. Ingham, Pa. . 6 " 1S29 

Louis M-Lane, Del 1S31 

William J. Duane, Pa, . . 1S33 

Eoger B. Taney, Md. . . . 1833 

Levi Woodbury, JST.JI... T Mar., 1833 

Thomas E wing, Ohio 5 " 1841 



Walter Forward, Pa 13 Sept., 1S41 

J. C. Spencer, JSf. Y .... 3 Mar., 1843 

George M. Bibb, Ky 15 June, 1S44 

E. J. Walker, Miss 5 Mar., 1845 

W. M. Meredith, Pa 6 " 1849 

Thos. Corwin, Ohio 20 July, 1S50 

James Guthrie, Ky 5 Mar., 1853 



The " Department of War" was created by an act of Congress of the 7th of August, 1789, and at 
first embraced not only military, but also naval affairs. The Secretary of War superintends every 
branch of military affairs, and has under his immediate direction the Adjutant-general's office, the 
Quartermaster-general's Bureau, the Paymaster's Bureau, the Subsistence Bureau, the Medical 
Bureau, the Engineer Bureau, the Topographical Bureau, the Ordnance Bureau, etc. ; and the 
department has the superintendence of the erection of fortifications, of making public surveys, and 
other important services. 

Secretaries of War — Salary $6,000 per Annum. 



Henry Knox, Mass..... 12 Sept., 1T89 

Tim. Pickering, Pa 2 Jan., 1T95 

James M-Henrv.J/tf 2T " 1T96 

Saml. Dexter, Mats 13 Mav, 1800 

Eoger Griswold, Ct..... 3 Feb., 1801 
Henrv Dearborn, Mass. . 5 Mar., 1801 
William Euslis li ..7 " 1S09 

John Armstrong, 2f. Y...13 Jan., 1813 

James Monroe, Va 27 Sept., 1814 

Wm. H Crawford, Ga... 2 Mar., 1315 



Isaac Shelley, Ky 5 Mar., 1817 

J. C. Calhoun, 8. C. 16 Dec, 1817 

James Barbour, Va 7 Mar., 1825 

Peter B. Porter, JST. Y. ... .26 May, 1828 

J. H. Eaton, Teim 9 Mar., 1829 

Lewis Cass, Mich 1831 

Joel E. Poinsett, S.C...1 " 1837 

John Bell, Tenn 5 " 1841 

John M'Lean, Ohio 13 Sept., 1841 

J. C. Spencer, K Y. ... .12 Oct., 1841 



James W. Porter, Pa. . . 8 Mar., 1S43 
William Wilkins, Pa. . . .15 Feb., 1844 

Wm. L. Marcy, K. Y. 5 Mar., 1S45 

Geo. W. Crawford, Ga.. 6 " 1849 
Edm. Bates (declined) ..20 July, 1850 
Charles M. Conrad, La... 8 Aug., 1S50 
Jefferson Davis, Miss.. . . 5 Mar., 1853 



The "Department of the Navy" was created by an act of Congress of the 30th of April, 1798. 
The Secretary of the Navy issues all orders to the naval forces and superintends naval affairs gen- 
erally. Attached to the Department are — a Bureau of Docks and Navy Yards, a Bureau of 
Ordnance and Hydrography, a Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and Repairs, a Bureau of 
Provisions and Clothing, a Bureau of Medical and Surgical Instruments, etc. ; and the National 
Observatory at Washington is under the control of the Navy Department. The ministerial duties 
of these several Bureaux were formerly exercised by a Board of Navy Commissioners. 



Secretaries of the Navy — Salary $6,000 per Annum. 



George Cabot, Mass. .... 3 May, 1798 
Benjamin Stoddard, Md. 21 " 1798 

Eobert Smith. Md 26 Jan., 1802 

J. Crowningshield. Mass. 2 Mar., 1805 
Paul Hamilton, S.C.....1 " 1S09 

William Jones, Pa 12 Jan., 1813 

B.W. Crownings'd, Mass.W Dec, 1814 
Smith Thompson, N. F..30 Nov., 1S18 



S. L. Southard, N.J. .... 9 Dec, 1S23 

John Branch, A! C. 9 Mar., 1829 

Levi Woodbury, N. H... 1831 

Mahlon Dickerson, N. J. 1S34 

J. K. Paulding, N. Y... .30 June, 1838 

G. P. Badger, N. C. 5 Mar., 1841 

Abel P. Upshur, Va 13 Sept., 1841 

David Henshaw, Mass. . .24 July, 1843 



T. W. Gilmer, Va 15 Feb., 

John T. Mason, Va 14 Mar., 

George Bancroft, Mass.. 10 " 

John Y. Mason. Va. 

William B. Preston, Va.. 6 Mar., 
Wm. A. Graham, N. C. .20 July, 
J. C. Dobbin, N. C. 5 Mar., 



1S44 
1S44 
1S45 
1S46 
1S49 
1850 
1853 



The " Department of the Post-office" was established under the authority of the Old Congress. 
The Postmaster- general has the chief direction of all postal arrangements with foreign states, as 
well as within the federal limits. The general business is managed by three Assistant Postmas- 
ters-general, who preside respectively over the Contract office, the Appointment office, and the 
Inspection, etc., offices. 

Postmasters- general — Salary $6,000 per Annum. 



Samuel Ostrood, Mass.. .26 Sept., 1789 
Timothy Pickering, Pa.. 7 Nov., 1791 
Joseph Habersham, Ga.. 2 Jan., 1795 
Gideon Granger. Ct.. . . .17 Mar., 1802 
K^-uben J. Meigs, Ohio.. " 1814 
John MLean, "O/rt'o 9 Dec, 1823 



William J. Barry, Ky. . . 9 Mar., 1829 

Amos Kendall, Ky 1 May, 1835 

John M. Niles, Ct 25 " 1840 

Francis Granger, N.Y... 6 Mar., 1841 
Charles A.Wickliffe, .2^.13 Sept., 1841 
Cave Johnson, Term. ... 5 Mar., 1845 



Jacob Collamer, Vt. 6 Mar., 1849 

Nathan K. Hall. JV. Y... 20 June, 1850 
James Campbell, Teim. . 5 Mar., 1858 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



The " Attorneys-general," who are considered as forming a part of the Cabinet, and who are the 
constitutional advisers and defendants of the government, are generally men of the greatest acquire- 
ments in their profession. The gentlemen who have held this office are enumerated in the annex- 
ed list : 

Attorneys-general — Salary $4,000 per Annum. 

Edmund Randolph, Fa. .26 Sept., 1789 William Wirt, Md 16 Dec, 1817 

William Bradford, Pa,. .27 Jan., 1794 John M'Ph. Berrien, Ga. 9 Mar., 1S29 

Charles Lee, Ya 10 Dec, 1795 Roger B. Taney, Md 1831 

Levi Lincoln, Mass 5 Mar., 1801 Benj. F. Butler, MY..... 25 Dec, 1835 

Robert Smith. Md 2 " 1805 Felix Grundy, Tenn 1 Sept., 1S3S 

Henry D. Gilpin, Pa,. ..11 Jan., 1S40 

John J. Crittenden, Ky. . 5 Mar., 1S41 

HughS. Legare\ S. C... .13 Sept., 1841 

John Nelson, Md 1 July, 1843 



John Y. Mason, Ya 5 Mar., 1845 

Nathan Clifford 1847 

Isaac Toucey, Ct. 1S4S 

Reverdy Johnson, Md... 6 Mar., 1S49 

J. J. Crittenden, Ky 20 July, 1S50 

Caleb Cushing, Mass 5 Mar., 1S53 



John Breekenridge, j©/.. 23 Dec, 1S06 
Caesar A. Rodney, Del...1\ Jan., 1807 
William Pinckney,i!/cZ..ll Dec, 1S11 
Richard Rush, Pa 10 Feb., 1814 

The judicial powers of the United States are vested in a Supreme Court, and in such other infe- 
rior courts as Congress may from time to time establish. The present judicial establishment con- 
sists of a Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, and District Courts. 

The " Supreme Court," the highest judicial tribunal of the Union, is composed of a Chief- Justice 
and eight Associate Justices, the Attorney-general, a Reporter, and Clerk. This court is held in 
Washington, and has one session annually, commencing on the first Monday in December. 

The Supreme Court has exclusive jurisdiction in all controversies of a civil nature where a State 
is a party, except between a State and its citizens, and except, also, between a State and citizens 
of other States or aliens — in which latter case it has original but not exclusive jurisdiction. It 
has exclusively all such jurisdiction of suits and proceedings against ambassadors or other public 
ministers, or their domestics or domestic servants, as a court of law can have or exercise consist- 
ently with the law of nations ; and original, but not exclusive jurisdiction of all suits brought by 
ambassadors or other public ministers, in which a consul or a vice-consul is a party. It has 
appellate jurisdiction from final decrees and judgments of the circuit courts in cases where the 
matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum or value of 2,000 dollars, and from final 
decrees and judgments of the highest courts of the several States in certain cases. It has power to 
issue writs of prohibition to the District Courts, when proceeding as Courts of Admiralty and 
maritime jurisdiction ; and writs of mandamus in cases warranted by the principles and usages of 
law to any courts appointed or persons holding office under the authority of the United States. 
The trial of issues in fact in the Supreme Court in all actions at law against citizens of the United 
States is by jury, 

A final judgment or decree in any suit, in the highest court of law or equity of a State in which 
a decision in the suit could be had, where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute 
of, or any authority exercised under the United States, and the decision is against their validity ; 
or where is drawn in question the validity of a statute of, or an authority exercised under any 
Jtate, on the ground of their being repugnant to the constitution, treaties, or laws of the United 
Jtates, and the decision is in favor of their validity ; or where is drawn in question the construction 
of any clause of the constitution, or of a treaty or statute of, or commission held under the United 
States, and the decision is against the title, right, privilege, or exemption, specially set up or 
claimed by either party, under such clause of the constitution, treaty, statute, or commission, 
may be re-examined, and reversed or affirmed, in the Supreme Court of the United States, upon a 
writ of error, the citation being signed by the Chief Justice, or Judge, or Chancellor of the court 
rendering or passing the judgment or decree complained of, or by a Justice of the Supreme Court 
of the United States, in the same manner, and under the same regulations, and the writ has the 
same effect, as if the judgment or decree complained of had been rendered or passed in a Circuit 
Court ; and the proceeding upon the reversal is also the same, except that the Supreme Court, in- 
stead of remanding the cause for a final decision, may, at their discretion, if the cause shall have 
been once remanded before, proceed to a final decision of the same, and award execution. But no 
other error can be assigned or regarded as a ground of reversal in any such case, than such as 
appears on the face of the record, and immediately respect the before-mentioned questions of valid- 
ity or construction of the said constitution, treaties, statutes, commissions, or authorities, in 
dispute. 

Chief-Justices of the Supreme Court— Salary $5,000 per Annum. 



John Jav. KY. 26 Sept., 17S9 

John Ruuedge, S. C... 1 July, 1795 
William Cushing, Mass.. 27 Jan., 1796 



Oliver Ellsworth, Ct..... 4 Mar., 1796 I Roger B. Taney, Md 28 Dec, 1S35 

John Jay, K. Y. 19 Dec, 1S00 



John Marshall, Ya 27 Jan., 1S01 

The " Circuit Courts" are held by a Justice of the Supreme Court assigned to the Circuit and by 
the Judge of the District in which the Court sits conjointly. The United States is divided into 
12 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



nine judicial Circuits, in each of which a Court is held twice a year. The Circuits are as 
follows : 



VI. North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. 
VII. Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan. 
VIII. Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri. 
IX. Mississippi and Arkansas. 



I. Maine, N. Hampshire, Massachusetts, and E. Island. 
II. Vermont, Connecticut, and New York. 

III. New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

IV. Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. 
V. Alabama, Louisiana, and Kentucky. 

The States of Florida, Texas, Iowa, Wisconsin and California have not yet been attached to any 
circuit ; but the District Courts have the power of Circuit Courts. There is a local Circuit Court 
held in the District of Columbia by three judges specially appointed for that purpose. The Chief- 
Justice of that court sits also as District Judge of that District. 

The Circuit Courts of the United States have original cognizance, concurrent with the courts of 
the several States, of all suits of a civil nature, at common law, or in equity, where the matter in 
dispute exceeds, exclusive of costs, the sum or value of 500 dollars, and the United States are 
plaintiffs or petitioners, or an alien is a party, or the suit is between a citizen of the State where 
the suit is brought and a citizen of another State. They have exclusive cognizance of all crimes 
and offenses cognizable under the authority of the United States (except where the laws of the 
United States otherwise direct), and concurrent jurisdiction with the District Courts of the crimes 
and offenses cognizable therein. But no person can be arrested in one district for trial in another, 
in any civil action, before a Circuit or District Court. No civil suit can be brought, before either 
of said courts, against an inhabitant of the United States, by any original process, in any other 
district than that whereof he is an inhabitant, or in which he shall be found at the time of serving 
the writ; and no District or Circuit Court has cognizance of any suit to recover the contents of 
any promissory note, or other chose in action, in favor of an assignee, unless a suit might have 
been prosecuted in such court to recover the said contents, if no assignment had been made, ex- 
cept in cases of foreign bills of exchange. 

The Circuit Courts have appellate jurisdiction from final decrees and judgments of the District 
Courts, in all cases where the matter in dispute exceeds the sum or value of fifty dollars. They 
also have jurisdiction of certain cases, which may be removed into them before trial from the State 
courts. But no District Judge (sitting in the Circuit Court) can give a vote in any case of appeal, 
or error, from his own decision, but may assign the reasons of such his decision. The trial of 
issues in fact in the Circuit Courts, in all suits, except those of equity and of admiralty and mar- 
itime jurisdiction, is by jury. 

The " District Courts" are held respectively by a district judge alone. Each State is one district 
for the purposes of holding District or Circuit Courts therein, with the exception of New York, 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and California, each 
of which is divided into two districts, and of Alabama, Tennessee, and Iowa, each of which are 
divided into three districts. There are besides these, Territorial Courts, which are temporary, and 
lose that character whenever a Territory becomes a State. 

Each court has a clerk, a public attorney or prosecutor, and a marshal — all of which are ap- 
pointed by the President of the United States, with the exception of the clerks, who are appointed 
by the courts severally. 

The District Courts of the United States have, exclusively of the courts of the several States, 
cognizance of all crimes and offenses that are cognizable under the authority of the United States, 
committed within their respective districts, or upon the high seas, where no other punishment than 
whipping, not exceeding thirty stripes, a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, or a term of im- 
prisonment not exceeding six months, is to be inflicted, and also have exclusive original cognizance 
of all civil causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, including all seizures under the laws of 
impost, navigation, or trade, of the United States, where the seizures are made on waters which 
are navigable from the sea by vessels of ten or more tons' burthen, within their respective dis- 
tricts, as well as upon the high seas, saving to suitors, in all cases, the right of a common-law 
remedy, where the common law is competent to give it ; and also have exclusive original cognizance 
of all seizures on land, or other waters than as aforesaid, made, and of all suits for penalties and 
forfeitures incurred, under the laws of the United States. And they also have cognizance, concur- 
rent with the courts of the several States, or their circuit courts, as the case may be, of all causes 
where an alien sues for a tort only in violation of the law of nations, or a treaty of the United States. 
They also have cognizance, concurrent as last mentioned, of all suits at common law, where the 
United States sue, and the matter in dispute amounts, exclusive of costs, to the sum or value of 
one hundred dollars They also have jurisdiction, exclusively of the courts of the several States, 
of all suits against consuls or vice-consuls, except for offenses above the description aforesaid. 

13 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



The trial of issues in fact, in the District Courts, in all causes, except civil causes of admiralty and 
maritime jurisdiction, is by jury. 

An act of the 18th of December, 1812, requires the district and territorial judges of the United 
States to reside within the districts and territories, respectively, for which they are appointed; 
and makes it unlawful for any judge, appointed under the authority of the United States, to exer- 
cise the profession or employment of counsel or attorney, or to be engaged in the practice of the 
law. And any person offending against the injunction or prohibition of this act. shall be deemed 
guilty of misdemeanor. 

Appeals are allowed from the District to the Circuit Courts in cases where the matter in dispute, 
exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum in value of $50, and from the Circuit Courts to the Supreme 
Court in cases where the matter in dispute exceeds the sum or value of $2,000 ; and in some cases 
where the inconvenience of attending a court by a justice of the £ upreme Court is very great, the 
District Courts are invested with Circuit Court powers. 

The appointment of all judges of the United States is made by the President, by and with the 
advice of the Senate; and the judges hold their several offices during good behavior, and can be 
removed only on impeachment. Their compensation is fixed by law, and can not be diminished 
during their period of office. 



GENERAL STATISTICS OP THE UNITED STATES. 



I. STATISTICS OF POPULATION, ETC., ETC. 

1. Statement of the Extent, Population, Industry, and Wealth of each State and of the 
United States, on the 1st June, 1850. 



f 



States and Territories. 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Columbia District . 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian Ter 

Iowa 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota Ter. . .. 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Nebraska Ter 

New Hampshire . . 

New Jersey 

New Mexico Ter. . . 

New York 

North Carolina 

North-West Ter. . . 

Ohio 

Oregon Ter 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode" Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah Ter. 

• Vermont 

-Virginia 

Washington Ter. . . 

Wisconsin 

14 



Area in 
Square 


Population. 


Populat'n 
to >quare 


Manufac 
turing Es 


Farms in 
Cultiva- 


White 


Colo 


red. 






Persons. 


Free. 


Slave. 






tabhsh'ts- 


tion. 


50,722 


426,486 


2,293 


342.S92 


771.671 


15.2 


1,022 


41,964 


52,198 


162,189 


608 


47,100 


209,897 


4.0 


271 


17,75S 


18S,9S1 


272,306 


33,201 


— 


308,507 










60 


38,027 


9,973 


3,687 


51,687 


861.4 


427 


264 


4,674 


363,099 


7,693 


— 


370.792 


79.3 


8,913 


22,445 


2,130 


71,169 


1S.073 


2,290 


91.532 


43.6 


513 


6,063 


59,268 


47,211 


924 


39,309 


87.444 


1.4 


121 


4,804 


5S.000 


521,572 


2,931 


381,6S2 


906,185 


15.6 


1,407 


51,759 


55,405 


846,035 


5,435 


— 


851.470 


15.3 


3,090 


76.208 


33,S09 


977,62S 


10,788 


— 


988,416 


29.2 


4.326 


93,896 


1S7,171 


















50,914 


191.S79 


335 


— 


192,214 


3.7 


482 


14.S05 


37,630 


761,417 


10,007 


210.981 


9S2.405 


26.0 


3,471 


74,777 


46,431 


255,491 


17,462 


244,609 


517,762 


11.0 


1,021 


13,422 


30,000 


581.813 


1.356 


— 


5S3,169 


19.4 


3,6S2 


46,760 


9,356 


417,943 


74,723 


90,368 


5S3,034 


62.3 


3,863 


21,860 


v 7,800 


9S5,450 


9,064 


— 


994.514 


126.1 


9,637 


34,235 


56,243 


395,097 


2,557 


— 


397.654 


7.0 


1.979 


34,0S9 


83,000 


6,03S 


39 


— 


6,077 


.0 


5 


157 


47,156 


295.718 


980 


309.S7S 


606.526 


12.8 


866 


33,960 


67,380 


592,004 


2,618 


87,422 


6S2,044 


10.1 


8,030 


54,45S 


136,700 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





— 


9,2S0 


317,456 


520 


— 


317,976 


34.2 


3,301 


29.229 


8,320 


465,513 


23.S20 


222 


489.555 


60.0 


4,374 


23,905 


210,744 


61.530 


17 


— 


61,547 


.2 





— 


46,000 


3,048,325 


49,069 


— 


3,097.394 


67.6 


23.S23 


170.621 


45,000 


553,02S 


27,463 


28S.548 


869,039 


19.3 


2,523 


56,916 


5S7,564 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


39,964 


1,955,108 


25,319 


— 


1,980.427 


49.5 


10,550 


148,887 


341,463 


13,i S8 


206 


— 


13.294 


.0 


51 


1.164 


46,000 


2,25S,463 


53.323 


— 


2,311,786 


50.2 


22,036 


127.577 


1.360 


143,875 


3.670 


— 


147.545 


108.0 


1,144 


5,385 


24,500 


274.567 


8.956 


384,984 


668.507 


27.2 


1,473 


29,969 


45.600 


756.753 


6,401 


239,460 


1,002,614 


21.9 


2,789 


72,710 


237,321 


154,034 


397 


58,161 


212,592 


.8 


807 


12,19S 


187,923 


11.330 


24 


26 


11,830 


.0 


16 


926 


10,212 


313,402 


718 


— 


314,120 


30.0 


1,835 


29.6S7 


61,852 


894,S00 


54,333 


472,528 


1,421,661 


23.1 


4,433 


77,013 


53,924 


304,75S 


633 


— 


305,391 


5.6 


1,273 


20,177 



.1228,204,332 

39,841,025 

22.161,872 

14,01S,874 

155,707,980 

21,062,556 

22,862.270 

354,425,714 

156.265,006 

202,650,264 

23.714,638 
301,628,456 
233,998,764 
122,777,571 
219,217 364 ■ 
573.342.2SS--' 

59.787,255 

228.951,130 
137,247,707 

103.652.835 

200,000,000 

5,174.471 

1.0S0.209,216 

226,800,472 

504,726.120 

5.063.474 

722.4S6.120 

S0.50S.794 
2SS.257.694 
201,246,686 

52,740,473 
986,083 

92,205,049 
430,701,082 












sr 



<a 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



2. Progressive Movement of Population. 

Colored Persons. 



Decennial Increase, 



Census 
Tears. 
1T90 

1S0O 



White 



Sla 



White. 



Total Pop. 

3.172.464 59.466 697.897 3,929,S27 — ... 

4.304.4S9 108,395 893,057 5,305,941 35.7... 

1810 5.S62.004 1S6,446 1,191,364 7,239,S14 36.2... 

1S20 7,S66,569 233,524 1,538,098 9,63S,191 34.2... 

1830 10,532,060 319.599 2,009,043 12.S66.020 33.9. . . 

1S40 14.159,705 3S6,292 2,4S7,356 17,069,453 34.7. . . 

1850 19,630,73S 42S,661 3,204,089 23,263,4SS 38.3. . . 



Slaves. Total. 



82.2. 
92.2. 
25.2. 
36.8. 
20.8. 
10.9. 



27.9 35.00 

33.4 36.45 

29.1 33.12 

30.6 33.48 

23.8 32.67 

28.8 36.28 



3. Origin of the Free Population of 1850. 
A. — Native Population. 



Place of Origin. 

Maine 

New Hampshire. . . . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Bhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 2 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 2 

Delaware 

Maryland 



Pop. | Place of Or 
584.310 : Dist. of Columbia. 



Pop. 
32,236 



371,469 V irginia 1.260.9S2 

377.741 North Carolina .... 839,325 

S94.S1S South Carolina 44S,639 

145,941 Georgia 525,620 

447.544 Florida 25.297 

698,414 I Alabama 320,930 

518,810 Mississippi 172,473 

266,727 | Louisiana 160,253 

104,316 • Texas 51,641 

523,393 ) Arkansas 74,122 



Place of Origin. Pop. 

Tennessee 826,690 

Kentucky S59.407 

Ohio 1,514,SS5 

Michigan 153,057 

Indiana 633,117 

Illinois 3S9.507 

Missouri 315,42S 

Iowa 56,738 

Wisconsin 66.790 

California 6,69S 

Minnesota 1,334 



Place of Origin. Pop. 

Oregon 3,175 

Utah 1,381 

New Mexico 58,421 

Natives of the Ter- 
ritories, but resid- 
ing in other parts 
of the Union 949 



Total 17,737,578 



England. . 
Ireland . . . 
Scotland . . 
Wales 
Germany . 
France . . . 

Spain 

Portugal.. 
Belgium.. 



278,675 

961.719 

70,550 

29,868 

573,225 

54,069 



B. — Foreign Population. 



Sweden 8.559 

Prussia 10,549 



Holland 9,84S 

Turkey 106 

Italy 8,645 Sardinia , 

Austria 946 Greece 

Switzerland 13,358 China 

Russia 1,414 Asia , 

3,113|Norway 12,678 Africa 

1,274 Denmark 1,83S British America. 

1,313 | 

C— Origin Unknown. Total 39,154. 

4. Deaf and Dumb, Blind, Insane, and Idiotic, 1850. 
A. — Absolute Number of each Class. 

Colored Persons. 
White Persons. . * '. 



34 
86 
758 
377 
551 
147,711 



Mexico 13,317 



Central #merica . . . 

South America 

West Indies 

Sandwich Islands . . 
Other countries 



141 
1,543 
5,772 

583 
8,214 



Total 2,210,839 



Deaf and Dumb. 

Blind 

Insane 

Idiotic 



Male. Fern, Male. 

5,027 4,058 7S... 

4,519 3,478 239... 

7.697 7,459 144... 

S.276 5,954 234... 



Fem. 

65. 

255. 

177. 

. 202. 



Slave. Aggregate of 

Male. Fem. each Class. 

276 213 9,717 

, 562 649 9,702 

. 117 174 15.76S 

. 585 455 15,706 



B. — Eatio of each Class to the aggregate Population. 



Colored Persons. 



"White Persons. 



Free. 



Sla 



Total. 



Total 

number. 

Deaf and Dumb... 9.091.. 

Blind 7,997.. 

Insane 15.156. . 

Idiotic 14,230.. 



Ratio of Ratio > ! . , 

one to p. c. Number. One to p. c. Number. 
2,151... 0.04.... 143... 3,032... 0.03... 4S9... 

. 2,445... 0.04.... 494... 877... 0.11... 1,211. .. 

. 1.290... 0.07.... 321... 1,350... 0.01... 291... 

. 1,374... 0.07.... 436... 994... 0.10. .. 1,040.. . 



One to p. c. 

6,552... 0.01.. 
2,645... 0.03.. 
11,010... — .. 
3,080... 0.03... 15,706.. 1,476.. 0.06 



Number, one to p. c. 

9,723.. 2.3S5.. 0.04 

9,702.. 2.390.. 0.04 

15,768.. 1,470.. 0.06 



Total 46,474 



420 0.22 1,394 311 0.32 3,031 1,057 0.09 50,899 455 0.21 

5. Pauperism, 1850. — 

Number of paupers who received support within the year ending June 1st, 1850 — native 66,434, 
and foreign 68,538— total 134,972. 

Number of paupers who were receiving support on the 1st June, 1850 — native 13,473, and 
foreign 13,437— total 50,853. 

Total cost of pauper support within the year specified— $2,954,806. 

The following exhibit shows the number and cost of paupers to each of the States, within the 
year 1850 : ^ 



States. 


Paupers. 


Cost. 


States. Paupers. 


Maine 


5.503. 


$151,664 


Penn 11,551.. 


N. Hamp. . 


3.600. 


157,351 


Delaware. 697.. 


Verm. 


3.654. 


120,462 


Maryland. 4,494.. 




15.777. 


392,715 


Virginia .. 5,113.. 


Bh. Island 


2.56' 1. 


45.837 


N.Carolina 1,931.. 


Conn 


2.337. 


95,624 


S.Carolina 1,642.. 


H. York . 


59.855. 


817,336 


Georgia .. 1,036 . 


N. Jersey 


2,392. 


93,110 


Florida... 76.. 



C0Bt. 

^232,133 
17,730 
71,663 
151.722 
60,085 
43,337 
27,820 
937 



States. 
Alabama.. 

Miss 

La 

Texas 
Arkansas . 
Tennessee. 
Kentucky. 



Paupers. 
363.. 
260.. 
423.. 
7.. 
105.. 
1,005.. 
1,126.. 



Cost 
$17,559 
18,132 
89,806 
43S 
6,888 
30,930 
57,543 
95,250 



States. 

Michigan. 
Indiana .. 
Illinois .. . 
Missouri . . 

Iowa. 

Wisconsin, 



Paupers. 

1,190.. 

1,182.. 

797.. 

2,977.. 

135.. 

666.. 



Cost. 
$27,556 
57,560 
45,213 
53.243 
5,353 
14,743 



Ohio 2,513; 

6. Criminal Statistics. 
Whole number of persons convicted of crime within the year ending June 1, 1850 — native 13,000, 
and foreign 14,000— total 27,000. 
" Whole number in prison on the 1st June of the same year — native 4,300, and foreign 2,460 — 
total 6,700. 

15 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



II.— STATISTICS OF RELIGION. 
1. Statistics of Churches. 



States. 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

"Vermont 

Massachusetts. . . 
Rhode Island . . . 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania . . . 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina. . 
South Carolina. . 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 



Ch'i 



851 

602 

564 

1,430 

221 

719 

4,084 

S07 

3,509 

180 

909 

2.336 

1,678 

1,168 

1,723 

152 

1,235 



Accnmmo- Value of Ch. 
datum. Property. 



304,477 
233,S92 
226,444 
682.90S 
98,736 
305,249 

1,896,229 
344,933 

1,566,413 
55,741 
390,265 
834,691 
558,204 
453,930 
612,892 
41,170 
388,605 



$1,712,152 
1,401,5S6 
1,213,126 

10,205.2S4 
1,252,900 
3,554,894 

21,132,707 
3,540,436 

11,551,885 

340,345 

3,947,884 

2,S49,176 

889,393 

2.140,346 

1,269,159 

165,400 

1,132,076 



Mississippi. 
Louisiana. . 

Texas 

Arkansas . . 
Tennessee . 
Kentucky . 

Ohio 

Michigan.. 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Missouri 

Iowa 

Wisconsin . 
California . 



Total. 



No. of 


Accommo- 


Value of Ch. 


Ch's. 


dation. 


Property. 


910 


275,079 


754,542 


27S 


104,080 


1,782,470 


164 


54.495 


200,535 


185 


39.930 


89,315 


1,939 


606.695 


1,208,876 


1,818 


672.033 


2.260,09S 


3,890 


1,447.632 


5,765,149 


362 


118.892 


723.200 


1,947 


689,330 


1.512,485 


1,167 


479,078 


1,476,335 


773 


241,139 


1,558,590 


148 


37,759 


177,400 


244 


78.455 


850,600 


23 


9,600 


258,300 



36,011 13,S49,896 



86,416,639 





2 


. Statistics of Religious Denominations. 








Denominations. 


No. of 

Churches. 


Accommoda- 
tions. 


Value of 
Property. 


Denominations. 


No. of 
Churches. 


Accommoda- 
tions. 


Value of 
Properly. 




8,791 
812 

1,674 
324 

1,422 

361 

714 

327 

31 

1,203 

110 

12.467 


3,130,S78 
296.050 
795,177 
181,986 
625.213 
108,605 
282,823 
156,932 

16/575 
531,100 

29,900 
4,209,333 


$10,931,3S2 

845,810 

7,973,962 

4,096.730 

11,261,970 

252,255 

1,709.867 

965,SS0 

371.600 

2,867,S86 

94,245 

14.636,671 




331 

4,584 

1,112 

15 

52 

619 

243 

494 

325 


$112,184 

2,040,316 

620.950 

5,070 

35,075 

213.552 

137,367 

205,462 

115,347 


$443,347 






14.369,SS9 






8,973,838 
108,100 








Tunker 


46,025 






690.065 






3,268,122 






1,767,015 






741,9S0 




Total 






36,011 


13,S49,S96 


86,416,639 


Methodist 







N. B. The above tables do not include the church statistics of the District of Columbia and the Territories. 

III.— AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS. 

1. A Statement shozving the number of 'Acres of improved and unimproved Land, in Farms, the 

cash value thereof, and the average cash value per Acre, in each State and Territory. 



States and Territories. 



Acres of im- 
proved land. 



Acres of unii 
proved land 



Cash val. of land 
impioved and 
unimproved. 



cash valu 
per acre. 



Maine 

New Hampshire . . . 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

Kentucky . T 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Missouri , 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 

California 

Minnesota Territory 
Oregon do. 

Utah do. 

New Mexico do. 

16 



2,039,596 
2,251 ,4S8 
2,601,409 
2,133,436 

356,4S7 

1,76S,178 

12.41 18.968 

1,767,991 

8,628,619 

5S0,S62 
2,797.905 
16,267 
10,360,135 
5,453,977 
4,072.651 
6,378,479 

349,049 
4.435,614 
3,444,358 
1,590,025 

639,107 

7S1,531 
5.175,173 
11,368.270 
9,S51,493 
1,929,110 
5,046.543 
5,039,545 
2,933,425 

824,6S2 

1,045.499 

62.324 

5,035 

132,857 
16.333 

166,201 



118,457,622 



2,515,797 

1,140,926 

1,524,413 

1,222.576 

197,451 

615,701 

6,710.120 

9S4.955 

6,294.72S 

375,282 

1,836,445 

11,187 

15,792.176 

15,543,010 

12,145,049 

16,442.900 

1,236,240 

7,702,067 

7,046,061 

3,939,018 

14,454,669 

1,816,6S4 

13,808,849 

10.972,478 

8,146,000 

2.454JS0 

7,746,S79 

6.997.S67 

6.794,245 

1.911,332 

1,931.159 

8,S31,571 

23,S46 

299,951 

30.516 

124,370 



4,555,393 

3,392,414 

4,125,822 

3.356,012 

553,938 

2,383,879 

19,119,088 

2,752.946 

14,923,347 

956,144 

4,634,350 

27,454 

26,152,311 

20,996.9S7 

16,217,700 

22,821,379 

1,5S5,289 

12,137.681 

10.490,419 

5,529,043 

15,093,776 

2,59S,2B 

18.9S4.022 

22,340,748 

17,997,493 

4,383,890 

12,793,422 

12.037,412- 

9,732,670 

2,736,064 

2,976,65S 

3,S93,S95 

28.881 

432,808 

46.849 

290,571 



134,621,348 303,073,970 



$54,861,748 

55,245,997 

63.367,227 

109,076,347 

17,070,802 

72,726,422 

554,546.642 

120.237.511 

407.876,099 

18,SS0,031 

87,178,545 

1,730,460 

216,401.441 

67,801,766 

82,43 1.6S4 

95,753,445 

6.323,109 

64.323.224 

54,738 634 

75,814,398 

16,398,747 

15.265,245 

97.851.212 

154.330,262 

858,758,603 

51.872,446 

136,385,173 

96.133.290 

63.225.543 

16,657,567 

28.528,563 

3,874.041 

161,948 

2,849.170 

311,799 

1,653,952 



$12 04 
16 28 
15 36 
32 50 
30 S2 
30 50 
29 00 I 
43 67 
27 33 - 
19 75 •' 
IS SI 
63 03 
8 27^ 

3 23 
5 08 

4 19 
3 99 

5 30 
5 22 

13 71 
1 09 
5 S3 

5 16 

6 91 
19 93 
11 83 
10 66 

7 99 
6 50 
6 09 
9 58 

99 

5 61 

6 58 
6 65 
5 69 



3,270,733,093 |av. 10 79 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



2. 


Statement of the Food 


Crops for the Year ending 1st June, 1850. 




States and a 
Territories. 




Rve, 






Barley, 
bushels. 




Rice, 
pounds. 


Peas and 


Potatoes. 


bushels. 


bushels. 


bushels. 


bushels. 


bushels. 


Beans, 


Irish, 


Sweut, 




















bushels. 


bushels. 




296.259 


102,916 


1,750.056 


2,181,037 


151,731 


104,523 


^ 


205.541 


3.438,040 





New Hampshire. 


1S5.65S 


1S3.117 


1,573.670 


973.3S1 


70,256 


65.265 


— 


70,856 


4,304,919 


— 




535,955 


176,233 


2,032,396 


2,307,734 


42,150 


209.S19 


— 


104,649 


4,951,014 


— 


Massachusetts . . 


31,211 


431,021 


2,345,490 


1,165,146 


•112.335 


105,S95 


— 


43,709 


3,5S5,384 


— 


Rhode Island . . . 


49 


26,409 


539.201 


215,232 


1S.S75 


1.245 


— 


6,S46 


651,029 




Connecticut 


41.T62 


600.S93 


1,935,043 


1.25S.738 


19,099 


229,297 


— 


19,090 


2,689.725 


80 


New York 


13.121.49S 


4,14S.1S2 


17,85S,400 


26,552,814 


3,5S5.o59 


3,183,955 


— 


741,636 


15,398,362 


5,623 


New Jersev 


1,601,190 


1,255.578 


S.759.704 


3,378.063 


6.492 


S7S,934 


— 


14,174 


3,207.236 


508.015 


Pennsylvania . . . 


15,367.691 


4,S05,160 


19,S35,214 


21,538.156 


165,534 


2,193,692 


— 


55,231 


5.9S0J32 


52,172 




4S2.511 


8.066 


3.145,542 


604,51S 


56 


8,615 


— 


4,120 


240,542 


65.443 




4,494.680 


226.014 


11.104,631 


2,242,151 


745 


103,671 


— 


12,816 


764,939 


208,993 


Dis. of Columbia. 


1T.3T0 


5.509 


65,230 


S.134 


75 


37S 


— 


7,754 


28,292 


3,497 




11,232.616 


458.930 


35,254,319 


10,179,045 


25,437 


214,S9S 


17,154 


521,5S1 


1,316.933 


1,813,671 


North Carolina.. 


2.130,102 


229.563 


27,941,051 


4.052.07S 


2,735 


16,704 


5,465,86S 


1,5S4,252 


620,318 


5,095.709 


South Carolina . . 


1,066,277 


43,790 


16.271,454 


2,322,155 


4,5S3 


283 


159,930,613 


1,026,900 


136,494 


4,337.469 




1,08S,534 


53,750 


30,080.099 


3,S20.044 


11,501 


250 


3S,950,691 


1,142,011 


227,379 


6,9S6,428 




1,027 


1,152 


1,996,S09 


66,536 


— 


55 


1,075,090 


135,359 


7,82S 


757,226 




294.044 


17,261 


2S,754,04S 


2,965.697 


3,95S 


848 


2,311,252 


S92,701 


246,001 


5,475,204 




137.990 


9,606 


22,446,552 


1,503.283 


229 


1,121 


2,719,S56 


1,072,757 


261.4S2 


4,741.795 




417 


475 


10,266.373 


S9.637 


— 


3 


4,425,349 


161,732 


95,632 


1,428,453 


Texas 


41,689 


3.10S 


5.926,611 


178,8S3 


4,776 


59 


87,916 


179,332 


93,543 


1,323,170 




199,639 


S,047 


8,893,939 


656.1 S3 


177 


175 


63,179 


2S5,73S 


193,832 


78S,149 




1,619,331 


S9.163 


52,276,223 


7.703,086 


2,737 


19,427 


258,854 


869,321 


1,067,844 


2,777.716 


Kentucky 


2,140,822 


415,073 


5S,675.591 


8,201,311 


95,343 


16.097 


5,688 


202,574 


1,492,487 


99S,184 


Ohio 


14.4S7.351 


425.71S 


59,078.695 


13,472,742 


354,35S 


63S,064 


— 


60,16S 


5,057,769 


187,991 




4,925,SS9 


105.871 


5.641,420 


2,S66,056 


75.249 


472.917 


— 


74,254 


2,359,897 


1,177 




6.214.45S 


78.792 


52,964,363 


5,655.014 


45,483 


149,740 


— 


35,773 


2,0S3,337 


201,711 


Illinois 


9,414.575 


83.364 


57,646,9S4 


10,087,241 


110,795 


184,504 


— 


82.814 


2,514,861 


157,433 


Missouri 


2.931.652 


44.26S 


36,214,537 


5,278,079 


9,631 


23,641 


700 


46,017 


939.006 


335,505 




1,530*531 


19.916 


8.656,799 


1,524,345 


25.093 


52,516 


500 


4,775 


276,120 


6,243 




4,2S6.131 


81,253 


1,98S,979 


3,414,672 


209.692 


79,S78 


— 


20,657 


1,402,077 


879 


California 


17.32S 


— 


12,236 


— 


9,712 


— 


— 


2,292 


9,292 


1,000 


Minn. Territory. 


1.401 


125 


16.725 


30,5S2 


1,216 


515 


— 


10,002 


21,145 


200 


Oregon Territory 


211.493 


106 


2.918 


65,146 


— 


— 


— 


6,566 


91.326 


— 


Utah Territory.. 


107.702 


210 


9,S99 


10,900 


1,799 


332 


— 


2SS 


43,968 


60 


New Mex. Ter. . 


196,516 


— 


365,411 


5 


5 


100 


■*- 


15,688 


3 




Aggregate 


100.503.S9P 


14.183.639592.326.612 


146.567.S70 


5.167.016 


8,956.916 


215,312,710 


9,219,975 65.796.793 


3S.259.196 



3. Statement of Live-Stock in the several States, for the year ending 1st June, 1850. 



States and Territories. 



„ Asse9 and ..... Working 

Horses. -...i,,. Milch cows. „ Tpn b 



Sheep, 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

"Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Ehode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania. 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. . . 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

Sonth Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Missouri 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 

California 

Minnesota Territory . . . 

Oregon Territory 

Utah Territory 

New Mexico Territory. 



41,721 
34,233 

61.067 

42,216 

6.16S 

26,879 

447.014 

63.955 

350.393 

13,352 

75,634 

824 

272.41)3 

143,693 

97 J 71 

151,331 

10,848 

12S,001 

115,460 

89,514 

75.419 

60,197 

270,636 

315,632 

463,397 

58,506 

314.299 

267,653 

225.299 

38,536 

30.179 

21,719 

860 

8,046 

2,429 

5,079 



55 
19 

213 
34 
1 

49 

963 

4.0S9 

2,259 

791 

5,644 

57 

21,480 

25.259 

37.483 

57,379 

5.002 

59.S95 

54,547 

44,349 

12.364 

11,559 

75.303 

65,609 

3,423 

70 

6.599 

10.573 

41,667 

754 

156 

1,666 

14 

420 

325 

8,654 



133,556 

94,277 
146.12S 
130,099 

2S,69S 

85,461 
931.324. 
118,736 
530,224 

19,248 

S6,S59 
813 
317,619 
221,799 
193.244 
334.223 

72,376 
227,791 
214.231 
105.576 
214,758 

93,151 
250.456 
247,475 
544,409 

99,676 
234,554 
294,671 
230,169 

45,704 

64,339 

4,280 

607 

9,427 

4,861 

10,635 



83,S93 
59,027 
4S,577 
46,611 

8.1S9 

46.9S8 

178.909 

12,070 

61,527 

9,797 
34,135 
104 
89,513 
37,309 
20,507 
73.2S6 

5,794 
66.961 
83,485 
54,968 
49,982 
34,239 
86.255 
62,074 
65,381 
55.350 
40,221 
76,156 
112,168 
21,892 
42,801 

4,780 
655 

8.H4 

5.266 
12,257 



125,890 
114.606 
154,143 

83,284 
9,375 

80,226 
767.406 

80,455 
562,195 

24,166 

9S,595 
123 
669,137 
434,402 
563,935 
690.019 
182,415 
433,263 
436,254 
414,79S 
636,S05 
165.320 
414,051 
442,763 
749,067 
119,471 
339,891 
541,209 
449,173 

69,025 

76.293 

253,599 

740 

24,188 
2,489 

10,085 



451,577 

3S4J56 

1,014,122 

188.651 

44,296 

174,181 

3,453,241 

160,488 

1,822,357 

27,503 

177,902 

150 

1,310,004 

595,249 

235,551 

560,435 

23,311 

371,880 

304,929 

110,333 

99,093 

91,256 

811,591 

1,102,121 

3,943,929 

746,435 

1,122,493 

894,043 

762.511 

149,960 

124,892 

17,574 

80 

15,382 

3.262 

377,271 



54,598 

63,487 

66,296 

81,119 

19,509 

76,472 

1,018,252 

250,370 

1,040,366 

56,261 

352,911 

1,635 

1.S30.743 

1,812,S13 

1,065,503 

2,16S,617 

209,453 

1.904,540 

1,532,734 

597,301 

683,514 

836,727 

3,104,800 

2,861,163 

1,964,770 

205,847 

2.253,776 

1,915,910 

1,702,625 

323,247 

159,276 

2,776 

734 

30,235 

914 

7,314 



$9,705,726 

8,871,901 

12,643,228 

9,647.710 

1.532,637 

7,467,490 

73,570,499 

10,679,291 

41,500,053 

1,849,281 

7,997.634 

71,643 

33,656,659 

17,717,647 

15,060,015 

25,728,416 

2.880,058 

21,690,112 

19,403.662 

11,152,275 

10,266,880 

6,647,969 

29,978,016 

29,591,387 

44,121,741 

8,00S,734 

22.478,555 

24,209,258 

19,S92,580 

3,6S9,275 

4,897,385 

3,351,058 

92,S59 

1,876.189 

546.968 

1,494,629 



4.335.353 ! 559.229 



6,392,044 



1,699,241 



10,268,856 21,721.814 30,316,608 543.960,420 
17 



TJNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



-*o 



5 E I 



Oi n o n W CJ CO H CJ i 

co lo rH co co i- co -*' ■ 



iO to f j o CJ c. x - Ci c x Co x lo -r -h o. to x t* xcjohlivhco^ 

o c* co 50 1— 1 t** co 1— i 10 co ■— co i- co co co i co co 10 <~ -r ro 10 t- c* -^ ' ■ 

CI rH S^rH I> ft H O^Ol ffi Qrt H W « rt ■* t^CQ tD H CO « 

!-T cfcf r-T r-TrH COcTr-T rH^r-Tr-H 



no ® oo t^ *r * "^ -. a' ci o n o h ■ 



. C> ~ tO 0) CO — • 0} r-i o 



00 i-H f LO Q IO O CO Tp £> 



: - x x ~ h :r. o r: r: (- ~ (' r: :/ t h h o 



. . . co co co x ~ ro 'O 3 < co '— 0; -, . 

GO *0 CI £- CO CO COrHOr-iCOCOCOGOCOCO 



r t- 10 co ~ o — 

CO -71 LO (O L0 CO 

^ to lo co w -s* 



co v. x i- / x co 00 x :o .0 --'"?' — 

— < Ci ^ c ckh: r: c t^ 

en o co x co co co r- co 

i>"o" KcoTo 00 to'co'co 



0? O — iO CO 0' — 1- CO — '.' i- : 



—h 00 CO 1 co 



■ — 1-0 X r- 1 CO I" 



COCinOD 



^ <r O t 00 O LO -^rOO 

I <o co *>^c* cocco 1 ci en 1 



i0 X 
C0* -r 



i-O X. ■Oft* 1- 

<o -,i ~\ co x — o? 



10 0/ co ro co lo 



co lo -h c) t> coc^cn * _ 
ef co' t> co coT p-T co' co' ad o 

LOCOCCCOWfJ>t*H 

1— 1 rp lo t co c* 1— ! <o 



t- co co co io F 

— EN 0* l-H CO 

L0 0* rH CO r-1 



0* co o* x co — o* co t- j> co co 

a c* co ; x lo co: x Tf co -** 

O C* LO rH CO HCi 



CO CO C. 0? CO CO LO CO . — 

CO CO CO i> C - ?! 7» C f --< CO LO O* <0 <n ClC'tCCCC 



X 'O L0 0? CT: CO 



rl J> CO CO rH rH 



— 0' 0' o> L o x- f- io 1- -f co 



:■ lo co x «^"och co lo o co x l 



) «> Q HW Q0*HH( 



CO i-O CO CO r 

i-'co'of o'— LO 

r- f x rj h co 



** t* coco co; 
oo> co" to" co" 



O CM --J.C* C^HtOO^HC 

i-h cj pcr^co't^f ©*!>«( 



rH CO O f 



I I I I I I Mill 



II 



LO — Ec CO CN co o 
rH «*• LO LO CO tO CO 



I I 



I IN 



*, 



I I 



CO 0> CO t* CO £ 

lO CO CO CO CO c 



or*': 



■ f co co x x lo co co co • r — co lo t* r* c* c 



■ tO — CO X f i> rH ; 



: C* C* C* Tp rH 



: c OJ co co co lo 



H- - 'O LO X X CO H CO C 
rit*COX)COC:LOH< 



x to co; x <?) t* co t* 
cj r* co c* f co c-i 
-?* c* -^ to LO 

Pfr-H 



) -H O LO — c 



■ X i0 X -* CT, CO 



Cn CO rH rH 



CO CO CO 

T ~ — 

CO o o 

-^ cJo 



t- CO O CJ X - 



! O C LO t- CO N 'O CO ct X -r 0^ O CO CO O t- O. ■— f* CO C* CO 



CJ I* O CO CO CO r-i CO CO CO CO X CI 0* — - 
t* lOCO rH I r-i 



: x x 10 cj o co 



I I 









05 -a« co t* op 1 

00 30 ^ X X^ r^ T^ CO^ CO — ^ OS ' 

SlOoBco tO ^- f CO " rH 

co" r-T 



: T- ~ i-O lO 0' CO t- CM- 0J -r — ( 
i-O i- t- 00 -T — CO CO t 



lo co co ir t* : 



i^rH-'COClr-CCt- 



• CO X CO CO O* rH CO 1 
X — CO f- H CO ■ 



co x x co co co co t- lo co lo a co t* f 1 



CO CO O LO CO c 



CO X r-i f Oi CO 




■ co co r* co co 0) x 

lO CO lo f> 
r*H"-r x'l> lot** 

•CO K-LOCicfl 



I I 



. _: co co co ~# f en CO CO "- _ 
t x -en i> ot co o — co x x co co — -r- c* co co f- o c* o 

<>C^CO"-H -f CO'x"-H CO' CO' CO" X' X" — T rr rH f' —3 CO" CO' rH rH 

o c cc i* ■:/ c. co f ;rc ~ t c lo f *?• — < 



id 



• s 

151 



■ "i > t Z n ' 



5--.I .£■.£- e£ g"2oci~5 



1 >.5lJs?"=. 



to = . 

ex." 






. . § S.J g || « ■§ i; ■ "^ o I _| -2 S g « I I = J jj £ J I j » ^ _= r -J i. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



5. Statement of the Products of Animals for the year ending 1st June, 1850. 



States and 


Wool, 


Butter, 


Cheese, 


Value o fani 


States and 


Wool, 


Butter, 


Cheese 


Value of ani- 


Territories. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


mals slaught: 

$1,646,773 


Territories. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


pounds. 


mals slaught. 


Maine 


1,364.034 


9*243,811 


2,434.454 


Louisiana 


109,897 


683,069 


1,957 


1,458,990 


N. Hampshire 


1,108.476 


6.977,056 


3 196 563 


1,552.873 


Texas 


131,374 


2,326,556 


94,619 


1,106,032 




3.400,717 


12,137,980 


8.720,834 


1.861.336 


Arkansas 


182,595 


1.854,239 


30,088 


1,162,913 


Massachusetts 


855 136 


8,071.370 


7,088 142 


2,500,924 


Tennessee . - . 


1,364.378 


8,139,585 


177.681 


6,401,765 


Rhode Island. 


129.692 


995 670 


316,5u8 


667.486 


Kentucky . 


2.297,403 


9,887,523 


213.954 


6,462,598 


Connecticut .. 


497.454 


5.498.119 


5,363,277 


2,202,266 


Ohio 


10,196,371 


34.449,379 


20.819,542 


7,439,243 


New York 


10,071.301 


79.766,094 


49,741.413 


13573.983 


Michigan 


2,043 283 


7,065,878 


1,011.492 


1,328,327 


New Jersey, . . 


375.396 


9,487.210 


365.756 


2,638.552 


Indiana 


2.610,287 , 


12,881,535 


624,564 


6,567,935 


Pennsylvania. 


4-481,570 


39,878,418 


2,505.034 


8,219.484 


Illinois 


2,150,113 


12.526.543 


1,278.225 


4,972,286 


Delaware 


57.763 


1,055.338 


3,187 


373,665 


Missouri 


1,627,164 


7,834,359 


203 572 


3,367,106 


Maryland 


480,226 


3,806,16J 


3.975 


1,954,800 


Iowa 


373,898 


2,171,188 


209,840 


821,164 


Dist. nf Colum. 


525 


14.872 


1,500 


9.038 


Wisconsin 


253,963 


3.633,750 


400,283 


920,178 


Virginia 


2,860.765 


11.C89.359 


436,298 


7,503,006 


California 


5,520 


705 


150 


100,173 


N. Carolina. . . 


i'70,738 


4,146 290 


95,921 


5 767,856 


Minn. Ter 


85 


1,100 


— 


2,840 


S. Carolina . . . 


487,233 


2.981.850 


4,970 


1,302,637 


Oregon Terr.. 


29.686 


211,464 


36,980 


164.530 




990,019 


4.640,559 


46.976 


6,339,762 


Utah Territory 


9,222 


83,309 


30.998 


67.985 


Florida 


23.247 


371.498 


18,015 


514,685 


NewMex.Ter 


32,901 


111 


5.848 


82,125 




657.118 
559,619 


4,008.811 
4,346,234 


31,412 
21,191 


4.823.485 
3,636,582 












Mississippi . . . 


Aggregate. . 


52.789.174 


313,266,962 


105.535,219 


109,485.757 



6. Absolute and Relative Movement of Stock, Products, etc., 1840 and 1850. 



Stock, products, etc 

Horses 

Asses and mules 

Milch cows , 

AVorking oxen. 

Other cattle 

Sheep 

Swine ,» 

Wool 

Wheat 

Eye 

Indian com 

Oats 

Barley 

Buckwheat , 

Rice , 

Tobacco 

Cotton 

Sugar — cane 

•' maple 

Hemp — dew-rotted . . . 

" water-rotted . . 

Flax 

Hay 

Hops 

Potatoes — Irish 

" sweet 

Wine 

Silk cocoons 

Value of home-made 

manufactures 



j- 4,3S5,669 head , 

V 14,971,586 " 

19.311,374 " 
26.301,293 " 
35.802,114 pounds 
84.823,272 bushels . 
18,645,567 " 
377.531.875 " 
123 071.341 " 
4.161.504 " 
7.291,743 " 
S0.S41.4-22 pounds . 
219.163,319 " 
790,479,275 " 

j- 155,110,809 « 

I 95,252 tons 

10.248.108 " 
1,239,502 pounds . 

ilOS.298,060 bushels. 

124,734 gallons 
61,552 pounds . 



: pounds 
bushels 



gallons 
pounds 

{■ 29,023,380 dollars •] 27,481,399 dollars 



4,335,35S head* 

559,229 " * 

6,392.044 " 

1.699,241 " 

10,268,856 " 

21.721.S14 " 

30.316,608 

52,789,174 j 

100,503,899 

14.1S8 639 " 

592,326.612 " 

146.567.s79 " 

5,167.016 " 

8,956.916 " 

215.312,710 pounds .. 

199.752.646 " 

9S7.449.600 " 

34.249.SS6 " 

247,551.000 " 

33,294 I 

1.799 

7.715.961 

13,S3s,579 ' 

3.496,029 

65,796,793 j 

33,259,196 

221,240 

10,843 



tons 

pounds . 
tons 

pounds . 
bushels . 



Decennial Movement*' 

incr. 558,91s head or 12.9 per cent, 

4ncr. 3,388,555 " or 22.6 " 

incr. 2,410,440 " or 12.4 " 

incr. 4,015,315 " or 15.3 " 

incr. 16.937,060 pounds or 47.4 " 

incr. 15.6S0.627 bushels or 18.5 " 

deer. 4,456,928 " or 23.9 " 

incr. 214,794.737 " or 56.9 " 

incr. 23,496,538 " or J9.9 " 

incr. 1,005,512 " or 24.1 " 

incr. 1.665,173 " or 22.8 " 

incr. 184,471,288 pounds or 166.3 " 

de>-r. 19,410.673 " or 8.9 " 

196,970,325 " or 24.9 « 



incr. 

incr. 126,720,077 '« or 81.6 



deer. 



tncr. 
incr. 



56,301 tons or 58.1 

3,590,471 " or 35.3 

2.257.527 pounds or 182.2 

4,242,071 bushels or 3.9 

96.506 gallons or 77.3 

50,709 pounds or 82.3 

1 deer, 1,541,981 dollars or 6.3 



incr. 
deer. 



IV. STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES. 
1. General Statistics. 



The entire capital invested in the various manufactures in the United States on the 
1st June, 1850 — not including any establishments producing less than the annual 

value of $500 — amounted in round numbers to „ „ $530,000,000 

Value of raw material , fuel , etc. , used during the preceding year „ $550,000,000 

Number of persons employed « «,« _ 1050 000 

Aggregate cost of labor « « $240,000,000 

Value of articles consumed " . « _ m Q20 300 000 

The total capital invested in manufactures in 1840, was $267,726,579, and hence the manufac- 
turing capital of the Union has duplicated in the succeeding decade. 



* In the census of 1850, all horses, asses, and mules in cities are omitted, and those only or mainly employed in agri- 
culture enumerated. 

19 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



2. Statistics of the Principal Manufactures. 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Missouri 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 

California 

District of Columbia 

Total 



COTTON GOODS. 



12 
44 

9 
213 
158 
128 
86 
21 
208 
12 
24 
27 
28 
18 
35 

12 

2 



$3,:;2:\ 

10,950. 

202, 

28,455, 

6,675. 

4,219. 

4,176. 

1,483. 

4,528, 

460. 

2,236, 

1,908. 

1,058, 

857. 

1,736. 

80, 

651, 

38. 



16.500 
669,600 
239,000 
297,000 

43,000 

102,000 



85,000 



$1,573,110 

4,839,429 

114.415 

11.289,309 

3,484,579 

2,500,06 

1,985,973 

666,645 

3,152,530 

312.068 

1,165,579 

828,375 

531,903 

295,971 

900,419 

30,000 

237,081 

21,500 



8,975 
297,500 
180,907 
237,060 



1,220 
F.446 



3,739 $2 

12,122 

241 

28,730 

10,875 

6,186 

6,320 

1,712 

7,663 

838 

3,022 

2,963 

1,619 

1,019 

2,272 

95 

715 

36 



31 

891 

401 
95 
155 



92.286 



596,356 
830,619 
196,100 
712,461 
447,120 
,257,522 
,591,989 
,109,524 
.322,262 
538,439 
120.504 
486,384 
831,342 
748.338 
,135,044 

49,920 
382,260 

30,500 



16.637 
510,624 
273,439 
394,700 

44,200 

142,900 



100,000 



61.869,184 



WOOLEN GOODS. 



36 
61 
72 

119 
45 

149 

249 
41 

380 

8 

38 

121 
1 



130 
15 
33 
16 
1 
1 
9 



1,559 



$467,600 

2,437,700 

886,300 

9,089,342 

1.013,000 

3,773.950 

4,459,370 

494,274 

3,005,064 

148,500 

244.000 

392,640 

18,000 

68,000 



8,000 

10,900 

249,820 

870,220 

94,000 

171.545 

154,500 

20,000 

10,000 

31,225 

700 



28,118,650 



$495,940 

1,267,329 

830,684 

8,671,671 

1,463,900 

3,325,709 

3,838,292 

518,367 

3,282,718 

204.172 

165,568 

488,899 

13,950 

30,392 



10,000 

1,675 
205,287 
578,423 
43,402 
120,486 
115,367 
16,000 
3.500 
32,630 



1>« 



25,755,988 



624 

212' 

1,393 

11,130 

1,758 

5,488 

6,674 

898 

5,726 

140 

362 

668 

30 



17 

318 
1,201 
129 
246 
1 
25 
7 
25 



$ 753,300 

2,127,745 

1,579.161 

12.770,565 

2,381,825 

6,465,216 

7,030,604 

1,164,446 

5,321,866 

251,010 

295,140 

841,013 

23,750 

88,750 



15,000 

6,310 

318,819' 

1,111,027 

90,242 

205,802 

206,572 

56,000 

13,000 

87,992 

2,400 



MALT AND SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS. 



Quantities and kinds of grain, etc., consumed. 



Bushels of] Bu 
barley 



Bushels of Bushels 
rye. of oats 



Bushers Hhds.of T °" s 
of apples, mola's, U0DS 



„ , r Galons of 
Barrels of .• .,. . 
ale pt P i whisky and 
ale, etc, : high wir - 



Quantities of liquor produced. 



Maine 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island . . 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania . . 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Alabama 

Louisiana 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Missouri 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 

New Mexico Ter. . 
Utah Trrritory . . 
Dist. of Columbia 

Total 

20 



$17,000 

7,000 

457,500 

17,000 

15,500 

2,585.900 2, 

409,655 

1,719,960 

247,100 

100,915 

21,930 

3,475 

7,150 

500 

8,500 

168,895 

66.125 

298.900 

1.262,974 

334,950 

303,400 

139,425 

19.500 

98.700 

7,300 

3,000 

12,000 



2,500 
80,000 
12,500 

062,250 

103,700 

550,105 

76,900 

20,000 



10,000 

65,650 

3,000 

124.440 

330,950 

118,150 

98,000 

32,030 

91,020 

1,000 
5,000 



19,400 

20,000 

1,647,266 

254,000 

1,483,555 

166,100 

250,700 

64,650 

18,100 

20,150 



6,707 



26.600- 

20,000 
990,067 

58,400J 
517,180 24,790 

54,3001 460 

62,680 450 
4,700 



55,130 



10 

60.940 24,500 
409,700 — 
51,200 10 



2,500 



551,350 

258,400 

309,200 

3,588,140 

1,417,990 

703,500! 

212,300 

51,150, 

29,990, 

2,000 



1,500 



30,520 — 

5,480 — 

24,900 — 
281, 750 1 19.500 

48,700 1,000 

48,700. 2,200 

19,150| - 

7,200, - 

9,200 - 

12,900 - 



5,000 — 



1 

29 

6 

2 

581 

42' 

263 



10 
18 

31 

178 
18 
30 
16 



5 

2 

131 

9 

20 

1,380 

197 

911 

126 

123 

75 

33 

15 

2 

8 

274 

159 

179 

1,033 

287 

274 

98 

19 

98 

21 

3 

5 



800 
25,800 
3,900 

644,700 
34.750 

189,581 

26,380 

5,500 



120,000 

130,000 

9,231,700 

1,250.530 

6,548,810 

"87,400 

879,440 

153,030 

43,900 

60,450 



3,000 
19,500 

44,850 

96,9431 

11,005 

27,925 

10,320: 

31,320 



220.00& 

3,786,000 

1,200 
2,488,800 

1,500 



3,000 



30O 
1,350 



1,491.745 

657,000 

939,400 

1,865,150 

4,639,900 

2,315,000 

690,900 

160,600 

127,000 

42,000 



|8,a34.254 3.787,195 11,067,671 2,143,927 56,517 526,840 61,675 1.294 5,4871,177,924 42.133,955 6,500,500 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



Statistics of the Principal Manufactures — [continued). 



Maine 

New Hampshire 
Vermont 

Massachusetts . . 
Rhode Island .. 
Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania. .. 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

North Carolina . 
South Carolina . 

Georgia 

Florida. 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Missouri 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 

California 

D. of Columbia. 



PIG IRON. 



$214,000 

2.000 

62,500 

469,000 

9.95,6Q0 

605,000 

967,000 

8,570,425 

1,420,000 

513,800 

25,000 

26,000 

11,000 



1,021.400 
924,700 
1,503,000 
15.000 
72,000 
65,000 
619,000 

15,000 



$14,939 

4.900 

40,175 

185,741 

289.225 

321.02" 

332,707 

3,732,427 

560,725 
153,307 
27,900 

25,S40 

6,770 



254,900 
260,152 
630,037 
14,000 
24,400 
15.500 
97,367 

8,250 



$36,616 

6,000 

6S,000 

295,123 

415,600 

097,920 

560,544 

6,071,513 

1,056,400 
521,924 
12,500 

57,300 

22,500 



676,100 

604,03" 

1,255,850 

21,000 

58.000 

70,200 

314,600 

27,000 



CAST IRON. 



26 
26 
6S 
20 
60 

323 
45 

320 
13 
16 
54 
5 



25 $150,100 



232,700 
290,720 

1,499,050 
42S,S0O 
580,S00 

4,6'22,4S2 
593.250 

3,422,924 
373,500 
359,100 
471,160 
11,500 
185,700 
35,000 

216.625 

100,000 
255,000 
16,000 

139,500 

502,200 

2,063,650 

195,450 

82,900 

260,400 

187,000 

5,500 

116,351 

5,000 

14,000 



> e 



Total |377 17,346,425 7,005,289 12,748,777 1,391 17,416,361 10,346,355 25,10S,155 422 14,495,220 9,698,109,16,747,074 



$112,570 

177,060 

160,603 

1,057.904 

25S,267 

351.369 

2,393,768 

301,048 

2,872,467 

153,S52 

259.190 

297,014 

8,841 

29,128 

11,950 

102,085 
50,370 
75.800 
8,400 

90,035 

295,533 

1,199.790 

91,S65 

66,918 

172,330 

183,114 

2.524 

86,930 

8,530 

18,100 



$205,0110 

371,710 

460,831 

2,235,635 

728,705 

9S1.400 

5.921.9S0 

6S6,430 

5,354.881 

267,462 

6S5,000 

674,416 

12.867 

87,6S3 

46,200 

271,126 
117.400 
312,500 
55,000 

264,325 

744,316 

3,069,350 

279,697 

149, 30 

441,185 

386,495 

8.500 

216.195 

29,740 

41,696 



WROUGHT IRON. 



*-= 



$4,000 

62,700 

610,300 

208,000 

529,500 

1,131,300 

1,016,S43 

7,620,066 

15.000 

780,650 

791,211 

103,000 

9,200 

2,500 



755,050 
176,000 
620,800 

17,000 

42,100 



$5,600 

66,194 
221,194 
111,750 
358,780 
83^,314 
320,950 
,488,391 

19,500 
439,511 
591,448 

28,114 

5.9S6 



385,616 
180,S00 
604,493 

4,425 

24,509 



$10,400 
163,9S6 
428,320 
222.400 
667.560 

1,423,968 
623,273 

8,902,907 
55,090 
771,431 

1,264.995 
66,980 

15,384 

7,500 



670,618 
299,700 
.,076,192 

11,760 

68,700 



V. INTERNAL IMPEO VEMENTS. — R AILRO A D S , ETC. 

In no other particular can the prosperity of a country be more strikingly manifested than by the 
perfection of its roads and other means of internal communication. The system of railroads, ca- 
nals, plank-roads, post-routes, river navigation, and telegraphs possessed by the United States, 
presents an indication of its advancement in power and civilization more wonderful than any other 
feature of its progress. In truth, the country in this respect occupies the first place among the 
nations of the world. 

The primary design of nearly all the great lines of railway in the United States has been to con- 
nect the sea-coast with the distant interior ; to effect which object it was necessary to cross the 
Alleghanies, which intersect every line of travel diverging to the West from the great commercial 
cities of the sea-board. 

The following are some of the vast enterprises which have been undertaken to accomplish this 
great purpose, which have either been finished or are in such a state of progress as leaves no doubt 
of their being brought to a successful issue within a few years : 

First. The railroads connecting Portland, the commercial capital of Maine, with the British 
provinces, and through their public works, the St. Lawrence River and the lakes, with the West- 
ern States of the Union. 

Second. The railroads from Boston westward, connecting at Albany with the roads of Central 
New York, and, by the more northern route, traversing New Hampshire and Vermont, continuing 
toward the West by the Ogdensburg Railroad, and bringing Montreal, the chief commercial city 
of Upper Canada, into communication with the capital of New England. 

Third. The New York and Erie Railroad, extending from New York city to Lake Erie, and 
intended to form a part of a continuous line from the Hudson to the Mississippi — a project likely 
to be effected within the ensuing ten years. 

Fourth. The Pennsylvania Central Railroad, from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, with numerous 
diverging branches, to points north and south of the general direction. This great route will 
reach St. Louis by a nearly due west course through Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. The Pennsyl- 
vania section will be completed about the end of 1853. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



Fifth. The Baltimore and Ohio E,ailroad, one of the most magnificent works of the day, 
passes from Baltimore, through Maryland and Virginia, to Wheeling, on the Ohio. At the latter 
point it will form a connection with the system of roads traversing the West and North-west. 

Sixth. The roads proposed to be constructed under authority of Virginia, and already com- 
menced, intended to establish communication between tide-water and the interior, and south- 
western parts of that State, and to continue the same through Tennessee to the Mississippi. 

Seventh. The several lines of railroad from Charleston and Savannah, penetrating South Caro- 
lina and Georgia, concentrating in north-eastern Alabama, and reaching the level region of the 
Mississippi by the valley of the Tennessee River. These roads, by their western continuation, 
will intersect lines running to every important point between the mountains and the Mississippi 
River. 

Eighth. The Mobile and Ohio Railroad, from the Mexican gulf to the mouth of tho Ohio, and 
the Illinois Central Railroad to the lakes, a distance in a straight line of about 1,100 miles. 

It will be seen at a glance that the leading idea in all these vast enterprises was to overcome the 
barrier presented by this chain of mountains, to a direct and unrestricted intercourse between the 
sea-board and the West, and to supply the want of those natural channels of commerce, navigable 
rivers, extending into the section we desire to reach. The enormous aggregate of expense of the 
numerous works specified above, undertaken with this one object, and their importance as public 
improvements, may be estimated from the following brief notice of the New York and Erie Rail- 
road, which occupies the third place in our preceding enumeration : The longest continuous line 
of railroad in the world, and that in the construction of which the greatest natural obstacles have 
been overcome, is that which extends from the Hudson River, through the southern counties of 
New York, to Lake Erie. Its length is 469 miles, and it has branches of an additional length of 
68 miles. Nearly its whole course is through a region of mountains. The bridges by which it is 
carried over the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers, and other streams, and the viaducts upon 
which it crosses the valleys that intercept its route, are among the noblest monuments of power 
and skill to be found in our country. The most of these works are of heavy masonry ; but one of 
them is a wooden bridge, 187 feet in height, with one arch, the span of which is 275 feet. One of 
the viaducts is 1,200 feet long, and 110 feet high. The aggregate cost of this important work was 
$23 ,580,000, and the expense of construction was $42,333 per mile. 

The following table presents, in a convenient form, some of the principal facts connected with 
railroads in the United States on the 1st January, 1852 and 1853. 



1852. 



States, etc. 



Miles of rail- 
road com' 
pleted, 

Maine 315.. 

New Hampshire . . 489. . 

Vermont SS0.. 

Massachusetts 1,0S9 . . 

Ehode Island 50.. 

Connecticut 547 . . 

New York 1,S26 745 

New Jersey 226 Ill 

Pennsylvania 1,146 774 1,920 



Miles of rail- 
road in course 
of construction. 

... 127 

... 47 

... 59 

.. 67 

... 32 

... 261.:.... 



Total. 

. 442 
. 536 
. 439 
.1,156 

. 82 
. 808 
.2,571 
. 337 



Delaware 45 11. 

Maryland 376 125. 

Virginia 47S 81S. 

North Carolina.... 249 385. 

South Carolina.... 340 29S. 

Georgia 754 229. 

Florida — 

Alabama 121 

Mississippi 93 

Louisiana 63 . 

Texas — , 

Tennessee 112. 

Kentucky 93 

Ohio 82S 

Michigan 427 

Indiana 600 

Illinois + 176 1,409 

Missouri — 515 

"Wisconsin 20 421 



190. 
273. 

32.' 

748. 
414. 



56 
. 501 
.1,296 
. 634 
. 638 
. 9S3 

'. 311 

. 866 

. 63 

. 82 

. 860 

. 507 



1,892 2,720 

— 427 

915 1,515 

1.535 

515 

441 



10.S43 



10.S9S 



21,741 



States. 



185a 
>Jo. of miles in No. of miles in 

operation. progress. 



Total. 



Maine 394 Ill 505 

New Hampshire.. 500 42 542 

Vermont 427 — 427 

Massachusetts 1,140 66 1,206 

Rhode Island 50 32 82 

Connecticut 627 198 825 

New York 2,123 924 3,047 

NewJersey 254 85 339 

Pennsylvania 1,244 903 2,147 

Delaware 16 11 2T 

Maryland 521 — 521 

Virginia 624 610 1,234 

North Carolina .. . 249 248 497 

South Carolina. ... 599 296 895 

Georgia 857 691 1,548 

Florida 23 — 23 

Alabama 236 723 964 

Mississippi 95 875 970 

Louisiana 63 200 263 

Texas 32 — 32 

Tennessee 1S5 509 694 

Kentucky 94 661 755 

Ohio 1.3S5 1,755 3,140 

Indiana 755 979 1,734 

Michigan 427 — 427 

Illinois 296 1,772 2,068 

Missouri — 515 515 

Wisconsin 50 470 520 



Total. 



.13,266 12,681. 



.25,947 



Measures are in progress for establishing railroads in California, with the object of connecting 
San Francisco with some of the principal towns of the State ; and no doubt, ere the lapse of many 
years, that important division of the Union will be in possession of as large a proportion of these 
facilities for travel and business as her population and resources require. 



a 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



From the brief sketch of American railroads should not be excluded some mention of several 
projects which are not only closely connected with the interests of the United States, but possess 
something of national importance. The first of these, in point of vastness of design, is the enter- 
prise of building a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. The routes proposed 
in this great work are almost as numerous as the persons who claim the merit of having first sug- 
gested and brought forward the scheme of thus completing the chain of railroad connection between 
the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the Union. No scientific survey of any route west of the fron- 
tier of Missouri has been made, but it is not probable that any could be found that would bring 
the line of travel between the Mississippi and the ocean within the limit of 1,600 miles. 

The natural obstacles to be overcome are the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, the 
deserts between the Missouri and the former chain, and those of the great basin, the flying sands, 
and the want of timber. Further explorations may lead to the discovery of means to overcome 
these difficulties. Should the cost not exceed the average of Western roads, it would form no ob- 
jection to the enterprise, since it would be only about $32,000,000, or only twenty-five per cent, 
more than has been expended upon the Erie Railroad — less than fifty per cent, greater than the 
aggregate expenditure upon the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and not two-thirds of that incurred 
by the State of Massachusetts on her railroads. The only question, then, affecting the probabil- 
ity of the construction of the Pacific Railroad is that of practicability. 

This can only be determined by thorough surveys of some or all of the routes proposed, from 
the valley of the Rio Grande, the Arkansas, the Missouri, and the Upper Mississippi. If this 
road were completed, and the route continued westward by steamship to Calcutta, it would reduce 
the time required for the circuit of the globe, by the American overland route, to 93 days, as 
follows : from New York to San Francisco, 4 days ; to Hong-Kong, 25 days ; to Calcutta, 6 days ; 
to Bombay, 13 days ; to England, 35 days ; to New York, 10 days. Total, 93 days. 

Another project for connecting, by the means of cheap and rapid conveyance, the two coasts of 
our confederacy, which deserves, as it has received, very great attention, is the proposition to 
build a railroad across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, in Mexico. Its feasibility is established. 
The length of the road, according to the report of the surveyors, will be 166 miles from sea to 
sea ; but only about 80 miles from the head of navigable water on either side. 

The cost of the road, with all the necessary equipments, station-houses, etc., is estimated at 
$7,848,000. The time expected to be required for its construction is three years. With this 
connecting link of communication completed, the voyage from New Orleans to San Francisco will 
be performed in eight or nine days. 

For the purpose of comparison, the subjoined statement has been prepared, showing the number 
of miles of railroads, with their costs, according to the most generally received authorities in all 
the countries of Europe in which those improvements have been introduced : 



COUNTRIES. 



Great Britain and Ireland 

German States, including Prussia and Austria 

France 

Belgium 

Russia 

Italy 



6,S90 

5,332 

1,018 

532 

200 

170 



14,142 



Aggregate cost. 



$1,218,000.(100 

325,875,000 

238,905,000 

46.288,000 

15,000,000 

15,000,000 



1,S59,06S,000 



Cost p. mile. 



$177,000 
61,000 
254,000 
49,000 
75,000 
88,000 



131,300 



By these statistics it is made to appear that the average cost of European railroads was $131,300 
per mile. The average cost of American railroads completed previous to the commencement of the 
present year was $34,307 per mile. The excess of expenditure, therefore, in the construction of 
European roads over those in the United States, is $95,993 per mile, or about 280 per cent. ; but 
it may be remarked that the average cost of construction in the United States of all the roads does 
not exceed $27,300 per mile ; so that the actual excess is $103,000 per mile. 

The foregoing statements develop the striking fact that the United States possess af extent of 
railroad nearly equal to that of the rest of the world combined ; and, at our present rate of pro- 
gression, we are likely, in a few years, far to exceed it. 



UNITED STATES OP AMERICA. 



YI. — COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. 
1. Statistical View of the Commerce of the United States, exhibiting the Value of Exports to 
and Imports from each Foreign Country, and the Tonnage of American and Foreign Vessels 
arriving from and departing to each foreign country, during the year ending June 30, 1850. 



COMMERCE. 



COUNTRIES. 



Russia 

Prussia 

Sweden and Norway 

Swedish West Indies 

Denmark 

Danish "West Indies 

Hanse Towns 

Hanover 

Holland 

Dutch East Indies 

Dutch West Indies 

Dutch Guiana 

Belgium 

England 

Scotland 

Ireland 

Gibraltar 

Malta 

British East Indies 

Cape of Good Hope 

Mauritius 

Honduras 

British Guiana 

British West Indies 

Canada 

Newfoundland 

Falkland Islands 

British American Colonies 

Other British possessions 

France on the Atlantic 

France on the Mediterranean . . 

French West Indies 

Miquelon and French Fisheries 

French Guiana 

Bourbon 

French possessions in Africa. . . 

Spain on the Atlantic 

Spain on the Mediterranean . . . 
Teneriffe and other Canaries. . . 
Manilla and Philippine Islands. 

Cuba 

Other Spanish West Indies 

Portugal 

Madeira 

Fayal and other Azores 

Cape de Verde 

Italy 

Sicily 

Sardinia 

Tuscany 

Ionian Islands 

Trieste and other Austrian ports 

Turkey 

Hayti 

Mexico 

Central America 

New Grenada 

Venezuela 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Argentine Republic 

Cisalpine Republic 

Chili 

Peru 

China 

Liberia 

West Indies generally 

South America generally 

Europe generally 

Asia generally 

Africa generally 

South Sea Islands 

Equador 

Sandwich Islands 

All other places 



VALUE OF EXPORTS. 






duce. 



Value of i. 
porta. 



$666,435 
T0.645 
66S,580 
98.176 
165.874 
S67.140 
4,320,780 

2.188,101 

180,533 

364.335 

97,014 

2,16S.357 

64,686.959 

3.021.740 

1.025,031 

1S6.307 

75.329 

502,613 

143,219 

171.984 

502.776 

3.612.S02 

4,641.451 



3,116,840 

16,934.791 

1,015.486 

269.377 

2.517 

43.405 

12,575 

605.659 

3.256,362 

20.524 

16.S17 

4,530.256 

816,062 

172,978 

136,874 

14.421 

47,043 

1,567,166 

50.577 

170,764 

45,664 

1,179,893 

204,397 
1,211,007 

1,498 791 
57,225 

970.619 
678.462 

2,723 707 
718.331 

60.024 

1,297.133 

258.939 

67.934 
22,256 

815.463 
730.932 
169.025 

24.414 



$19S.506 

27,991 

51,610 

1,166 

20.706 

114 813 

885,742 

416.564 

262,952 
56,683 
5,425 

375 403 
4,210.271 

183,679 
42.693 
60,482 
39.051 

156.S46 



16.551 

22.663 

178.644 

1,289,370 



501,374 

1.724.915 
158,155 
18,291 

1.382 
2,200 

23.55S 

96.855 

5.065 

1.450 

460.041 

93.591 

5.236 

6.527 

2.152 

2.167 

239.904 

13.024 

86,136 

23,468 

312.111 
53,344 
139,181 
514.036 
12.967 
285,600 
340,008 

473 347 
346 311 
1.518 
125.58S 
16.789 
119.256 



50,442 

13.321 
28,334 
20,837 

10.511 



$S64.941 

9S 636 

720.190 

99 342 

186 5S0 

981.958 

5.206.522 

2.604.665 
'443,485 
421.018 
102.439 

2 543.760 
68 S97.2-30 

3.205.419 

1,067.724 
246.7S9 
114.380 
659.459 
143,219 

1SS.535 

525.439 

3.791.446 

5,930,821 



3.61S.214 

18.659,706 

1,173.641 

287.668 

2.517 

44.7S7 

14,775 

634.217 

3,353.217 

25.5S9 

18 267 

4,990.297 

909.653 

178.214 

143.401 

16.573 

49 210 

1.807.070 

63.601 

256,900 

69,132 

1.492,004 
257,741 
1.350.188 
2.012.S27 
70,192 
1.256.219 
l,01S.47O 

3.197.114 
1,064,642 

61542 

1.422.721 

275 728 

1,605.217 

67.934 
72,693 

32S784 
759.266 
189.S62 
34.925 



$1,511,572 

27.469 

1,032.117 

2.193 

527 

267.459 

8,787,874 

1.6S6.967 

444.404 

530.146 

71,043 

2,404,954 

72118.971 

2,746.670 

293.7S3 

44.269 

11354 

2,S65.016 

72,206 

173.690 

14.591 

1126,968 

4,285.470 



1,35S.992 

497 

25.S35.170 

1.7n2 -5:i 
75,6S4 

12.551 
10,005 

330.181 

1,702.214 

85.223 

1.336.S66 

10.292.393 

2.067.S66 

339.763 

114.729 

16,328 

2,105,077 

822,629 

205 



467,601 

801,023 

1,544.771 

2.135,366 

261.459 

591.992 

1,920,247 

9,324.429 
2,653,877 

1.796.877 

170,758 

6,593.462 

9.417 
86,659 

402,599 
524722 

4.618 

64474 

26 



NAVIGATION. 



AMERICAN TONN AGE. FOREIGN TONNAGE. 



U. States. 



Cleared 
from the 
U. States. 



12,877 

240 

3,391 

449 

396 

12.940 

23.331 

2.751 

17.SS4 

3.639 

22.964 

3 892 

23,033 

4S9 839 

18.906 

10.022 

2,334 

168 

23,537 

773 

4.386 

2,738 

69.302 

889,755 

122 

55.465 
1,223 
106,307 
8,560 
2,859 
618 
1,224 

359 
17.538 
12,827 
2.173 
10.259 
249.307 
41.76S 
2.76S 
1.586 
1,050 



31,417 

1833 

6,701 

803 

4398 

6,076 

44690 

22,585 

3.549 

104.176 

11.536 

846 

62,965 

13.930 

' 90 

14.510 

5.K»0 

21,969 

993 



945 
8.531 
1,101 

331 
9,267 
39,065 



5,048 

649 

2.454 

502 

19,375 

21,156 

14.963 

4070 

9,283 

4,932 

21.428 

440.582 

15.759 

10.014 

7,650 

2.665 

29.3S9 

1,912 

841 

4225 

11.642 

93.S33 

919,515 

4.137 

2.157 

75,293 

917 

114,589 

14,158 

11.227 

905 

1,334 



13.706 

9,867 

647 

3,165 

254.018 
30.744 
2,976 
4,132 
90S 
1,886 

3.326 

7,791 
1537 

5,96S 

2,6S9 

47,981 

20,518 

3,290 

101,753 

S,509 

887 

5S,113 

16,107 

867 

41,279 

10,332 

17,830 

1,039 

3,S43 

1,365 

6.213 
8;492 
2,642 
299 
31.623 
33,737 



2,121 

23,55-1 

45 

592 

956 

65,664 

3,978 

11,967 

3,248 

123 

5,756 

421,530 

55,026 

77,507 

290 

236 



615 
904 

49,230 

447.372 

1,695 

17,434 
333,426 

32,637 
10,215 
4,627 

93 
266 

4,779 
22.S94 
1,215 
1,176 
33,030 
3,074 
5,018 
336 
1,717 



9,511 

7,399 
7,371 

2,205 

429 

6,2S9 

36,'39 
653 
5,295 
2,708 
1,280 
9;363 

13,081 
1,185 

18:369 
1,808 
7,445 



2.5S6 



3S4 
1,891 

828 
4,195 

45S 



Cleared 
from the 
U. States. 



Total 136.946.912 '14951.808 151.803.720 173.138.318 2.573.016 2.632.738 1.775.623 1,728,214 

24 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



2. Statement of the Commerce of each State, from July 1, 1849, to June 30, 1850. 









VALUE OF EXPORTS. 






VALUE OF IMPORTS. 


STATES. 


DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 


FOREIGN PRODUCE. 


Total of 




















American & 
foreign 
produce. 


In American 
vessels. 








In American 
vessels. 


[n Foreign 
vessels. 


Total. 


In Ameri 

can 
vessels. 


In Foreign 
vessels. 


Total. 


vessels. 


Total. 


Maine 


$1,135,998 


I400.S20 


$1,536,818 


$14,564 


$5,530 


$20,094 


$1,556,912 


$609,155 


$247,256 


$S56,411 


N. Hamp. . . . 


2.S35 


5,S87 


8.722 


— 


205 


205 


8,927 


19,962 


29.117 


49,079 


Yermont 


404.74S 


— 


404,749 


26.157 


— 


26,157 


43,906 


463,092 


— 


463.092 


Massaehus'is. 


7.000,103 


1.253,370 


S,253.473 


1,898,497 


529,793 


2,42S,290 


10,680,763 


22,106,011 


8,268,673 


30.374.684 


Rhode Island 


205.969 


830 


206.299 


9,966 


— 


9,966 


215 265 


251,708 


6.595 


258.303 


Connecticut. . 


241.262 


- — 


241.262 


66S 


— 


668 


241.930 


311.927 


60,463 


372.390 


New York. . . 


83.934.4ii9 


7,568,891 


41,502,S00 


7,0S6,6S7 


4,123,302 


11,209,989 


52,712.789 


S8,147,721 


22,975.803 


111,123,524 


New Jersey . 


— 


1.655 


1.655 


— 


— 


— 


1.655 


— 


1,494 


1,494 


Pennsylvania 


3.42S,150 


621,314 


4,049,464 


363,225 


88,917 


452,142 


4,501,606 


10,795,462 


1,270,692 


12,066,154 


Delaware . . . 


— 


— ■ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Maryland . . . 


4,657,155 


1,982,296 


6,5S9.4S1 


250,861 


127,011 


377,872 


6,967,853 


5,529,682 


594,519 


6,124,201 


Dist.ofCoL.. 


72.175 


8.213 


80,3SS 


200 


— 


200 


80.5SS 


59.219 


600 


59.819 


Virginia 


2,365,241 


1,047.917 


3,413,158 


2,488 


— 


2,488 


3.415.646 


172.878 


253.721 


426.599 


N. Carolina.. 


259.616 


156.SS5 


416,501 


— 


— 


— 


416.501 


179.249 


144,443 


328,692 


S. Carolina . . 


6.467,201 


4.979-691 


11.446.S92 


400 


508 


908 


11.447,S00 


1,813.658 


620,127 


1,933.785 




2.622,152 


4.929,791 


7.551.943 


— 


— 


— 


7,551,943 


306.S83 


830 081 


636.964 


Florida 


1,113.978 


1.493.990 


2.607.96S 


15,656 


— 


15,656 


2,623.624 


80.241 


65,468 


95,709 


Alabama 


4.601.515 


5,943,343 


10 544.S5S 


— 


— 


— 


10.544.858 


103,134 


757,228 


865,362 


Louisiana ... 


20,927,751 


16.770,526 


37,698,277 


328.930 


78,143 


407,073 


3S,105,350 


8,107,929 


2,652,570 


10,760,499 


Mississippi.. . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Tennessee. . . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


27.966 


— 


27.966 


Missouri 


— 


— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


359 648 


— 


359,643 


Ohio 


117.9S9 


99,543 


217,532 


— 


100 


100 


217,632 


39S.999 


183.505 


582,504 


Kentucky . . . 


— 


— 


— 


__ 


— 


— 


- — 


190.987 


— 


190,987 


Michigan 


57,232 


74.S13 


132.045 


— 


— 


— 


132.045 


144.102 


— 


144,102 




1,232 


16,437 


17,649 


— 


— 


— 


17,699 


7,788 


7.922 


15,705 




— 


24,958 


24,958 


— 


— 


— 


24,958 


14,652 


10,998 


25,650 


California . . . 






















Oregon 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Total.... 


S9,6 16,742 


47,330,170 


136.946.912 


9.998,299 


4 953.509 


14.951.80S 


151,898,720 


139,657,0i3 


3S,481,275 


178,138,310 



3. Statement of the Navigation of each State. 



STATES. 


TONNAGE ENTERED UNITED STATES. 


TONNAGE CLEARED FROM U. STATES. 




American. 


Foreign. 


Total. 


American. 


Foreign. 


Total. 




No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons, 


No. 1 Tons. 




253 
9 

330 
1,345 

100 

109 
4,137 

352 

295 
7 
69 

140 

163 
47 
56 
40 

524 

178 

97 

18 

3 

140 


53,309 
3.572 
86.828 
839.508 
17.847 
22.580 
1,502,290 

100,009 

70.427 

1.260 

12.190 

19,185 

52,711 

11,883 

7,518 

11.914 

175,969 

21,628 

7,254 

6,690 

494 

47,950 


1.040 

101 

174 

2,732 

19 

79 

3,832 

17 

185 

143 

2 

88 

38 

142 

71 

39 

112 

374 

136 

394 

4 

13 

355 


89,877 

7.472 

12.607 

271.941 

2,075 

11.572 

775.430 

1,601 

32,361 

29,161 

154 

18,775 

9.115 

44,205 

45,134 

10,462 

84,106 

174,884 

18,243 

49.709 

648 

3.177 

82,914 


1,293 
110 
504 

4,077 
119 
188 

7,969 

17 

537 

438 
9 
157 
188 
305 
118 
95 
152 
898 

314 

491 
22 
16 

495 


143.186 

11.044 

99,435 

611.449 

19,922 

34.152 

2,277,720 

1,601 

132,370 

99,588 
1,414 
30,965 
28.300 
96.916 
57.017 
17.9S0 
96 020 
350,853 

39,871 

56.963 

7,338, 

3.671! 

130,864 


585 

5 

322 

1,149 

94 

87 

3,610 

1 

309 

859 

S 
187 
212 
205 
58 
60 
76 
493 

137 

112 
4 
3 

303 


111.123 

682 

81.073 

272,278 

16.770 

17.515 

1,411.557 

150 

81,276 

89,296 
1,520 
42.091 
30.739 
72.222 
21,039 
10.022 
32,268 
211,800 

15,485 

7.982 

1,043 

591 

104,266 


1,046 

102 

20 

2,757 

16 

69 

3,693 

10 

170 

162 

2 

98 

62 

170 

83 

42 

106 

350 

131 

390 

5 

12 

320 


91.014 

7.531 

l.'7S3 

274.674 

1.705 

9.802 

737.539 

981 

30.342 

37,523 
200 
23.367 
11.493 
52.830 
51.524 
12.134 
80.717 
158,137 

18,322 

46.719 

998 

3.017 

75,S62 


1.631 
107 

342 

3,906 

110 

156 

7,303 

11 

479 

521 
10 
2S5 
274 
375 
141 
102 
182 
843 

268 

502 

9 

15 

623 


202,137 


New Hampshire.. 


8,213 
82,856 


Massachusetts. 

Rhode Island 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

D. of Columbia. .. 


546,952 

18,475 

27,317 

2,149,096 

1.131 

111,618 

126.819 

1,720 

65,458 


North Carolina 

South Carolina. . . . 


42,232 
125.052 
72,568 




22.156 




112 9S5 


Mississippi 

Missouri 

Ohio 


369,937 

33,S07 

54,701 

2,041 

3,608 

180,128 


Kentucky 


Oregon. 


Total 


8.412 


2.573,016 10,100 


1,775,623 


18,512 


4.343,639. 


8,379 


2,632,788 


9,816 


1,728,214 


18.195 


4,361,002 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



4. Statement exhibiting a condensed view of the Tonnage of the several Districts of the 
United States on the 30th of June, 1850. 





Registered 


Enrolled and 
licensed 
tonnage. 


Total tonnage 
of each 
district 




Registered 1 


Enrolled and i 


Total tonnage 


DISTRICTS. 


tonnage. 


DISTEICTS. 


tonnage. J 


licensed 
tonnage. 


of each 
district. 




Ions and n.-stlia. 


Tens and H/Sths. 


Passamaq'y Me. 


10,530 73 


9.454 73 


19,985 51 




_ 


15.478 01 


15,478 01 


Machias ... " 


2.267 65 


19,050 67 


21,318 37 


Snow Hill... " 


— 


9,511 51 


9,511 51 


Fr'man's B. " 


1.643 21 


30.525 27 


32.168 48 


St. Mary's.. . " 


— 


2,184 91 


2,184 91 


Penobscot.. " 


5.713 40 


31.237 3S 


36.950 78 


Town Creek " 


— 


2,226 81 


2,226 81 


Belfast " 


13,869 79 


31,725 48 


45.595 32 


Annapolis . . " 


— 


2,323 17 


2,323 17 


Bangor " 


9,362 31 


15.9 6 49 


25,268 80 


Georgetown D.ofC. 


2,796 19 


14,214 42 


17,010 61 


Waldoboro'. <: 


33,483 13 


57.S47 25 


96.330 38 


Alexandria . Virg. 


2,8S7 31 


5,850 49 


8,737 80 


Wiscasset . . " 


6.H-24 41 


12 217 08 


18,241 49 


Norfolk , " 


10,542 10 


13,592 79 


24,134 S9 




76.608 65 


27.M7 25 


103 625 90 


Petersburg.. " 


948 76 


1,759 27 


2,708 OS 


Portland... " 


60,31)4 43 


26.197 86 


86.502 34 


Richmond .. " 


3,160 80 


5,297 40 


8,453 25 


Saco " 


1,570 00 


1,153 30 


2,723 30 


Yorktown . . " 


— 


4,806 70 


4,806 70 


Kennebunk " 


9,101 34 


2.247 82 


11.349 21 


Tappahan'k. " 


503 26 


5,320 93 


5,824 24 


York ... " 


— 


1.361 45 


1361 45 


Aceomac o.h. " 


— 


4,0S2 75 


4,082 75 


Portsmouth. N. H. 


14,978 92 


8.117 41 


23 096 38 


Kast River . . " 


— 


4,868 61 


4,86S 61 


Burlington . Verm. 


— 


4,530 32 


4 530 32 


Yeocomico.. " 


— 


3,2S3 90 


3,283 90 


Newburyp't. Mass. 


16,213 57 


7,043 29 


23.261 86 


Cherrystone. " 


— 


1,232 08 


1,232 OS 


Ipswich u 


— 


578 39 


578 39 


Wheeling . . " 


— 


5,933 70 


5,933 70 


Gloucester . " 


2,873 08 


19.601 00 


22,474 OS 


Wilmington. N.Car. 


9,123 51 


6,074 76 


15,198 32 




20;316 74 


8,599 34 


28 916 13 


Newbern " 


1,518 32 


3,689 25 


5,207 57 


Beverly " 


— 


3.173 04 


3.173 04 


Washington. •' 


1,097 61 


4,605 49 


5,703 15 


Marblehead. " 


1,349 11 


5,493 31 


6 842 42 


Edenton " 


127 07 


1,01S 09 


1,145 16 


Boston " 


270.510 09 


50.177 17 


320,687 26 


Camden " 


1,269 11 


10,678 8S 


11,948 04 


Plymouth . . " 


3.966 8S 


6 755 31 


10.722 24 


Beaufdrt " 


613 69 


1,645 79 


2,259 53 


Fall Kiver. . " 


2.251 08 


10.85H 76 


13.101 84 


Plymouth ... " 


1,183 88 


1,144 54 


2,323 47 


N.Bedford. " 


119.026 45 


8.933 69 


127.960 09 


Ocracoke " 


. — 


1,428 15 


1,45S 15 


Barnstable . " 


5,52i i 32 


85.581 67 


91.102 04 


Charleston .. S.Car. 


15,377 4S 


17,915 10 


33,292 5S 


Edgartown. " 


5.464 26 


2.145 2S 


7,609 54 


Georgetown. " 


1,749 19 


1,030 31 


2,779 50 


Nantucket . " 


25, i -37 80 


3.174 83 


29.012 68 


Beaufort, , , " 


— 


— 


— 


Providence. B. I. 


9.177 14 


7.534 64 


16,711 78 


Savannah . . . Geor. 


10,437 16 


9,293 67 


19,730 83 




11,247 12 


1.951 27 


13.198 39 


Sunbury .... " 


. — 


— 


— 


Newport ... " 


5,644 33 


4934 21 


10.578 54 


Brunswick . . " 





533 81 


533 81 


Middletown. Conn. 


95 55 


12.033 72 


12 129 32 


Hard wick... " 





— 


— 


N. London . " 


23.364 23 


17.120 62 


40,484 So 


St. Mary's ... " 


491 48 


933 87 


1,425 40 


Stonington.. " 


13.188 47 


6.724 03 


19.912 50 


Pcnsacola . . . Flor. 


1,221 11 


572 63 


1,793 74 


N. Haven . . " 


4,994 65 


10.736 70 


15.731 40 


St. Augustine " 


— 


— 


— 


Fairfield ... " 


86S 35 


13.960 27 


24.S28 62 


St. Mark's.. . " 


— 


853 07 


353 07 


Chaniplain . N. T. 


— 


2,745 74- 


2.745 74 


St. John's ... " 





309 72 


309 72 


SackVtt's H'r. " 


— 


S.123 57 


8.123 57 


Apalachicola " 


— 


2,050 36 


2,050 36 


Oswego " 


— 


22,404 7S 


22,404 78 


Key West ... " 


4,415 46 


2,350 09 


6,765 55 


Niagara " 


— 


732 73 


732 73 


Mobile Ala. 


7,403 67 


16,753 88 


24,157 60 


Genesee " 


— 


1.036 74 


1,036 74 


Pearl River.. Miss. 


— 


1,367 34 


1,367 34 


Oswegatchie " 


— 


1.9S5 34 


1.985 34 


Vicksburg ... " 


— 


460 28 


460 28 


Buffalo Cr.. " 


— 


39,679 00 


39,679 00 


New Orleans. La. 


83,668 55 


165,040 49 


248,709 09 


Sag Harbor. " 


10,953 68 


4,211 69 


15.165 42 




— 


1,3S0 71 


1,3S0 71 


Greenport. . " 


4.236 29 


4.319 46 


8.555 75 


Nashville . . . Tenn. 


— 


3,776 05 


3,776 05 


New York.. " 


441,336 76 


394.230 SO 


S35,S67 61 


Louisville . . . Ky. 


— 


14,S20 19 


14.820 19 


C. Vincent.. " 


— 


2,496 92 


2.496 92 


St. Louis Miss. 


— 


28,907 47 


28,907 47 


Cold Spring. " 


2.376 40 


1.47S 90 


3.855 35 




— 


21,242 17 


21,242 17 


Perth Anfcoy N. J. 


133 69 


21.950 S2 


22.084 56 


Cuyahoga . . . Ohio 


— 


. 35,315 84 


35,315 84 


Bridgetown. li 


— 


14472 24 


14.472 24 


Sandusky ... " 


— 


7,32S 49 


7,328 49 


Burlington.. " 


— 


7.578 67 


7,578 67 


Cincinnati... " 


— 


17,188 80 


17,188 80 


Camden " 


— 


9.569 32 


9,569 32 




— 


2.629 20 


2,629 20 


Newark. , , . " 


77 58 


6.551 05 


6,628 63 







36,S93 89 


36,893 S9 


L. Egg Har. " 


— 


6,1S2 75 


6,182 75 


Michilim'kinac " 


— 


1,250 55 


1,250 55 


G. Egg Har. " 


— 


14,084 14 


14,0S4 14 


Galveston . . Tex. 


415 92 


2,892 88 


3,308 So 


Philadelphia Penn. 


64,205 10 


142.292 72 


206.497 S2 


Saluria " 


— 


588 52 


5S8 52 


Presque Isle " 


— 


7.870 31 


7,870 31 


Astoria Oreg. 


1,063 43 


— 


1,063 43 


Pittsburg ... " 


— 


44 571 30 


44571 30 


San Francisco Calif. 


15,285 12 


2,306 65 


17,591 77 


Wilmington. Del. 


1,651 68 


7,80S 70 


9,460 43 


Point Isabel. Tex. 


401 35 


274 2S 


675 63 


Newcastle.. " 
Baltimore. . . M'yl'd 




7.259 14 
58.349 51 


7,259 14 
149.019 38 










90,669 82 


Total 


1,5S5,711 22 


1,949,743 01 


3,535,454 23 


Oxford 


— 


12.343 46 


12,343 46 











5. The general Statement of Tonnage Accounts from June 30, 1849, to Jun 


e 30, 1850. 




Registered 
tonnage. 


Aggregate 
tonnage. 




KegMer'd 
tonnage. 


Aggregate 
tonnage. 


1850. 

To amount of tonnage sold to foreigners 

in the year ending 30th June, 1850. . . . 

To amount of tonnage condemned as un- 


13,467 

4,666 
23,724 

1,5S5,711 


13,467 

6,753 
84,748 

3,535,454 
50,175 


June SOth, 1849. 
By balance of tonnage, per statement, 
rendered for the year ending 30th 


1,43S,941 

157,612 
31,016 


3,334,015 




June Wth, 1850. 
By amount of tonnage built, registered, 
enrolled, and licensed in the year 1S50 
By this amount, being an increase of the 


To amount of tonnage lost at sea in the 




SOth June. 
To balance, as appears by general state- 


272,215 
31,016 


By this amount, being an increase of the 




To this difference in the enrolled ton- 
nage, which is presumed arises from 
transfer to the account of registered. . . 


3,349 


1,627,570 


3,640,599 




1,627,570 


3,640,599 





26 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



6. A comparative View of the registered and enrolled Tonnage of the United States, showing 
the Tonnage employed in the Whale Fishery ; also, the proportion of the enrolled and licensed 
Tonnage employed in the Coasting Trade, Cod Fishery, Mackerel Fishery, and Whale Fish- 
ery, from 1815 to 1850, inclusive. 





Registered ton- 
nage. 


Enrolled and li- 




1 


Proportion oft 


e enrolled and licensed tonnage emp 


loved in the— 


Years. 


Total tonnage. 


liu whale Hsh'ry 


Coasting trade 


Cod fishery. 


Mack'l fish'y. 










| fishery. 




Tons and ifiths. 


1S15.... 


854,294 74 


1 513.S33 04 


1,86S,127 75 




435066 87 


26,570 33 


— 


1,229 92 


1S16.... 


S00.759 6-: 


571, 45S 85 


1,872.218 53 




479,979 14 


37,S69 30 


— 


1,168 00 


1S17.... 


809,724 7l 


590,156 66 


1,399.912 41 


4.874 41 


481.457 92 


53,990 26 


— 


849 92 


1S18.... 


606.0SS 64 


619.095 51 


1.225,154 20 


16,134 77 


503.140 37 


5S.551 72 


— 


614 63 


1S19.... 


612,930 44 


647,821 17 


1,260.751 61 


. 31,700 40 


523 556 20 


65,044 92 


— 


6S6 35 


1820.... 


619.047 53 


661, US 66 


1,2S0,166 24 


35,391 44 


539,050 46 


60,842 55 


— 


1.053 66 


1821.... 


619.S96 40 


679.062 30 


1,298,958 79 


26,070 S3 


559,435 57 


51,351 49 


— 


1,924 40 


1522.... 


625.15^ 41 


696.548 71 


1,321.699 17 


45,449 42 


573.0S0 02 


58,405 85 


— 


3,133 50 


1323.... 


639.920 76 


696,644 S7 


1,336,565 6S 


39.918 13 


566,40S SS 


67,621 14 


— 


585 37 


1S24.... 


669.972 60 


719.190 87 


1.3S9.163 02 


33,165 70 


589.283 01 


68,419 00 


— 


180 08 


1825.... 


700.757 OS 


722.323 69 


1,423,110 77 


35,379 24 


5S7,273 07 


70,626 02 


— 





1526.... 


737,978 15 


796.210 6S 


1,584,189 S3 


41,757 32 


666.420 44 


63,761 42 


— 


226 83 


1827, . . . 


747.170 44 


S73.437 34 


1,620.607 7S 


45,653 21 


732.937 65 


74.048 81 


— 


32S 94 


1S2S.... 


S12.619 34 


925,772 52 


1,741,391 S7 


54,621 08 


758,922 12 


74,947 74 


— 


180 34 


1829.... 


650.142 S3 


610.654 SS 


1.260,797 SI 


57.284 3S 


508.858 10 


101,796 78 


— 





1530.... 


576,675 33 


615.311 10 


1,191,776 43 


38.911 S2 


516,978 18 


61,554 57 


35,973 38 


792 87 


1831.... 


620.451 92 


647.394 32 


1,267,846 29 


82,315 79 


539,728 74 


60,977 SI 


46,210 80 


481 82 


1532.... 


6S6.959 77 


752,460 39 


1.439,450 21 


72.868 84 


649.627 40 


54,027 70 


47,427 72 


377 47 


1S33.... 


75ri.i26 72 


856,123 22 


1,606,149 94 


101.15S 17 


744,198 6n 


62.720 70 


48.725 43 


478 39 


1534.... 


857,435 42 


901,463 67 


1,753,907 14 


108,060 14 


783.618 65 


56,403 70 


61,082 11 


364 16 


1S35.... 


8S5.S21 60 


939,11S 49 


1,S24,940 14 


97.640 00 


792.301 20 


72,374 18 


64.443 11 


— 


1836.... 


897,774 51 


9S4.32S 14 


1,SS2,102 65 


144,680 50 


873,023 21 


63,307 37 


64.424 25 


1,573 26 


1837.... 


810,447 29 


1.056,233 4" 


l.S96,6S5 69 


127,241 SI 


956,980 60 


80,551 89 


46,810 90 


1,S94 86 


1S8S.... 


822.591 S6 


1,173.047 89 


1,995,639 80 


119,629 S9 


1,041,105 18 


70,064 00 


56.649 16 


5,229 55 


1839.... 


834.244 54 


1,262.234 27 


2,096,478 SI 


131.845 25 


1,153.551 80 


72.258 6S 


35,983 87 


439 69 


1840.... 


899,764 74 


1,2S0,999 35 


2,1S0,764 16 


136,926 64 


1,176.694 46 


76,035 65 


28,269 19 


— 


1S41.... 


845,503 42 


1.184.940 90 


2,130,744 37 


157.405 17 


1,107.067 88 


66,551 84 


11.321 13 


— 


1S42.... 


975,355 74 


1,117,031 90 


2,090.390 69 


151.612 74 


1,045,753 39 


54,804 02 


16,096 83 


377 31 


1843.... 


1.009.305 01 


1,149.297 92 


2,15S,601 93 


152.374 89 


1,076,155 59 


61,224 25 


11,775 70 


142 33 


1844.... 


1,065.764 91 


1,211.330 11 


2,280,095 07 


168.293 63 


1,109.614 44 


85,224 77 


16,170 66 


320 14 


1545.... 


1,095,172 44 


l,321.S-?9 57 


2,417,002 06 


190,695 65 


1,190,898 27 


69.825 66 


21,413 16 


206 92 


1546.... 


1,181,286 49 


1.431.793 32 


2,562,084 81 


186,980 16 


1,289.870 89 


72,516 17 


36,463 16 


439 58 


1S47.... 


1.241.312 92 


1,597,732 SO 


2,S89,045 77 


193,858 72 


1,452,623 35 


70,177 52 


31.451 13 


— 


1843.... 


1,860,886 55 


1,793,155 00 


3,154.041 So 


192,176 90 


1,620,9S8 16 


82.651 82 


43,558 78 


432 75 


1849.... 


1.435.941 53 


1,895.073 71 


3,334,015 29 


130,186 29 


1,730,410 84 


42.970 19 


73,853 78 





1S50.... 


1.555.711 22 


1.949,743 01 


3,535,454 23 


146,016 71 


1,755,796 42 


85,646 30 


58,111 94 


— 


7. AS 


tatement of 


the Number of Vessel 


s built in the several States, and the Aggregate Ton- 






nage of each for th 


e year end 


ing 30th Ji 


me, 1850. 







CLASS OF VESSELS. 



Ships. 



Brigs. 



Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland , 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia. 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi , 

Louisiana 

Tennessee 

Kentucky 

Missouri 

Illinois , 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Texas 

Oregon 

Total 



127 



115 
2 

46 
5 
27 
50 
85 
39 
12 
125 

27 
23 

2 
2 
3 



9 
112 
17 
107 



826 
10 
1 

121 
14 
47 

224 
57 

185 
16 

150 

8 

84 

83 

5 
2 
3 



247 



117 



547 



1,860 



91,211 73 

6,914 32 

77 41 

85,836 14 
3,587 15 
4,819 79 

58,342 .73 
6,201 68 

21,409 93 
1.84S 82 

15,964 80 

288 17 

3.5S4 09 

2,651 59 

683 82 

79 75 

113 66 

1,592 38 

6.460 69 
1,353 82 
1,691 21 
5.214 62 
2,061 63 
105 54 
122 42 



272,218 54 

Ik 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



8. Statement showing the Number and Class of Vessels built, and the Tonnage thereof, in the 
several States and Territories of the United States from 1815 to 1850 inclusive. 





CLASS OP VESSELS. 


S — 

8 




TEARS 


Ships. 


Brigs. 


Schooners. 


Sloops and 
canal boats. 


Steamers. 




1815 


136 

76 

84 

53 

53 

21 

43 

64 

55 

56 

56 

71 

58 

73 

44 

25 

72 

132 

144 

98 

25 

93 

67 

66 

83 

97 

114 

116 

53 

73 

124 

100 

151 

254 

198 


224 

122 

S6 

85 

82 

60 

S9 

131 

127 

156 

197 

1S7 

188 

108 

68 

56 

95 

143 

169 

94 

50 

65 

72 

79 

S9 

109 

101 

91 

34 

47 

87 

164 

168 

174 

148 


680 

781 
559 
428 
473 
301 
248 
260 
260 
377 
538 
482 
464 
474 
485 
403 
416 
568 
625 
496 
302 
444 
507 
501 
439 
378 
310 
273 
138 
204 
322 
576 
689 
701 
623 
547 


274 
424 
' 394 
332 
242 
152 
127 
168 
165 
166 
16S 
227 
241 
196 
145 
116 
94 
122 
185 
180 
100 
164 
168 
153 
122 
224 
157 
404 
173 
279 
842 
355 
392 
547 
870 
290 


15 

26 

35 

45 

38 

33 

43 

37 

34 

100 

65 

68 

30 

124 

135 

90 

125 

64 

78 

137 

79 

163 

163 

225 

19S 

175 

208 

159 


1,314 

1,403 

1,073 

898 

850 

534 

507 

623 

622 

781 

994 

1,012 

934 

884 

785 

637 

711 

1.065 

1,188 

937 

507 

890 

949 

898 

858 

872 

782 

1,021 

482 

766 

1,038 

1,420 

1,598 

1,851 

1,547 

1,360 


154,624 39 

131.668 04 

86.393 37 

82.421 20 

79.817 86 

47.784 01 

55,856 01 

75.846 93 

75,007 57 

90 939 00 

114,997 25 

126 438 35 

104.342 67 

9S.375 58 

77,098 65 

58,094 24 

85.962 68 

144,539 16 

161.626 36 
118.330 37 

46.238 52 

113.627 49 
122.987 22 


1816 : 


1S17 


ISIS 


1819 


1820 


1821 


1822 


1823 


1824 


1S25 


1826 


1827 


1828 


1829 


1830 


1831 


1832 


1833 


1S34 


1835 


1836 


1S37 


1S38 


1839 


120,988 34 


1S40 


1841 


118,893 71 

129,0S3 64 

63.617 77 

103 537 29 


1842 


1843 


1844 


1845 




1S46 


18^ 203 93 


1847 


243,782 67 
318 075 54 


1848 


1849 


256 577 47 


1850 


247 


272 218 54 


l 









VIL STATEMENT OF THE DUTIES, REVENUES, AND PUBLIC EXPENDITURES DURING THE 
YEARS ENDING 30th JUNE, 1849 AND 1850. 



BECEIPTS. 
1849. 

From customs $2S,346,73S 82 

From sales of public lands. 1,6SS,959 55 
From miscellaneous sources 1,03S,649 13 



Total receipts $31,074,347 50 

Avails of stocks, treasury 

notes, etc., issued $28,5S8,750 00 

Balance in treasury 1st Julv, 

184$ & 1849 153,534 60 



Total means $59,S16,632 10 



1850. 

$39,66S,6S6 42 
1,S59,S94 25 
1,847,218 33 



$43,375,798 90 
$4,045,950 00 
2,1S9,964 2S 



1,713 18 



1850 

Civil list $2,865,615 88 $3,042,770 07 

Foreign intercourse 7,972,832 01 4,838,594 76 

Miscellaneous 3,179,192 66 6,958,360 24 

Interior department — 3,400,524 87 

War department 17,290,936 68 9,401,289 16 

Navy department 9,869,S1S 20 7,923,313 18 

Public debt 16,453,272 39 7,437,366 41 

Total expenditures $57,631,667 82 $43,002,168 69 



Balances 1st July '49 & '50 $2,184,964 28 



5,604,544 49 



VIII. STATEMENT OF THE PUBLIC DEBT 80th NOVEMBER, 1850. 



DENOMINATION OF DEBT. 



When redeemable. 



Principal and interest of old funded and unfunded debt Treasury notes of 1812 

and Yazoo scrip 

Debt of the cities of the District of Columbia, assumed per act 30th May, 1836 
Outstanding treasury notes issued previous to 22d July, 1346, payable or fundable 
Outstanding treasury notes issued underact 26th June, 1S46, payable or fundable 
Outstanding treasury notes issued under act 2Sth Jan. 1847, pavable or fundable 

Stock issued for treasury notes 1837-1S43, under act 2Sth Jan. 1847 

Loan of 15lh April, 1842 

" 8d March. 1843 

" 22d July, 1846 

" 2Sth Jan., 1847 

« 31st March, 1S4S 

Mexican indemnity stock 



5J 



On presentation 
$60,000 per annum 
On presentation 
On presentation 
On presentation 
1st January, 1868 
81st Dec. 1862 
1st July, 1853 
12th Nov., 1S56 
1st Jan., 1S68 
1st July, 1S68 
9th Aug., 1851 



$119,585 98 

900,000 00 

139,011 64 

25.&50 00 

44,700 00 

154.3-28 00 

S,198,686 03 

6.46S.231 35 

4,999 149 46 

27,135,122 00 

15,740.000 00 

303,573 92 



Total debt per statement 1st December, 1S50 $64,228,238 88 



UNITED STATES Of AMERICA. 



. -. +- T- 4- T* 4- - 



4-- p C'-c co co c: co : 



o; co x -* o ct t- cc to — co CO CO -a a ct 4* s 



. 10 ic to tc iC ic tC ic iiL4^H, .-f-^-i-Kwc o b O o O _ _■ o 



iCiri-^tc-^bObct 



fcOW4^©tC^^CK>GOCOCOCOQOCOCOO WtCOCDCl*. rf^OTCta^CJ-^0000-^0000 

^^p-pp x ~i co p ppc c^c "J^'j^i^ r^i° r~PP °° w ^P l _PP l . , P, 0i ,r' , .i- ) .£' :> 

^ o co*— bx"***-^ co b"*^"to J co"b*^o b 014.^ *oo V.. 4c-"c© to co i— ■ *o"*- L "fc©'*-a co "to o **-••» bo 

. _ Ci — tc to ■ o. ic —j x err x ~. — i 4- j. i— ' i; o — co cc y. o ~ r -i i;c~*ic^ to c — co 

oo T^j-ip j— tc p p j- k p —J j-~ x p -' p —i c p ■ o — *- -- r 4 L4 — p cc -- ~-P i -^i^r^^J^P 

— o. — b. co co — co b cPo'tc i.T^"*3 "V. tc"— V*» b > :;ri'N ' r. bs '— b<bsbs"co co obo x -m ;ui '-- , - cc "cole'— i — 00 b 

a c; c ;— f 01 c. c; -i -^ h to r. ^ v . r. ..-.-- to cc x. ~- co >->■ co -» en to co co or 

'" " Oi hO 4> *^l O CO CO —* -4 X' OS GO 4- C'. 4-. _ OS X X' 00 -^ fcO CO CO >-* O I-' OS> K> f* 



4^ .o ex e^ 4o cs c 



z co r 



■ c to o: tc x -' - ] -- -o -' — to to o to -^ cc en c 



jc w -^t : 



; to — cc ■; 



JCOOOCOrOSOOOtOCOCJl 



: 4^ X — CO' O O : 



rcoos-JCoto^^'-'^tC'^;-' x c v x ic to oo ds -^* 1- 1 






^loto'oo'bi'^-'o ^— V — "Vr — "-^ tic rr i;' to'l.-'V ^"^i i.o ^'~ ^)*— J ~ 4- 4- **"o wb'r'bciOaM 

X X x ^ to — I.C u: -1 - - /■ -J 4- J i ^- X ~' LO vi •' — 4- or. o ■*- - 

~. — o -' — X J— — T. tc ^o^r-^^j: %2j.o ■ ^- '„< — -' j- ,— '^ l ~ i *' ^ 

. J — "to "o — 1 J ^c cc "10 ^ "b J ^i "x c V "b b "tc ci ^ ~ b>ob;~b to" 



>01-407lfcOtO.— Cs4*-< 



: Ci 4- CO c 



> O O O • . . 



jOOOOOOCMO 



: C C — — - ~- ■ ~ - :s ~ , 



i o o o o o Cv o <: 



— *07 4-X00>r* — #*-4*-'-'r 

b J -ibr.^r. J tcic'r. 



' X O t4 O r.--tC tc X*^XrXH-^^ JD-^O^-^HOO' 



> Ol tOMOOiOitOOOO^W^CO 






T CO -I IC> 4- CC »' I'' Ci X> +- - i 

) o Ci — ■» ~ 4- x -j to o-< 1 c -< 10 — O' — ;: f >x o <c c cc i- 1 
'^- trb,~'b'b^V. J x ic c:V. J - toV:V. b- --'b''— "-1 '4- -or to V/b:too*^^b;"b'~o^-- i "eo 

' "- Oi to c- ~ V w ' ^- -O" X -- - 1 -^ O; O' Oi to —J CO cs to 

■ "OMr-^WOOI 



;(CMO'-'W^r-^«OtOM f 



: tO 0~r X CO C7i ?D G5 4i- t 



; — 0^0 CC5«^HC.ClC:^OO'^^0D^O«Q^^KWQO---4i-'iX>ts)K-'t0Q!0W' 

x = o c o -. -j i: x c - c v 1 . ^- « j -j — _ -or — t. ~. vo _' r: ci x ^- -— to ■ -■ lo ^ o c 

' ci - tec tc o rfw ipk 00 co cji to ossoooa'tccootiioigtcoaiQp-i^HOOHcoooHWW' 



.. _3 tO tO tO t-J-OCO OO O 
I C5 Or Ci C5 CC 10 o'' 4* cr. ~ 4- *»• 4*. CO CO 



;■ to- to n x X' co h 



•OlOOOKCOrt-^^I'-icO 



cotccototototo v-t i-* ► 



■ tov 



1 tot- 



- t C 1 c tc to to to 1- 1 to to k- 



' to I- 1 toco 



-v:- 



- - V ^ - !v 7- t- / X CO CO wi ZT. O CO ^- CO C 



to 00 ■- 



-^Ci^COyO CO 00^ P5** fc .fc3^-\p.?3 p 

to'co'to'co coot to Oot»Ci"cOOrf^4^^ 

. _ co co to c — x, co Ci j- ~. ;: co - 1 c- o ! i 

_COJOJO_— ■ 4-tOO' -K tO — t;t tOj-' Xj CO X CO 4- O" jip.c: — . IO X ■*- Xj CI .c o- 0- O' -I CI oop CO o 

b.^b x b. — b'x'colob' co xtc"co co cob'lo 'j- ;; erbtebn:: '4-'— 1 4* cr.'bi bi co co co -1 b. -1 to cob b'b< b- *4-"4^V to^i 
x ;: -1 r. ~ - -^ - o - - to o; co n • 1 ' o co 4- — o- to x cc — ic co o. 4- ►— o x j 14- -1 tc -1 io - to c.- to o xj cs >-«■ co -^ 

^r- X CC ^» X CC ^* 1- co "1 tO O- C^ ^ o; O i-^ —i CO ^ to — Ci ,t» Ci to 4- OS C- tC —1 tO CO Ol X- 0* tC tO CC CO CO CO r- O tO CO -? Ct CO C5 CO 



I [ I I I I 1 1 I I II 




cc to co to to to _to r^i^^^y-Pr*^ .^J^ j* 5* b0 ct~ 1 j J 'i~'J J '-™ 4 ^Z~ L £~ > 'S' !: '$ Z '5~ L 5~ L Z~ L Z~ K £* « 

1-j ~-*b- b -ibb b — — '^ toio""x x*— ixbb. to ccbr"b 4-b- to co cob. tc b. tob- b'-iio*-* co -lb o4^csk)>--^CN4> i --*t-»«- 

O tO —4 CO X i- tO — w' -i CO O. — —- - 1 -• ' O- ( » — i C — — CO co — X — — ■ — CO ~( O CO — CO CO C- — 4* CO *- 4- OS O- 4- 'X Cl CO c 

-j -i co j —. — o _x p. — ^- — j^-pr^r* r' r 1 P — .— r 4 P «' - : -• -** ~- ^° ■- y 4-0.^- — i -« y pp p ~. to ~* f- P 1 P r 4 > >l ¥ J * 

— b. b. : o b — co*—*— tc'co '— ' ""— b»*— * ci b-b. co 'co co *-* co 'co *— i b "4- br bt co J x 4* b-"to bbbb'^to en io<co^to^btbs"bcj - 

— ^, —j ic — 1 tc — x c- -p C,i — X -' CO O O X- X 7- o< -( o 4- X CO — IC J . ~. -A tC p tC / CJ - I C : ' tc CC 4- 'j' CC CS 4- co to — 4 to t 



C X CO O- co — X .., X c o. x to 



Ot — CSClCl'COCOCOi-' Oi CO H O 4- OTCn CO /! 4* O' tO 'OO tO Ol h 
O' CO O O X- X — Ot -( o 4- X CO — * to y O. «H to o. to CO Ot -M Ol I 

o- co ^- r-- lo i— c;t ci C7t co C/t w co co co to cs tc co ot os ot co )--■ at < 







r 0"> CO 4V C7^ 4* CO CO CO tO tO tO tO -J tO i 



ic -u : 



■ x — x „ y, zi -1 co x — b "c b ic -b v r ' r. tc -o x — ^ ^_ -_■. ico.ic-oo.ci-- /. — — tc x os ~ ■ — tc -o o o co ^ 



'-. -~ j ~ 'iz -1 tc b. ' 

--. ^32o C ****cc -^ 



-6» 

top tO M _M- k- 1 

CO --? *->■ co"rf^ t- 1 - 

_ . CO Q CO C. CJ K 

-4 <yt 00 CO C/j Xj co CO - 1 — v co -j fyj^jo to _kt> 

o"to"-*-i 'x tob b b' o bs co —t 

- ■ CO 4- O 'X CO 00 x- ■— 00 to OS 
>-* Ot 4- OS> -H — 1 CO CO Ci CO OO 



. co — I if- Ot Ci 



to --T" — p "3 '/■ j-'r 1 r' r~ +*;-;-=y"-'y op^cicio. ^ p 1 Pf w piwoi q o *)co c- y p -ci: to toppM-M ^ 
x tc x 'c b b ic — *— -j b. to co 4- +- J 4*bb ; o *o -1 10 -ib.'ob- 10 lob-'-'b bbs 4- "00 b- -o *— ' 10 b'-t ^bt ot co o 

o -0 'C X -1 00 CO V x _ to OS CO — o. tc O. CO X 4- C OT C -I *- CO -1 V 00 A C X — ^ to - t CO cc — X «' -' -1 CO OS ti~ co-n 

— op —cop — x x 4- — x o- r ip. o 4- o. ic To tc o — c To i;c7. V - 1 4- ceo — ppx p-fp-'^ci ^Pcfi^i*"- 
-j to — b. — tc 00 00 4- V p co 00 i c *— '- - b- *— x '10*0.0^*10 '-I'ro co to to*— ' t-*-br 4-"*-^ b 4* -t'co cobs -1 cs'-j. to cs 4- *p o p br 4- 

co co cs o- 1 c co — x o. x isxr-Mi 10 v - 1 00 j. co o 4- 00 Co _• co x to 4 1 -0004.4* CO ~ x — 0; OO — Ut CO -( 

4- o co o x co -1 r— co tc x - tc 4* o ;; x to -t co CO O CO to OS .— Ol Ot -4 4* Xj ^ o c;t to CC o tc O H 0i CO vt "- 1 h- 1 Ol *4 CO CO H 



CO *x *- 1 *0> * 
CO X -1 SO t 



X O ~ p. p* ~ V' COpppp CO ppp 4-ptO 10 CO CO p CO tOp COCO -1 p. p ^ M- J v-* v- 1 ^ —» M H-* 

, co o *— - * c co x 'x x 'o bo -0 'x t o bo co i o to b -0 b> 1 o "co c x co 00 co b. *oo *u co co "0 4- co - 1 b b' *— • > o co '— 1 

1 -o o ic tc -1 c* o r, c c v* c- 00 cc ■ — — 4- - o tc — x .*- c;' — r: o. — 4- -- o c ic x t c 4- co 00 i-«- >-> i- 

, -I — -— yZ,' (OO ,-t-Pf-p- P p /'/'■" Xp pp 4-OH -I p 4* Xj O — p CO p 4- -I 4- tOp-lp OtUtJ 

-"to co os o'tPto b io b- co b' to - t o b b- b* */■ tob'4- 

. 4- co jt CO co -i O co p p. o- p C' c~s os 4- o Of CO qs ' " 



5 CO O O wt Xj Xj : 




O- Os - 1 O CO — 

0NOMOU 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



X. STATISTICS OF COINAGE. 



1. Deposits for Coinage, at the 
Mint of the United States and its 
Branches, in the Year 1850. 


2. Coinage of the Mint of the United 
States and its Branches, in the 
Year 1850. 


GOLD. 


$9,996 

1,303,740 

36,93S,314 

113,110 


$38,365,160 
1,939,041 


Denominations.. Pieces. Value. 


Denominations. 


Pieces. 


Value. 


Coins of U. S., old stand. 


GOLD. | 


$26,225,220 00 

3,4S9,5I0 00 

860,160 00 

895,542 50 

511,301 00 


Gold & Copper 

SILVER. 

Half Dollars.. 
Quar. Dollars . 

Half Dimes . . 


7,268,420 

47,500 

2,683,0(10 

602,S00 

2,441,500 

1,045,000 




United Slates Bullion.. 

Foreign Bullion 

Total of Gold 

SILVER. 

United States Bullion. . 


Half Eagles.. 
Quar. Eagles 

Total Gold . . 

COPPER. 

Half Cents . . 
Total Copper 


I,311,Zbl 

348.951 
172,1 132 
358,219 
511,301 


$32,026,200 


$269,253 

143,192 

1,526,596 


47,500 

1,341,500 

150,700 

244,150 




2,701,764 

4,426,844 
39,812 


$31,9S1,733 50 

44,26S 44 
199 56 




82,2S0 








14,5S8,220 






$40,304,201 


$33,892,301 






4,566,656 


$44,467 50 





3. Coinage of the Mint of the United States, from 1792, including the Coinage of the Branch 
Mints, from the Commencement of their Operations, in 1838. 





Gold. 


Silver. 


Copper. 


WHOLE COINAGE. 




JNo. ol Pieces. 


Value. 


1793 95 


$71,435 00 
102,727 50 
103,422 50 
205,610 00 
213.2S5 00 
817,760 00 
422,570 00 
423.310 00 
25S,377 50 
25S,642 50 
170,367 50 
324.505 00 
437,495 00 

254.665 00 
169,375 00 
501.435 00 . 
497.905 00 
290.435 00 
477.140 00 

77,270 00 
3,175 00 

242,940 00 

258,615 00 
1,319,030 00 

189,326 00 
SS.9S0 00 
72,426 00 
93,200 00 

156,3S5 00 
92,245 00 

131.666 00 
140.145 00 
295,717 50 
643,105 00 
714,270 00 
798,435 00 
97S,550 00 

8,954,270 00 
2,156,175 00 
4,135,700 00 
1,14S,305 00 
1,S09,595 00 
1.355,SS5 00 
1,675,302 50 
1,091,597 50 
1.S34,170 50 
8,108,797 50 
2,230 00 
3.756,447 50 
4.034,177 00 

20,221,335 00 
3,775,512 50 
9,007,761 50 

31,931,733 50 


$370,6S3 80 

79,077 50 

12,591 45 

330,291 00 

423,515 00 

224,296 00 

74,75S 00 

58.343 00 

87,118 00 

100,340 50 

149.338 50 

471,319 00 

597.44S 75 

6S4.300 00 

707,376 00 

638,773 50 

608,340 00 

814,029 50 

620.951 50 

56l!6S7 50 

17.308 00 

28.575 75 

607,783 50 

1,070,464 50 

1,140,000 00 

601.6S0 70 

825,762 45 

805,806 60 

S95.560 00 

1,752,477 00 

1.564.563 00 

2,002.090 00 

2.869,200 00 

1.575,600 00 

1,994,578 00 

2,495,400 00 

3.175,600 00 

2.579,000 00 

2.759.000 00 

3.415.002 00 

3.443.003 00 
3,6u6.100 00 
2.096,010 00 
2,333.2-13 00 
2.189,296 00 
1.726.703 00 
1.132,750 00 
2.332.750 00 
8,S34.75i 00 
2.235.55U 00 
1,873.200 00 
2,558,530 00 
2.374.450 00 
2,040.050 00 
2,114,950 00 
1,866,100 00 


$11,373 00 

10,324 40 

9,510 34 

9,797 00 

9,106 6S 

29,279 40 

13,62S 37 

34.422 83 

25,203 03 

12,844 94 

13,4S3 48 

6,260 00 

9,652 21 

13,000 00 

8,001 53 

15.660 00 

2,495 95 

10,755 00 

4,180 00 

3,578 30 

28,209 82 
39,484 00 
31,670 00 
26,710 00 
44,075 50 
3.S90 00 
20,728 89 

12,620 00 
14,926 00 
16.344 25 
23,557 32 
25,636 24 
16,5S0 00 
17,115 00 
33.603 60 
23,620 00 
28,160 00 
19,151 00 
39.489 00 
23,100 00 
65,583 00 
63,702 00 
31.256 61 
24.627 00 
15.973 67 
23,883 90 
24.233 20 
23,987 52 
3S.948 04 
41,20S 00 
61.836 69 
64,157 99 
41,984 32 
44,467 50 


1,834,420 

1,219.370 

1,095,165 

1,868,241 

1,365.681 

3,337,972 

1,571.390 

3.6I5.S69 

2,780.830 

2.046,839 

2.260,361 

1,815,409 

2.731,345 

2,935,888 

2,861,834 

3,056,418 

1,649,570 

2,761,646 

1.755,331 

1,838,859 

69,867 

2,888,135 

5,163,967 

5,587.084 

5,074,723 

6.492,509 

3.139,249 

3,S1 3,788 

2.166.485 

4,7S6.894 

5J 75,760 

5,774.434 

9,097,S45 

6.196,853 

7.674,501 

8.357.191 

11.792,284 

9.128,387 

10.307.790 

11,637,648 

15.996 342 

13.719.333 

13.010,721 

15,780,311 

11,811.594 

10,558.240 

8,S11.968 

11,743,153 

4,640,5S2 

9.051,334 

1.806.196 

Hl.133,515 

15,392.344 

12.649.790 

12.666.659 

14,558,220 


$453,541 80 


1796 


192,129 40 


1797 


125,524 29 


1798 


545,698 00 


1799 


645.906 68 


1800 


671.335 40 


1801 

1802 


510,956 37 

516,075 83 


1S03 


370,693 53 
371.327 94 


1804 


1Sii6 


333,239 48 
801,084 00 


1S06 


1807 


1,044,595 96 


1808 


982,055 00 


lSi.9 


8S4.752 53 


1810 


1,155.868 50 


1S11 


1,108,740 95 


1812 


1,115,219 50 


1813 


1,102,275 50 


1S14 


642,535 80 


1815 


20,483 00 


1816 


56,785 57 


1317 


647.267 50 


1818 


1,345.064 50 


1819 


1,425,325 00 


1820 


1.864,786 20 


1821 


1,018,977 46 
915.509 89 


1822 


1823 


967,975 00 


1824 


1.858.297 00 


1825 


1,735,894 00 


1826 


2,110.679 25 


1827 


3,024,342 32 


1828 


1,741.381 24 
-2,306.875 50 
3,155.620 00 
3,923.473 60 


1S29 


1S30 


1S31 .. 


1S32 


3,401,1 55 00 


1833 


3 765.710 00 


1884 


7,3^8 423 00 
5.668,667 00 
7,764.900 00 


1S35 


1S36 


1837 


3,299.898 00 
4.2i 16 640 00 


1S3S 


1S39 


3,576 467 61 


1S40 


3.426,632 50 


1841 


2,240,321 17 
4.190.754 40 


1842 


1S43 


11 967 830 70 


1344 


7.6S7.767 52 


1S45 


5.66S,595 54 

6,633.965 00 

22 657 671 69 


1S46 


1S47 


1S4S 


6,879,720 49 


1S49 


11.164,695 82 


1850 


33,892,301 00 








$117,330,935 00 


$77,447,564 90 


$1,296,21 102 


370,536,129 


$195 074 710 92 



SO 



STATISTICAL GAZETTEER 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 



AAR 



ACK 



Aaeonsbitbg, p. v., Centre co., Perm,. : on Elk cr., 51 m. 
N. W. Harrisburg. Pop. 226. 

AaboX's Eun, p. o., Montgomery co., Ky. : on a small 
tributary of Licking r., 49 m. E. Frankfort. 

Abbebyille, p. v., La Fayette co., Miss. : 156 m. N. N.W. 
Jackson. 

Abbeville district, S. Car. Situate W., and contains 960 
sq. m. The Savannah washes its S. TV. and the Saluda its 
N. E. borders, while numerous streams, tributary to these 
rivers, drain the interior. The surface is agreeably variega- 
ted by hill and dale, and a considerable part of the soil is rich 
and fertile. The products are chiefly Indian corn and cot- 
ton. Farms 1,S14; mannf. 156 ; dwell. 2,391, and pop — 
wh. 12,693, fr. col. 363, si. 19,262— total, 32.318. Capital: 
Abbeville. Public Works : Abbeville Branch E. E. 

Abbeville, p. v., and cap. Henry co. Ala. : on a branch 
of Tattayabba cr., 86 m. S. TV. Montgomery ; it contains a 
C. H. and other public buildings. The " Abbeville Ban- 
ner*' is issued weekly. Pop. 327. 

Abbeville, p. v., and cap. Abbeville dist, S. Car. : near 
the centre of the district, 90 m. TV. Columbia : it contains a 
C. H., a jail, an arsenal, a magazine, and several stores. 
The " Abbeville Banner" is issued weekly. A branch of 
the Greenville and Columbia E. E. terminates at this point. 

Abbeville, p. v., Vermillion par., La. : on TV. side Ver- 
million r., 169 m. TV. S. TV. of Baton Eouge. 

Abbeyville, p. v., Medina co., Ohio : 109 m. N. E. Co- 
lumbus. 

Abbot, t., and p. o., Piscataquis co., Me. : on Piscataquis 
r., 54 m. N. Augusta. 

Abbott's Ceeek, p. o., Davidson co., If. Car. : on a cr. 
of the same name, 94 m. TV. Ealeigh. 

Abbottstown, p. v., Adams co., Penn. : on Beaver cr., 
42 m. S. S. TV. Harrisburg. 

Abbottsvtlle, p. v., Darke co., Ohio : 94 m. TV. Colum- 
bus. 

Abb's Valley, p. o., Tazewell co., Virg. : at the head 
of Tug fork of Sandy r., 223 m. TV. S. TV. Eichmond. 

Aberdeen, p. v., Monroe co., Miss. : TV. side Tombigbee 
r., 142 m. N. E. Jackson. Two newspapers, the " Monroe 
Democrat," and the " Independent," are issued weekly. 

Abeedees, p. v., Brown co., Ohio: on Ohio r., opposite 
Mayaville, Ky., S6 m. S. S. TV. Columbus. Pop. 807. 

Abeefoil, p. v., Macon co., Ala. : on a head cr. of Pea 
r., S4 m. E. S. E. Montgomery. 

Abe Speing, p. o., Calhoun co., Fktr. : 71 m. S. TV. Tal- 
lahassee. 

Abingdon, p. v., Lake co., Itt. : on Des Plaines r., 208 
m. N. E. Springfield. 

Abingdon, p. v., Harford co., Md. : on TV. side Bush cr., 
87 m. N. N. E. Annapolis. 

Abingdon, p. v., and cap. TVashington co., Virg. : on a 



cr. of Holston r., 252 m. TV. S. TV. Eichmond. It contains 
the county buildings, several factories and stores, and about 
300 dwellings. Two newspapers, the "Democrat" and 
" Virginian." are issued weekly. 

Abington, p. v., TVindham co., Conn. : S. of and near 
Mashamugit br. of Quinnebaug r., 42 m. E. N. E. Hart- 
ford. 

Abington, p. t, "Wayne co., Ind. : on TV. bank of E. 
fork of White r., 56 m. E. Indianapolis. 

Abington, t. and p. v., Plymouth co., Mass. : on Old 
Colony E. E., 19 m. S. Boston. The people are chiefly en- 
gaged in shoemaking. Pop. 5,269. 

Abington, p. t., Montgomery co., Penn. : 94. m. E. Har- 
risburg. 

Abington Centee, p. v., Lucerne co., Penn. : (see TVa- 
veely). 

Aboite, t and p. v., Allen co., Ind. : on Aboite cr. of 
Little r., 96 m. N. N. E. Indianapolis. 

Abeahamtown, p. v., Marion co., Flor. 

Abkam's Plains, p. o., Granville co., If. Car. : 48 m. N. 
Ealeigh. 

Abscota, p. v., Calhoun co., Mich. : 38 m. S. Lansing. 

Abseotm, p. v., Atlantic co., N. Jer. : on Absecum cr., 2 
m. above the bay, and 61 m. S. S. W. Trenton. 

Academia, p. v., Knox co., Tenn. : on Bullrun cr. of 
Clinch r., 153 m. W. Nashville. 

Academia, p. v., Juniata co., Penn. : 31 m. TV. Harris- 
burg. 

Academy, p. o., Ontario co., If. T.: 180 m. TV. Albany. 

Accatink, p. v., Fairfax co., Virg. : 93 m. N. Eich- 
mond. 

Accident, p. v., Alleghany co., Md. : on Voughiogeny 
r., 2 m. below Pennsylvania line, and 168 m. W. N. W. An- 
napolis. 

Accomac county, Virg. Situate on E. shore of Chesa- 
peake Bay, and contains 480 sq. m. Several islands in the 
adjacent waters belong to this county. Surface level, and 
soil mostly sandy. Corn and oats are the chief products, 
and some small quantity of cotton is grown. Farms 1,007 ; 
manuf. 17 ; dwell. 2,540, and pop.— wh. 9,742, fr. col. 3,161, 
si. 4,987— total, 17,890. Capital : Accomac C. H. 

Accomac Couht-house, p. v., and cap. Accomac co., 
Virg : near the centre of the peninsula, so called Dkum- 
mondstown. 

Accoed, p. v., Ulster co., If. T. : on Eondout cr., 64 m. 
S. S. W. Albany. 

Achob, p. v., Columbiana co., Ohio : 132 m. E. N. E. Co- 
lumbus. 

Ackwobth, p. v., Cobb co., Oa. : 92 m. N. TV. Milledge- 
ville. 

Ackwobth, t. and p. v., Sullivan co., If. Hanvp. : on N. 
side of Cold r., and 36 m. W. Concord. Pop. 1,251. 

81 



ACQ 



ADD 



Acqttackanonck, t. and p. v., Passaic co., Jf. Jer. : 
at head of navigation of Passaic r., 61 m. N. E. Trenton. 
Acqutnton, p. v., King "William co., Virg. 
Acea, p. v., Greene co., 2T. Y: SI m. S. S. W. Albany. 
Acton, p. t, York co., Me. : near the head waters of Sal- 
mon Falls r., 80 m. S. W. Augusta. Pop. 1,359. 

Acton, t and p. v., Middlesex co., Mass. : on N. of Stow 
r., 23 m. N. W. Boston. Pop. 1,605. 

Acton Coenee, p. o., York co., Me. : 83 m. S. W. Au- 
gusta. 

Ada, t. and p. v., Kent co., Mich. : at the junction of 
Thorn Apple and Grand rivers, 48 m. W. S. W. Lansing. 

Adates, p. v., Nachitoches par., La. : on a cr. of Spanish 
Lake, 148 m. W. N. W. Baton Eouge. 

Adaie county, Ky. Situate S. centrally, and contains 
440 sq. m. Drained by affluents of Green and Cumberland 
rivers. Surface hilly and broken ; soil various, but of av- 
erage fertility. Wheat, corn, oats, and tobacco are the prin- 
cipal products, and some cotton. Farms 1,010 ; manuf. 19 ; 
dwell. 1,513, and pop.— wh. 2,283, fr. col. 10S, si. 1,707— total, 
9,898. Capital: Columbia. 

Adate county, Mo. Situate N. E., and contains 560 sq. 
m. Brained by the head waters of numerous rivers flow- 
ing to the Mississippi, and by Chariton r., which passes 
thrbugh it. Surface level, and chiefly prairie or bottoms : 
soils fertile. Farms 326 ; manuf. 5 ; dwell. 3S3, and pop. 
— wh. 2,283, fr. col. 8, si. 51— total, 2,342. Capital : Kirks- 
ville. 

Adate county, la. Situate S. TV., and contains 576 sq. m. 
Taken from Pottowottamie in 1851. 

Adaiesvtlle, p. v., Cass co., Ga. : on N. W. of county, 
and 133 m. N. W. Milledgeville. 

Adaiebvtlle, p. v., Logan co., Ky. : on E. side Whip- 
poorwffl cr., 164 m. W. S. W. Frankfort 

Adams count}', HI. Situate W. on Mississippi r., and con- 
tains 760 sq. m. Drained by Bear cr. and several streams 
tributary to the Illinois. Surface level or undulating — 
chiefly prairie : 6oils very rich, producing wheat, Indian 
corn, oats, etc., abundantly, and some tobacco. Farms 
2,294 ; manuf. US ; dwell. 4,459, and pop.— wh. 26,370, fr. col. 
138— total, 26,508. Capital: Quincy. 

Adams county, Ind. Situate N. E., and contains 336 sq. 
m. It is drained in the N. by St Mary's r., and in the S. 
by the "Wabash. Surface generally level, but near the riv- 
ers undulating, mostly covered with timber. Soil marly 
clay, and very fertile, producing large quantities of wheat, 
Indian corn, and hay ; and horses, cattle, and hogs are ex- 
ported. Farms 576; manuf. 11; dwell. 1,002, and pop. — 
wh. 5,7S9, fr. col. 8 — total, 5,797. Capital : Decatur. 

Adams county, la.- Situate S. W., and contains 432 sq. m. 
Taken from Pottowottamie in 1S51. 

Adams county, Miss. Situate S. W. on Mississippi r., and 
contains 44S sq. m. Drained by the Homochito r. and oth- 
er streams. Surface moderately hilly, except in the neigh- 
borhood of the river, where there are extensive alluvial 
tracts. Indian corn and cotton are the principal pro- 
ducts. Farms 136 ; manuf. 15 ; dwell. 900, and pop. — wh. 
3,952, fr. col. 255, si. 14,415— total, 1S,622. Capital : Wash- 
ington. Public Works : Natchez and Malcolm E. E. 

Adams county, Ohio. Situate S. on Ohio r., and contains 
560 sq. m. Drained chiefly by Brush cr. Surface some- 
what hilly, and the soils of average fertility. The principal 
products are wheat, Indian corn, and oats. Iron ore of fine 
quality is found in this county. Farms 1,509 ; manuf. 26 ; 
dwell. 3,205, and pop.— wh. 18,828, fr. col. 55— total, 18,8S3. 
Capital : "West Union. 

Adams county, Penn. Situate S., and contains 52S sq. 
m. Drained by Conewaga cr. and the head waters of Mo- 
nocacy r. Surface uneven, and soils fertile. "Wheat, In- 
dian corn, and oats are the chief products. Farms 1,902 ; 
manuf. 124 ; dwell. 4,3S6, and pop.— wh. 25,426, fr. col. 555 
—total, 25,9S1. Capital : Gettysburg. 

An»t« county, Wise. Situate centrally, and contains 
82 



2,376 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Wisconsin r., which 
runs through it. Surface undulating and, well wooded 
with a soil of great fertility. Farms — ; dwell. 40, and pop. 
187. Capital : 

Adams, p. v., Irwin co., Ga. : 86 m. S. Milledgeville. 

Adams, t and p. v., Berkshire co., Mass. : on Hoosic r., 
191 m. N; 27. W. Boston. Pop. 6,172. 

Adams, t and p. v., Hillsdale co., Mich. : 62 m. S. Lansing. 

Adams, p. v., Adams co., HI. : 84 m. W. Springfield. 

Adams, t and p. v., Jefferson co., K.Y.: on Sandy cr., 146 
m. W. 27. W. Albany. The Watertown and Eome E. E. runs 
by the village. Pop. of t. 3,106. 

Adams, t. and p. v., Seneca co., Ohio : on a cr. of San- 
dusky r., 84 m. 27. Columbus. Pop. 1,416. 

Adams, p. v., and cap. Sauk cq., Wise. : on Baraboo r.,42 
m. 27. W. Madison. 

Adams, p. v., Walworth co., Wise, : 61 m. S. E. Madison. 

Adams Bases, p. v., Monroe co., M Y. : on Erie Canal, 
198 m. W. Albany. 

Adamsbttcg, p. v.", Westmoreland co., Perm. : on a cr. 
of Youghiogeny r., and near the Pennsylvania E. E., 146 
m. W. Harrisburg. Pop/307. 

ADAMSBtrEG, p. v., Gasconade co., Mo. : on Au Bceuf r., 
36 m. E. Jefferson City. 

Adams' Centee, p. v., Jefferson co., IT. Y. : 144 m. W. 
Albany. 

Adams' Mills, p. o., Pulaski co., Ky. : 81 m. S. E. Frank- 
fort. 

Adams' Mills, p. v., Muskingum co., Ohio : on Ohio Ca- 
nal, 61 m. W. Columbus. 

Adams' Bun, p. o., Colleton dist., S. Car. 

Adamstown, p. v., Frederick co., Md, : on Monocacy 
r., 59 m. 27. W. Annapolis. 

Adamstowt*, p. v., Lancaster co., Perm, : at the head of 
Conestoga cr., 43 m. E. Harrisburg. 

Adamsvtlle, p. v., Franklin co., Mass. : 79 m. W. Boston. 

Adamsvtlle, p. v., Cass co., Mich. : on Christiana r., 6S 
m. S. W. Lansing. 

Adamsville, p. v., Muskingum co., Ohio : 59 m. E. Co- 
lumbus. 

Adamsvtlle, p. v., Crawford co., Perm, : 216 m. 27. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Adamsvtlle, p. v., Morgan co., Ky. : 98 m. E. Frankfort 

Adamsvtlle, p. v., M'27airy co., Term, : 119 m. S. W. 
Nashville. 

Adamsvtlle, p. v., Newport co., P. I. 

Adamsvtlle, p. v., Washington co., K. Y. : 48 m. N. Al- 
bany. 

Adaeio, p. v., Eichland co., Ohio : 69 m. N. N. W. Co- 
lumbus. 

Addison county, Verm. Situate W. on Lake Cham- 
plain, and contains 724 sq. m. Drained by Otter cr. and 
Mad and White rivers. Surface finely variegated by hill 
and dale. In the E. it is mountainous, and the soils good, 
especially those near the lake and rivers. A beautiful white 
marble is quarried at Middlebury. Wheat, Indian corn, 
and potatoes are the chief products. Farms 2,292 ; manuf. 
157 ; dwell. 4,679, and pop.— wh. 25,426, fr. col. 108— total, 
26,549. Capital : Middlebury. Public Works : Eutland and 
Burlington E. E. 

Addison, p. v., Washington co., Wise. : 54 m. E. Madison. 

Addison, p. v., Du Page eo., III. : 16S m. N. W. Spring- 
field. 

Addison, t and p. v., Steuben co., K. Y. : on Canisteo r., 
179 m. W. 8. W. Albany. Pop. 3,721. 

Addison, p. v., Gallia co., Ohio: on Ohio r., 89 m. S. E. 
Columbus. 

Addison, t and p. v., Somerset co., Penn. : on the Youghi- 
ogeny r., 2 m. from State line, and 13S m. W. S. W. Harris- 
burg. 

Addison, t and p. v., Addison co., Verm. : near Lake 
Champlain, and 46 m. W. N. W. Montpelier. Pop. 1,279 

Addison Point, p. o., Washington co., Me. 



ADE 



ALA 



Adeline, p. v., Ogle co., El. : on Leaf r., a tributary of 
Rock r., 179 ni. N. Springfield. 

Adell, p. v., and cap. Dallas co., la. : on Raccoon cr. of 
Des Moines r., 1S2 m. "W. Iowa City. 

Adelpiii, p. v., Boss co., Oliio : on a cr. of Scioto r., 37 
m. S. S. "W. Columbus. 

Adirondack, p. v., Essex co., AT Y. : near the sources of 
Adirondack r., 1,S00 feet above the ocean, and famous for 
the deposits of magnetic iron ore in its vicinity; 95 m. 
X. N. W. Albany. 

Adirondack mountains, AC Y. : a cluster of mountains 
S. "W. of Lake Champlain. Mt. Marcy, one of the peaks, is 
5,467 feet high, and there are others ranging from 8,000 to 
5,000 feet. In general altitude they are little inferior to the 
"White Mountains of New Hampshire, and, like them, abound 
with the most magnificent scenery. 

Adirondack river, JK Y. : one of the head branches of 
the Hudson r., rising in the Adirondack mts. It is about 20 
miles long, and flows through lakes Henderson and San- 
ford, which are 1,900 feet above the ocean. 

Admiralty Inlet, Oreg. : an inlet or natural canal of 
Puget's Sound, in the N. "W. part of the Territory, and 
emptying into the Straits of San Juan de Fuca. 

Adolph, p. v., Chatham co., A 7 ! Car. 

Adrian, p. v., and cap. Lenawee co., Mich. : at the junc- 
tion of Beaver cr. and Raisin r., and on the Southern R. R., 
S6 m. S. E. Lansing. It is a flourishing village, with sev- 
eral mills and factories. Two newspapers are issued, the 
"Watch-Tower," weekly, and the "Family Favorite," 
monthly. Pop. of t 3,009. 

Adriaxce, p. v., Dutchess CO., 2T. Y. : on the Hopewell 
settlement, 79 m. S. Albany. 

Agamenticus mountain, Me. : three elevations in Tork 
co., 4 m. from the sea, and a noted landmark. The high- 
est summit has an elevation of 673 feet. 



Agawam, p. v., Hampden co., Mass* : on W. side of Con- 
necticut r., 74 m. W. Boston. It has several mills and fac- 
tories. 

Agency Citt, p. v., "Wapello co., la. : 61 m. S. W. Iowa 
City. 

Agkew's Mills, p. o., Venango co., Penn. : 168 m. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Ai, p. v., and cap. Fulton co., Ohio : 132 m. N. W. Co- 
lumbus. 

Aid, t and p. v., Lawrence co., O/tio : on Symmes cr., 
92 m. S. S. "W. Columbus. Pop. 884. 

Aiken, p. v., Barnwell dist, 8. Car. : on S. side Shaw's 
cr. of Edisto r., 54 m. S. "W. Columbia, and on the line of 
the S. Car. R. R., 120 m. W. Charleston. Pop. 800. 

Aikin's Store, p. o., Montgomery co., Ark. : 67 m. "W. S. 
"W. Little Rock. 

Air Mount, p. o., Clark co., Ala. : 102 m. "W. S. "W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Akron, p. v., Erie co., W. Y. : on Muddy cr., 264 m. "W. 
Albany. 

Akron, p. v., and cap. Summit co., Ohio: on Little Cuy- 
ahoga r., at the junction of the Ohio and Erie, and Ohio 
and Pennsylvania Canals, and at the terminus of the Akron 
branch of Pittsburg and Cleveland R. R. The village has 
numerojf industrial establishments and considerable trade. 
Two newspapers, the "Summit Beacon," and the "Free 
Democratic Standard," are issued weekly. Pop. 3,226. 

Alabama, t. and p. v., Genesee co., N. Y. : 240 m. W. Al- 
bany, on Tonawanda cr., which, in the N. W. part of the 
town, furnishes a feeder to the Erie Canal. Pop. 2,054. 

Alabama river, Ala. : is formed by the union of the 
Coosa and Tallapoosa, and flowing S. "W., it unites with 
Tombigbee r., forming Mobile r., 48 m. above Mobile Bay. 
It affords, in connection with its branches, a great line of 
interior navigation. 



THE STATE OF ALABAMA. 

Alabama is bounded on the north by Tennessee, on the east by Georgia and Florida, on the south by Florida and the 
Gulf of Mexico, and on the west by Mississippi, and extends generally between latitudes 31° and 35° north, and longi- 
tudes S5° 10' and SS° 31' west from Greenwich, or 8° 08' and 11° 29' from "Washington ; a narrow strip, however, extends 
south beyond the main body of the State between Florida and Mississippi, reaching the Gulf of Mexico, which it strikes in 
about 30° 10 7 . Its length from north to south, excluding the strip of land above mentioned, is 228 miles, and its breadth 
varies from 146 miles on the north line to 210 on the south line ; and the area of the State is 50,722 square miles. 

The north-eastern part of Alabama, being traversed by several ridges of the Alleghanies, which terminate in this State, 
is decidedly mountainous, but presents nowhere any considerable elevations. South of this mountain region the surface 
has a general declivity toward the Gulf of Mexico, first descending gradually from mountains to high hills, and then 
sinking to a vast plain, scarcely broken except by gentle swells; and the more southern portion is a dead level, but little 
above the water surface of the ocean. The southern half of the State consists of extensive prairies and pine-barrens, 
interspersed with alluvial river bottoms of great fertility ; and the lands of the centre and north are generally covered with 
a good if not a very rich and productive soil. In the valley of the Tennessee, which occupies so large an area in the northern 
part of the State, alluvion is the prevailing formation ; and the rich bottom-lands of this region are extensive, and form 
one of the richest agricultural districts within the limits of the State. 

"With the exception of the Tennessee, which takes a circular sweep through Northern Alabama, but receives no con- 
siderable tributary on its southern side, all the rivers flow into the Gulf of Mexico ; nearly the whole surface, indeed, is 
drained into one single channel, the Mobile River, which by several large arms gathers up the waters of the whole south- 
em slope, except those of a comparatively small tract in tho south-east. The Chattahoochee although a large stream, and 
washing the eastern border for more than a hundred miles, receives only a few inconsiderable streams from this State ; 
and the Choctawhatchee, Conecuh, and Perdido are, in point of size, secondary rivers. The Mobile, the great river 
of Alabama, is formed by the junction of two large rivers, the Alabama and Tombigbee, 50 miles above Mobile Bay. A 
few miles below its junction it gives out a large branch, called the Tensaw, which receives also an arm from the Alabama, 
and reaches Mobile Bay at Blakely. The Tombigbee, or Western Branch of the Mobile, is formed by the confluence of two 
large streams, the Tombigbee Proper from Mississippi, and the Black Warrior from Northern Alabama. It admits ves- 
sels drawing five or six feet of water to St. Stephens, 93 miles from the bay, and steamboats to Tuscaloosa, on the Black 
Warrior, 285 miles, and to Columbus, on the Tombigbee Proper, in Mississippi, about 800 miles. The length of this river, 
by its tortuous channel, is about 450 miles, and it is boatable almost to its sources. The Alabama, or Eastern Branch, is 
navigable for vessels of six feet draft to Claiborne, 60 miles above its junction with the Tombigbee ; 150 miles farther, to 
the mouth of the Cahawba, it has four or five feet of water, and to the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa, of which it 
is formed, it has in the shallowest parts three feet of water. Steamboats ascend it to Montgomery, 300 miles by the course 
of the river, and even to Wetumpka, on the Coosa, several miles above. The Coosa and Tallapoosa both have their rise 
in Georgia. The navigation of all these rivers, however, is interrupted during the season of low water in the summer 
months, and at best affords only a precarious means of transport for merchandise. 

The sea-coast of Alabama extends only from the Perdido to the western line of the State, a distance of some 60 miles, 
but it contains Mobile Bay, one of the largest and deepest basins on the Gulf, and the great outlet of the navigable wa- 

E 33 



ALABAMA. 



ters of the State. This fine sheet of water is about 30 miles long, and from three to 18 miles broad, and the main en 
trance has 15 feet of water at low tide, but vessels of more than eight or nine feet draft cannot approach nearer than 10 
or 11 miles from Mobile City, except at high water. Smaller vessels may go hence to New Orleans by an inland chan- 
nel through Pascagoula Sound, a long, narrow lagoon, lying between a range of low sand-islands and the mainland. 
Perdido Bay, on the south-eastern edge of the State, is of little consequence to commerce, and is, moreover, difficult of 
access, on account of the sand-bars and islands which block its entrance to the sea. 

Alabama has great mineral resources. The whole central region is underlaid with vast beds of iron ore, or occupied 
by coal measures of great thickness and extent. The coal found here is of a highly bituminous character, and well 
adapted for steamboats and factories, and being in juxtaposition with the iron ores, will greatly facilitate the progress of 
mining industry. The country in this region is also well wooded, fertile, and easily attained from all directions and in 
the succession of events must eventually become of great importance to the whole South. Bloomeries and rolling mills 
with other establishments for manufacturing iron, have already been erected, and the products of these have become 
both extensive and valuable. The principal seats of these operations are on the Cahawba and Coosa rivers. Besides 
coal and iron, Alabama yields lead ore, manganese, several descriptions of ochres, limestone, and marbles, and in the 
north-eastern section gold in considerable quantities has been collected. Lead ore, or galena, is found in the limestone 
formation, chiefly in Benton County : it is a pure sulphuret and granular, closely attached to the rock, and passes it in 
irregular bunches. The carbonate is also found, and in its neighborhood there are veins of calx spar and sulphate of 
barytes. Manganese oeaurs also in the limestone region, and has been used in the manufacture of chloride of lime. The 
ochres occur chiefly near Bucksville, and the red ochre found here is sufficiently rich to be used as an ore of iron. The 
marbles found in this State occur most plentifully on the Cahawba, and many of the beds afford specimens of Teat 
beauty : some are gray, with red veins ; others are red and yellow, and specimens with greenish veins are not uncom- 
mon. There is also a buff-colored marble, filled with organic remains, and beds of white crystalline marble, clouded 
with red, occur. Black marble is also abundant. The compactness and thickness of these formations are such as to 
elicit a favorable opinion of their value, and cause them to be looked upon with great interest in connection with the 
industrial resources of the State. The resources of Alabama, however, have never been thoroughly examined • but 
there can be little doubt, taking the present knowledge of its mineral deposits as an index, that the researches now bein°- 
instituted, will result in farther and more valuable disclosures of a vast wealth of mineral within its borders and be the 
means of placing the State in the first rank of mineral-producing districts. 

The soil, climate, and vegetation of Alabama vary with the position and elevation of its several parts. In the north, 
where mountain is the prevailing feature, the soil is but moderately fertile, but in the intervales there is much that cannot 
be excelled. The climate is here moderate, and the vegetation hardy: it is the region of the cereals, and a fine grazing 
country. The central parts of this State, less elevated and undulating, are well watered, and in the river-bottoms the 
land is extremely rich and productive. The valley of the Alabama is one of the most fertile regions of the Union. In 
the south the climate is very warm, the soils rich, but with great exceptions, and the principal growths of a tropical char- 
acter. The sugar-cane has been found to succeed well in the extreme southern strip between Florida and Mississippi 
and indigo was formerly raised in considerable quantities; rice, also, grows well in the alluvial bottoms near the Gulf • 
but cotton, which thrives throughout the State, is the great agricultural staple. The natural growths and animals are in 
no way different from those of the neighboring States on the Gulf of Mexico. The most common of animals is the deer 
and the country abounds in turkeys, partridges, geese, ducks, and various other species of smaller game ; and fish in 
abundance may be taken in the rivers and1)ays. 

Alabama was comprised within the limits of Georgia until 1802, when that State ceded her lands west of Chattahoochee 
river to the United States ; and in 1S17 Alabama was separated from Mississippi, and erected into a Territory • in 1820 
it was admitted into the Union as an independent State. In 1810 the population was scarcely 10,000, but since then its 
growth has been extremely rapid, there having been a constant tide of immigration, chiefly planters, from the Atlantic 
States, In 1S20 it contained 127,901 inhabitants; in 1S30, 309,527; in 1S40, 590,756; and in 1850, 771,671, of which 
426,507 were white persons, 2,272 free colored, and 842,S92 slaves. 

In 1S50 the State was divided into two districts, the "Northern" and the "Southern." The Northern District com- 
prised the counties of Benton, Blount, Cherokee, De Ealb, Fayette, Franklin, Hancock, Jackson, Jefferson, Lauderdale, 
Lawrence, Lewistown, Madison, Marion, Marshall, Morgan, St. Clair, and "Walker ; and the Southern District, the coun- 
ties of Autauga, Baldwin, Barbour, Bibb, Butler, Chambers, Choctaw, Clarke, Coffee, Conecuh, Coosa, Covington, Dale, 
Dallas, Green, Henry, Lowndes, Macon, Marengo, Mobile, Monroe, Montgomery, Perry, Pike, Pickens, Eandolph, Pus- 
sell, Shelby, Sumter, Talladega, Tallapoosa, Tuscaloosa, "Wilcox, and "Washington. The 18 counties in the north con- 
tained 214,666 inhabitants, of which 151,690 were whites, 495 free colored, and 62,4S1 slaves ; and the 34 counties in the 
south, 557,005, of which 274,817 were whites, 1,777 free colored, and 2S0,411 slaves. Deaf and dumb, in the whole 
State, 211 ; blind, 30S ; insane, 245, and idiotic, 505. 

Alabama is principally engaged in agricultural pursuits ; but it has also an increasing manufacturing interest, and a ' 
flourishing commerce. Its principal agricultural staples are cotton and sugar ; and its chief manufactures are coarse 
cotton fabrics, iron, machinery, agricultural implements, carriages, etc. The statistics of its various interests in 1850 
•were as follows : 

Occupied Lands, etc. — Improved lands, 4,435,614 acres, and unimproved, 7,702,067 acres, valued at $64,323,224. 
Number of farms, 41,964. Value of farming implements and machinery, $5,125,663. 

Live Stock.— Horses, 120,001 ; asses and mules, 59.S95 ; milch cows, 227,291 ; working oxen, 66,961 ; other cattle, 
433,263 ; sheep, 371,8S0 ; and swine, 1,904.540— valued at $21,690,112. 

Prod-nets.— "Wheat, 294,044 bushels; rye, 17,261; Indian corn, 2S,754,04S; oats, 2,965,697; barley, 3,958 ; buckwheat, 
34S ; peas and beans, 892,701 ; Irish potatoes, 246,001 ; sweet potatoes, 5,475.204 bushels ; rice, 2,311,252 pounds ; tobac- 
co, 164.990 pounds ; ginned cotton, 564,429 bales of 400 pounds ; hay, 32,685 tons ; clover seed, 13S bushels, and other 
grass seed, 547 ; hops, 276 pounds ; 'water-rotted hemp, 70 tons ; flax, 3,841 pounds ; flaxseed, 67 bushels ; maple sugar, 
643 pounds ; cane sugar, 8,242 hogsheads of 1,000 pounds ; molasses, 83,42S gallons ; wine, 220 gallons ; value of products 
of orchard, $15,40S, and of market-gardens, $S4,S21 ; beeswax and honey, 897,021 pounds ; silk cocoons, 167 pounds ; 
wool, 657,113 pounds ; butter, 4,00S,S11, and cheese, 81, 412 pounds ; and the value of animals slaughtered, $4,823,4S5. 
Home-made manufactures were valued at $1,934,120. 

Manufactures.— Aggregate capital invested, $00,000,000; value of raw material, fuel, etc, consumed, $00,000,000; 
average number of hands employed, 00,000 — males, 00,000, and females, 00,000 ; average monthly cost of male labor, 
34 



ALABAMA. 



$000,000, and of female labor, $00.000 ; annual value of products, $00,000,000. The whole number of manufacturing 
establishments, producing to the value of $500 and upward annually, was 1,022 — in the north, 341, and in the south, 6S1 ; 
and of these, 12 were cotton factories, using 5,20S bales of cotton ; 10 were engaged in manufacturing castings, 3 in 
the manufacture of pig-iron, and 1 in that of wrought iron. Capital employed in cotton factories, $651,900; value of all 
raw material, $237.081 ; average number of hands — 316 males, and 369 females ; wages, per month— to males, $4,053, 
and to females, $2,946 ; value of products for the year, $3S2,260, the products being 3,081,000 yards sheeting, etc, and 
790,000 lbs. yam. Capital employed in cast-iron manufacture, $216,625 ; value of raw material, $102,085 ; hands employed, 
212, at average wages $30 05 per month ; castings made, 1,915 tons ; value of all products, $271,126. The other depart- 
ments of iron making— the manufactures of pig iron and wrought iron are comparatively insignificant ; of the first, 522 
tons were manufactured ; and of the latter, 100 tons during the year. The remaining branches of the industrial pursuits 
of Alabama are generally such as are required in an agricultural country. In Mobile, and some of the larger interior 
towns, however, there are large mechanic and machine shops, carriage factories, etc. 

Foreign Commerce and Navigation — Exports. — Domestic produce, in American vessels, $4,601,515, and in foreign 
vessels, $5,943,343, or a total of $10,544,S58. Imports— in American vessels, $10S,134, and in foreign vessels, $757,228, or 
a total of $S65,362. Shipping employed in the foreign carrying trade : Entrances, 152 vessels, and 96,020 tons, with 
crews of 4,234 men, and 217 boys; of which, 40 vessels and 11,914 tons, with crews of 431 men and 13 boys, American; 
and, Clearances, 1S2 vessels, and 112,9S5 tons, with crews of 4,639 men and 281 boys — of which, 76 vessels, and 32,26S 
tons, with crews of 933 men and 41 boys, American. Mobile is the only port open to the foreign trade. Shipping 
owned within the state, 24,157 tons — of which, 1,405 tons, is registered "permanent," and 5,99S tons registered " tempo- 
rary;" 16,003 tons is enrolled and licensed "permanent," and 751 tons is "licensed under 20 tons." The shipping 
navigated by steam is 12,02S tons, chiefly employed on the rivers. During the year, three schooners of 113 tons were 
built. The following table will exhibit the movement of foreign commerce in this State, from 1818 to 1851 : 



Years. Exports. Imports. 

1S18 $96,357 $ 

1S19 50,906 '■ 

1S20 96.686 

1521 108,960 

1322 209,74S 36,421 

1823 200,387 125,770 

1324 460,727 91,604 

1S25 692,635 113,411 

1826 1,527,112 179,554 

1S27 1,376,364 201,909 

1323 1,1S2,559 171,909 



Tears. Exports. Imports. 

1S29 $1,693,958 $233,720 

1S30 2,294,954 144,823 

1831 2,413,S94 224,435 

1832 2,736,337 107,737 

1S33 2,527,961 265,918 

1834 5,670,797 395,361 

1835 7,574,692 525,955 

1336 11,184,166 651,618 

1S37 9,671,401 609,385 

1S33 9,6SS,244 524,543 

1839 



Years. Exports. Imports. 

1840 .... ..$12,854,694 $574,651 

1841 10,981,271 530,819 

1842 9,965,675 363,S71 

1843 11,157,460 360,655 

1S44 9,907,654 442,818 

1845 

1846 5,260,317 259,607 

1847 9,054,580 390,161 

1848 11,927,749 419,396 

1349 12,S23,725 657,147 

1850 10,544,858 865,362 



Internal Trade and Commimication. — The greater part of Alabama as yet depends on wagons over common earth 
roads, for the transportation of its productions and supplies; and those places distant from the rivers and railroads are 
consequently almost isolated from the commercial world. The river navigation, however, is extensive, in its various 
courses measuring at least 2,000 miles. The great body of the products of the State find their way to Mobile, the commer- 
cial emporium ; some are shipped by the Chattahoochee, for Apalachicola, and some — but in a smaller degree — by Ten- 
nessee River, to the Ohio, whence they are conveyed to New Orleans by the Mississippi, or by way of the Illinois Canal 
and the great lakes to a northern market. The cotton crop, passing in these various channels, may be estimated at one 
seventh the whole by the Chattahoochee, one sixteenth by the Tennessee, and the remainder by the system of rivers 
centering at Mobile Bay. The progress of the State in building railroads is as yet limited ; the great line from Mobile to the 
Ohio Eiver is completed within Alabama, and is progressing in Mississippi ; the Tuscumbia and Decatur Railroad, now 
merged into the Charleston and Memphis Railroad, crosses the State in the north ; the Alabama and Tennessee River 
Railroad, 209 miles long, extends from Selma to Guntersville ; the Montgomery and West Point Railroad is 86 miles long, 
and there are several other important lines chartered, and some in progress : these have been of comparatively small benefit 
as yet, but when opened for commerce, and their exterior connections built, the effect they will have in stimulating pro- 
duction and consumption, will be felt in every direction — the latent mineral wealth of the State will be disentombed, the 
fine cotton lands on the rivers will be entered and cultivated, mechanic trades will be demanded everywhere, and the 
whole country will experience a beneficial change in its material welfare. Besides these avenues of commerce, Alabama 
has two canals, the " Muscle Shoals Canal," and the " Huntsville Canal ;" the former 35} miles long from Florence, along 
the north bank of the Tennessee, and designed to overcome the obstruction caused by the shoals ; and the latter extend- 
ing from Triana on the Tennessee, 16 miles, to Huntsville. 

Banks. — In January, 1350, there was one bank in the State — the Bank of the State of Alabama — with branches at the 
principal points. Its aggregate condition, as published in the General Bank returns by the Federal Government, is 
exhibited in the following figures : Assets— loans and discounts, $2,116,591; stocks, $71,018; real estate, $152,601; other 
investments, $1.229,201 ; due by other banks, $928,209 ; notes of other banks, 16,029, and specie, $1,307,392 ; and KabilU 
ties— capital, $1,500,000; circulation, $2,553,368; deposits, $1,216,319; due other banks, $20,740; and other liabilities, 
$395,124. 

Government. — The Constitution provides that every white male citizen of the United States twenty-one years of age, 
» resident of the State one year, and in the county, city, or town three months next preceding, may vote for the election of 
all constitutional officers. The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is chosen by a plurality of votes for two years ; 
he must be at least thirty years of age, a citizen of the United States, and have resided in the State four years. The 
General Assembly consists of a Senate and House of Representatives : the Senate of 33 members, elected for four years, 
one half biennially, and the House of 100 members, elected for two years. The qualifications extend only to age and res- 
idence. The Assembly meets in Montgomery on the second Monday in November every second year, commencing 
1327. The Judiciary consists of a Supreme Court, with a Chief Justice and two associate Justices, a Reporter, Attorney 
General, and Clerk; a Court of Chancery, with separate chancellors for the three districts of the State; nine Circuit 
Courts, each with a Judge., Solicitor, etc. ; County, or Probate Courts, etc. The judges of the Supreme and Chancery 
Courts are elected by joint vote of both houses of the legislature for six yeare The Supreme Court has appellate juris- 

35 



ALA 



ALB 



diction only, and holds its sessions at the capital, annually, on the first Monday of January and June, for the hearing 
and determining points of law taken by appeal or writ of error from the Chancery, Circuit, and Probate Courts. The 
volumes of reported decisions are 37 in number. For chancery legislation the State is divided into 3 Divisions and 3T 
Districts in each of which at least one court is held annually. Circuit courts have jurisdiction in all civil and criminal 
cases in the State, and hold two sessions (spring and fall), in each county annually. In Mobile county criminal jurisdic- 
tion has been transferred to the Special City court of Mobile, which holds three terms each year, and has concurrent 
jurisdiction with the Circuit Courts, except in real actions. The judges of probate are also clerks of the court and re- 
gisters of deeds for their respective counties. 

Alabama, under the law regulating the distribution of Representatives to Congress, has a delegation of seven members. 

Finances.— On the 31st December, 1849, the foreign debt of the State amounted to $6,693,888 98, and the domestic debt 
to $1,845,220 99— total debt $8,539,109 97. The annual liabilities of the State are— interest on debt $418,627 70, and the 
estimated current expenses of the government $97,67S— total $516,305 70. The immediate means of the treasury on the 
1st Nov.. 1S49, were— balance from former dates $53S,792 44, taxes for 1S50 $487,9S7 48, and interest on $1,100,000 U. S. 
6 per cent, stock owned by the State $66,000 — total $1,092,779 92, from which deduct annual disbursements, and the 
balance will be $596,474 22, of which $438,016 is the amount of notes of the State bank in the treasury. The real balance 
then is $17S,458 22, which sum is morever liable for $60,000, appropriated for the rebuilding of the State House, burnt in 
Dec, 1849. The State has resources besides the U. S. stock, and the treasury balance above alluded to, amounting to 
$1,766,907 64, its interest in the State bank, etc., all which may be applied to the discharge of the public debt. 

Religious Denominations. — The statistics of the principal denominations, according to their own returns in 1850, were 
as follows : Presbyterians, S5 churches, 52 ministers, and 4,280 members ; Protestant Episcopal, 18 churches, 23 ministers, 
and 718 members ; Methodist Episcopal, 573 ministers, and 48,091 members ; Baptists, 516 churches, 302 ministers, and 
36,421 members ; Eoman Catholics, 11 churches, 20 ministers, and 9,000 members, etc. The Protestant Episcopal Church 
is under the Bishop of Alabama, and the Eoman Catholic Church under the Bishop of Mobile, the see of the latter 
including also West Florida. Besides these, the minor churches are all more or less in existence. 

Education. — Alabama has not been unmindful of the education of its citizens, and has many highly efficient educa- 
tional establishments. Besides its primary and common schools, academies, etc., which are comparatively numerous, 
there are the University of Alabama, at Tuscaloosa, founded in 1838 ; La Grange College, founded in 1S30 ; Spring Hill 
College, founded in 1S30 ; Howard College, at Marion, founded in 1S41, and others of various distinction. The Univer- 
sity had in 1S50, 9 teachers, 107 alumni, of which 16 were ministers, and 91 students — and a library of 7,123 volumes; 
the college at La Grange had 6 teachers, 111 alumni, and 70 students— and a library of 3,700 volumes ; the college at 
Spring Hill had 12 teachers and 70 students— and a library of 4,000 ; and Howard College had 5 teachers and 70 students— 
and a library of 2,450 volumes. At Marion is also located the Howard Theological Institution, under Baptist auspices, 
and there are Law and Medical Schools attached to the University. 

Periodical Press. — The whole number of periodicals published in Alabama is 61, of which 21 are whig and 23 dem- 
ocratic in their policy, and 18 are devoted to literature, science, religion, etc. ; 6 are issued daily, 4 tri-weekly, 1 semi- 
weekly, 49 weekly, and 1 semi-monthly. The circulation of the daily papers is in the aggregate 9,177 copies ; of the tri- 
weekly 550 copies ; of the semi-weekly — copies ; of the weekly 24,120 copies, and of the semi-monthly 750 copies — 
making in the aggregate about 4,230,441 copies annually. 

Montgomeby is the State capital. 



Alachua county, Flor. Situate E. centrally, and contains 
about 1,800 sq. m. Surface varied, but mostly level, and 
drained by head sources of Santa Fe r. and other streams. 
There are several lakes in the S. and E. portions, which 
communicate with St. John's r. Soil highly congenial to 
all Southern staples. Farms 233 ; dwell. 274, and pop. — 
wh. 1,617, fr. col. 1, si. 906— total, 2,524. Capital: New- 
nansville. 

Alachua savannah, Flor. : situate N. W., in E. Flor., 
and comprises a fine savannah, about 50 m. in circumfer- 
ence, without a tree or bush, but encircled with hills, cov- 
ered with forests and orange groves on a very rich soil. 
The ancient Alachua Indian town stood on the borders of 
this savannah, but the Indians removed on account of the 
unhealthiness of the locality. 

Alaledon, p. v., Ingham co., Mich. : on a cr. of Grand 
r., 12 m. S. E. Lansing. Pop. 420. 

Alamo, p. v., Montgomery co., Ind. : on a branch of 
Sugar cr., 42 m. W. N. TV. Indianapolis. 

Alamo, t. and p. v., Kalamazoo co., Mich. : on a cr. of 
Kalamazoo r., 46 m. W. S. "W. Lansing. 

Alamode, p. o., Reynolds co., Mo. : 118 m. S. S. E. Jef- 
ferson City. 

Alamtjtcha, p. v., Lauderdale co., Miss. : 92 m. E. Jack- 
son. 

Alanthtts Gbovts, p. o., Gentry co., Mo. : 161 m. N. W. 
Jefferson City. 

Alapaha, p. t., Lowndes co., Ga. : 210 m. S. Milledge- 
Yille. 

Alapaha river, Ga. : a hzanch of Suwannee r., rising in 
Dooly co., and having a S. E. and S. course to the junction 
n Hamilton co., Flor. : it is navigable for boats throughout 
its whole length of 112 m. 
36 



Alaqua, p. v., "Walton, co., Flor. : on a cr. so called, 114 
m. TV. Tallahassee. 

Alap.ka, p. v., Macon co., M Car. : 276 m. TV. S. TV. Ra- 
leigh. 

Alatamaha river, 67a. .• a navigable stream, formed by 
the union of the Ockmulgee and Oconee rivers. After a 
course of about 100 m. from the junction, flowing in a gentle 
stream through forests and plains, it empties through sev- 
eral mouths into Alatamaha Sound, 60 m. S. TV. of Savan- 
nah, and thence passes to the Atlantic Ocean. It is navi- 
gable on both branches for about 300 m. for boats of 30 tons. 
The bar at the mouth has 14 feet of water at low tide. 

Alatamaha sound, 67a. : an arm of the Atlantic, which 
receives the Alatamaha r. It contains a number of beauti- 
ful islands, which are celebrated for the production of the 
long staple cotton called Sea Island cotton. 

Alba, p. v., Bradford co., Perm. : 10S m. N. by E. Har- 
risburg. 

Albany county, K Y. Situate N. centrally on Hudson 
r., and contains 515 sq. m. Drained by Normanskill, 
Vlanianskill, Haivankrauskill, and Coeyman's cr. : the Mo- 
hawk lies on the N. border. Surface uneven — in some 
places hilly : soils mostly sandy, but near the rivers highly 
fertile. Iron, limestone, etc., abound, and there are sul- 
phur springs. Farms 2,903 ; manuf. 393 ; dwell. 12,747, and 
pop.— wh. 92,110, fr. col. 1,169— total, 93,279. Capital : Al- 
bany. Public Works : Champlain Canal ; Albany and 
Schenectady R. R. ; Albany and Binghampton R. R. ; ex- 
tensive docks, etc. 

Albany, p. city and cap. Albany co., iV. T., and legisla- 
tive capital of the State of New York : on TV. side Hudson 
r., 376 m. N. N. E. Washington, lat. 42° 39' 03" N., long. 
3° 16' 59" E. from Washington, or 73° 44' 49" W. from 



ALB 



ALB 



Greenwich. Pop. 59,771. The portion of the city on the 
river is built on a low flat, but beyond this the surface 
rises rapidly to an elevation of about 200 feet. The older 
part of the town is irregularly laid out, and several of the 
streets are narrow. The newer portions, however, are spa- 
cious and handsome, and contain fine shops and dwelling- 
houses. The public buildings, except the Exchange, are 
located on the heights, and have a commanding position, 
overlooking the vicinity. Among these, the Capitol, State 
House, and City Hall, are the most conspicuous. The 
Capitol is a large stone building, 115 feet long and 90 broad, 
fronting east on a fine park. It contains accommodations 
for the Senate and Assembly, the State Library, and nu- 
merous apartments for the use of the government. The 
State House, a fine marble building, is situate on the E. 
eide of the Park square, and accommodates the executive 
and administrative officers of the State ; and the City Hall, 
an edifice of similar material, also on the same side of the 
Park, contains the municipal offices. The Exchange is a 
large granite building at the foot of State-street. The oth- 
er public bnildings are the Albany Academy, the Medical 
College, the State Normal School, and numerous benevo- 
lent and literary institutions. The old State House, on the 
S. side of State-street, is now used as a depository for the 
geological collection made by the State surveyors. The 
city contains between 60 and 70 churches, of various de- 
nominations, many of whieh are substantial and elegant 
structures ; the streets are well lighted with gas, and wa- 
ter is supplied through iron pipes. 

There are five daily papers issued in Albany, namely, the 
"Argus" (dem.), the "Evening Journal" (whig), the "At- 
las" (dem.), the "State Eegister" (whig), and the "Ex- 
press" (neutral) j and the four first of these issue also 
weekly editions. The " Knickerbocker," the " Dutchman," 
and the " Freeholder," are issued weekly ; these are neu- 
tral in politics, and devoted chiefly to general news and lit- 
erature. All these papers are ably conducted, and enjoy a 
wide reputation. 

The manufactures of Albany are extensive and various : 
it has numerous iron works, carriage factories, type foun- 
deries, oil-cloth factories, sawing and planing machines, 
malting houses, and has long been famous for its breweries. 
The trade of the city is also large, and its commercial con- 
nections with the north and west give employment to 
thousands of its inhabitants, as merchants, store-keepers, 
laborers, etc. 

Albany is the chief entrepot of a vast internal commerce : 
its situation for such a purpose is unsurpassed. The Hud- 
son washes its shores, and it has connection by canal with 
Lake Champlain, a long line of interior counties, and with 
the Great West through Buffalo. Bailroads also extend 
hence to all points, and collect and distribute many million 
dollars' worth of property annually. The railroads center- 
ing at Albany are the Hudson Eiver E. P., the Harlem 
Extension E. E., the Western, from Boston, several others 
from the direction of Canada, the great northern chain ex- 
tending to Buffalo, and a line is about being built to Bing- 
hampton, on the Susqnehannah, which will open to the city 
the mineral treasures of Pennsylvania, and a large extent 
of fertile country intervening. 

In the season of navigation, there are also several daily 
lines of steamers to and from New York, and on an ave- 
rage 3,000 or 4,000 persons are daily carried between the 
two places, while innumerable sloops, canal boats, and tow- 
boats transport millions of tons of merchandize and pro- 
duce constituting the material of its vast commerce. Al- 
bany was originally a trading post of the Dutch, and dates 
as such from 1623. It was successively known as Beaver- 
wyk and Wilhelmstadt; but after the capitulation, in 1664, 
It obtained the name of Albany, in honor of the Duke of 
York and Albany, the proprietary of the colony. In 16S6 
it was chartered as a city. 

Albany, p. v., Baker co., Ga. : on W. side of Flint r., 118 



m. S. S. W. Milledgeville. A branch of the Brunswick and 
Florida E. E. from Thomasville to this point is projected. 

Albany, p. v., Whitesides oo., HI. : on E. bank of Mis- 
sissippi r., 188 ra. N. N. W. Springfield. 

Albany, p. v., Delaware so., Ind. : on Mississinewa r., 
60 m. N. E. Indianapolis. 

Albany, t. and p. o., Carroll co., W. Samp. : on Swift r., 
52 m. N. by E. Concord. Pop. 455. 

Albany, p. v., Caddo par. La. : 198 m. N. W. Baton 
Eouge. 

Albany, p. v., and cap. Clinton co., Ky. : on Spring cr. 
of Obey's r., 116 m. S. Frankfort. 
Albany, p. v., Green eo., Wiso. : 32 m. S. S. W. Madison. 
Albany, t. and p. o., Oxford co., Me. : an Crooked r., 48 
m. W. Augusta. Pop. 747. 

Albany, p. v., Tnsearawas eo., Ohio : 8<1 m. E. by N. Co- 
lumbus. 

Albany, p. v., Henry co., Teim. : om S. fork of Obion r., 
92 m. W. Nashville. 

Albany, t. and p. o., Berks co., Perm. : 56 m. E. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Albany, t, and p. v., Orleans co., Term. : 32 m. N. by E. 
Montpelier. Pop. 1,051. 

Albany, v., Linn co., Oreg. Ter. : on E. aide of Willa- 
mette r., 20 m. 8. Salem. 

Albemarle county, Yirg. Situate centrally on the E. 
base of Blue Eidge, and contains T04 sq. m. James r. 
washes its southern border, and the interior is chiefly 
drained by Albemarle r. and the head waters of the Eivan- 
na. Surface diversified, and the soils good. Wheat, In- 
dian corn, and tobacco are the chief products. Farms 935 ; 
manuf. 102 ; dwell. 2,022, and pop.— wh. 11,876, fr. col. 586, 
si. 13,338— total, 25,S00. Capital; Charlotteville. Public 
Works : Virginia Central E. E. and James Eiver Canal. 

Albemakle, p. v., Carroll co., Mies. : 87 m. N. by E. Jack- 
son. 

Albemarle, p. v., and cap. Stanley co., 2f. Car. : S8 m. 
W. by N. Ealeigh. 

Albemarle, p. v., Assumption par., La. : 46 m. S. by E. 
Baton Eouge. 

Albemarle sound, JV. Car. : an arm of the Atlantic, ex- 
tending 60 m. inland, and is from 4 to 15 m. wide, receiving 
the waters of Eoanoke and Chowan rivers. It communi- 
cates with Chesapeake Bay by a canal through the Dismal 
Swamp, and with Pamlico Sound and the ocean, by nar- 
row inlets. 
Albertson's, p. o., Duplin co., N. Car. : 69 m. S.E. Ealeigh. 
Albia, p. v., and cap. Monroe co., La. : on a cr. of Des 
Moines r., 78 m. S. W. Iowa City. 

Albion, p. v., and cap. Edwards co., El. : 142 m. S. E. 
Springfield. 
Albion, p. v., Providence co., R. L : 18 m. W. Providence. 
Albion, p. v., and cap. Noble co., Lnd. J on the N. side 
of Elkhart r., 120 m. N. N. E. Indianapolis. 

Albion, t and p. o., Kennebec co., Me. : 21 m. N. E. Au- 
gusta. Pop.1,604. 
Albion, t. and p. v., Dane co., Wise. : 2S m. S. E. Madison. 
Albion, t. and p. v., Calhoun co., Mich. : at the junction of 
the forks of Kalamazoo r., and on the line of the Michigan 
Central E. E"., 96 m. W. Detroit ; it is a flourishing village, 
and has considerable trade. Pop. of 1. 1,666. 

Albion, p. v., and cap. Orleans co., jf. T. : or. Erie ca- 
nal, 217 m. W. Albany. It contains a C. H., jail, and other 
co. buildings, and a convenient landing. The Eochester, 
Lockport, and Niagara Falls E. E. passes through the 
village. Three newspapers are issued weekly — the " Dem- 
ocrat," the " Eepublican," and the " American." Pop. 2,400. 
Albion, t. and p. v., Ashland co., Ohio : 6S m. N. by E. 
Columbus. 
Albion, p. v., Erie eo., Perm. : 214 m.W.N.W. Harrisburg. 
Albright's, p. o., Des Moines co., La. ; 49 m. S. Iowa City. 
Albrightsville, p. v., Carbon co., Penn. : 70 m. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

37 



ALB 



ALL 



Albuquerque, p. v., Bernallillo co., Jf. Men. : on E. side 
of Eio Grande, T6 m. S. Santa F6. 

Alburgii, t. and p. v., Grand Isle eo., Verm. : on the 
Vermont Central E. E. Pop. 1,568. 

Albukgh peninsula, Verm. : a triangular tongue ofland, 
projecting from Canada into Lake Charnplain. The sur- 
face is low and level, and the soil fertile. The narrow wa- 
ters dividing it from the mainland, are spanned by fine 
bridges to accommodate the railroads from the opposite 
shores, which here form a union. 

Albuegh Springs, p. o., Grand Isle co., Verm. : a fa- 
mous mineral spring is found here, the waters of which are 
said to be efficacious in scrofulous affections. 

Alcona county, Mich. Situate 1ST. E. on Lake Huron, 
and contains 632 sq. m. Drained by Au Sable and Nene- 
iau rivers and their tributaries. A new co. since 1S50. 

Alcove, p. o., Fond du Lac co., Wise. : 80 m. N. E. Mad- 
ison. 
Alden, p. v., M'Henry co., El. : 244 m. N. E. Springfield. 
Alden, t. and p. v.. Erie co.. Al V. : on a branch of Buf- 
falo cr., 254 m. W. Albany. Pop. 2,520. 

Aldenvtlle, p. v., Wayne co., Perm. : on a tributary of N. 
branch of Lackawaxen cr., 121 m. N. E. Harrisburg. It 
contains a large hemlock tannery, belonging to the daughter 
of the Hon. Zadock Pratt, which employs a capital of 
$200,000, and tans annually 50,000 sides of sole-leather. An 
extensive trade of lumber is carried on. Pop. about 480. 

Alder Ceeek, p. o., Uneida co., N.Y.: 106 m. W. 1ST. W. 
Albany. 

Aldie, p. v., Loudon co., Virg. : on a branch of Goose 
cr., 9S m. N. Eichmond. 

Alert, p. v., Butler co., Ohio: 98 m. W. by S. Colum- 
bus. 

Alexander county, El. Situate in the extreme S. on 
Mississippi r. at the junction of the Ohio, and contains 220 
sq. m. Drained by creeks flowing into the Mississippi and 
Cash rivers. Surface various : in the N. W. are immense 
bottoms backed by high bluffs, and in the E. prairies. The 
S. portion is subject to overflow, and contains a large lake, 
called Horse-shoe Lake. Soils fertile and productive. 
Farms 202 ; manuf. 8 ; dwell. 455, and pop.— wh. 2,464, fr. 
col. 20— total, 2,484. Capital: Thebes. Public Works: 
Illinois Central E. E., and extensive embankments. 

Alexander county, N. Car. Situate N. W. centrally. 
and contains 420 sq. m. Drained by creeks tributary to 
Catawba and Tadkin rivers. Surface varied pleasantly, 
and soils of ordinary fertility. Farms 6S3 ; manuf. 4 ; dwell. 
82T, and pop.— wh. §653, fr. col. 24, si. 543— total, 5,220. 
Capital : Taylorsville. 

Alexander lake, Conn. : a small lake in Killingly town- 
ship, one m. long and half a m. wide : called by the In- 
dians Mashapaug. It is very deep. 

Alexander, t. and p. v., Washington co., Me. : 126 m. E. 
by N. Augusta. Pop. 544. 

Alexander, p. v., Burke co., Ga. : 92 m. E. Milledge- 
ville. 

Alexander, p. v., Putnam co., Virg. : 240 m. W. by N. 
Eichmond. 

Alexander, t. and p. v., Genesee co., K Y. : on Buffalo 
and Eochester E. E., 293 m. W. Albany. Pop. l,92r. 

Alexandersvllle, p. v., Montgomery co., Ohio : on the 
Miami canal, 42 m. W. S. W. Columbus. 

Alexandria county, Virg. Situate N. E. on Potomac r., 
and contains about 40 sq. m. This county, until 1S46, form- 
ed a portion of the District of Columbia. Surface uneven, 
and soils generally thin. Farms 94; manuf. S9; dwell. 
1,4S4, and pop.— wh. 7,213, fr. col. 1,413, si. 1.3S2— total, 
10,008. Capital : Alexandria. Public Works : Chesapeake 
and Ohio Canal, and Orange and Alexandria E. E. 

Alexandria, p. v., and cap. Eapides par. La. : on Eed 
r., below the lower rapids. It contains a C. H., jail, and 
other co. buildings, and has considerable trade, being the 
great cotton depdt of the Eed r. Two newspapers, the 



" Eed Eivcr Eepublican," and the " Western Democrat," 
are issued weekly. 

Alexandria, p. v., Clark co., Mo. : on the S. side Des 
Moines r., 2 m. from its mouth, and 130 m. N. by E. Jef- 
ferson City. 

Alexandria, t. and p. o., Grafton co., N. Samp. : 29 m. 
N. W. Concord. 

Alexandria, t. and p. v., Jefferson co., N. Y. : on St. 
Lawrence r., 166 m. N. W. Albany. 

Alexandria, p. v., Licking co. Ohio : 33 m. E. N. E. 
Columbus. Pop. 349. 

Alexandria, p. v., Huntingdon co., Penn. : 86 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Alexandria, p. v.,De Kalb co., Term. : on a cr. of Cum- 
berland r., 42 m. E. Nashville. 

Alexandria, p. city, sea-port, and cap. Alexandria co., 
Virg. : on Potomac r., 106 m. N. Eichmond. The river is 
here deep enough for tho largest ships. The port has con- 
siderable commerce. Tonnage in 1850, 8,738 tons. The 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal terminates here — also the 
Alexandria and Orange E. E. The "Alexandria Gazette" 
is issued daily and tri-weekly, and the " Southern Church, 
man," an Episcopal paper, weekly. Pop. 8,795. 

Alexandria, p. v., Benton co., Ala. : 5 m. S. W. Jack- 
sonville, and 93 m. N. by E. Montgomery. 

Alexandria, p. v., Madison co., Bid. : 43 m. N. N. E. 
Indianapolis. 

Alexandria, p. v., and cap. Campbell co., Ky. : 5S m. 
N. N. E. Frankfort. 

Alexandria Centre, p. o., Jefferson co., N. Y. : 147 m. 
N. W. Albany. 

Alexandriasa, p. v. v Mecklenburg eo., 2T. Car. : 132 m. 
W. S. W. Ealeigh. 

Alfont, p. v., Madison co., Ind. : on Indianapolis and 
Bellefontaine E. E., 23 m. N. E. Indianapolis. 

Alford, t. and p. v., Berkshire co., Mass. : on Green r., 
112 m. W. Boston. 

Alfordsville, p. v., Eobeson co., 2T. Car. : 78 m. S. 9. 
W. Ealeigh. 

Alfred, t., p. v., and cap. York eo., Me. : on Mousum r., 
73 m. S. W. Augusta. 

Alfred, t. and p. v., Alleghany co., N. Y. : on Erie E. E.j 
325 m. from Piermont, on Hudson r. Pop. 2,679. 

Algiers, p. v., Jefferson par., La. : on the W. bank of the 
Mississippi, opposite New Orleans. The N. O. Opelousas and 
Texas E. E. has its E. terminus here. Belleville and Mac- 
donough adjoin it ; the whole neighborhood is well settled. 
Algansee, t. and p. v., Branch county, Mich. : 75 m. S. 
Lansing. Pop. 609. 

Algoma, t. and p. v., Winnebago county, Wise. : 83 m. 
N. N. E. Madison. Pop. 702. 

Algonac, t, and p v., St. Clair co., Mich, : 98 m. E. Lan- 
sing. 

Algonquin, p. o., Houghton co., Mich.: 365 m. N. W. 
Lansing. 

Algonquin, p. v., M'Henry co., Til. : on Fox r., 168 m. 
N. E. Springfield. 

Alhambra, p. v., Madison co., El. (formerly Lowry- 
ttlle) : 73 m. S. S. W. Springfield. 

Axiance, v., Stark co., Ohio : at the intersection of the 
Cleveland and Pittsburg, and the Ohio and Pennsylvania 
E. Es., 5S m. from Cleveland, and 82 from Pittsburg. 

Alida, p. v., Stephenson co., III. : 6 m. W. Pekitonica r., 
and 161 N. Springfield. 

Alisonia, p. v., Franklin co., Term. : at the head waters 
of Duck r., and on the line of the Nashville and Chattanoo- 
ga E. E., and also at the junction of the M'Minnville and 
Manchester E. E. 
ALLAMrcnr, p. v., Warren co., IT. Jer. : 3S m. N. Trenton. 
Allandale, p. v., Habersham co., Ga. : 98 m. N. MU- 
ledgeville. 

Allatoona, p. v., Cass co., Ga. : on a cr. of Etowah r. 
and 10S m. N. W. Milledgeville. The Western and Atlaa- 



ALL 



ALL 



tic B. B. intersects it 32 m. from Atlanta, and 100 m. from 
Chattanooga. 

Allegan county, Jffieh. Situate W. on Lake Michigan, 
and contains S32 sq. m. Drained by Kalamazoo river and 
its tributaries, and Black r. Surface varied — elevated to- 
ward the E. : soils sandy, or sand mixed with clay, with 
rich alluvial valleys along the rivers. Timber abundant. 
Farms 270 ; manuf. 36 ; dwell. 997, and pop— wh. 5,120, fr. 
col. 5 — total, 5,125. Capital: Allegan. 

Allegan, t, p. v., and cap. Allegan co., Mich. : on Kala- 
mazoo r., at the head of navigation. The " Allegan Eecord" 
is published weekly. 

Alleghany county, MA. Situate extreme N. W., and 
contains 1,050 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of N. branch 
of Potomac r. and by Monongahela r. Surface mountain- 
ous, with broad valleys : soils fertile : coal and iron in pro- 
fusion. Farms 892 ; manuf. 24 ; dwell. 3,S50, and pop — 
wh. 21,633, fr. col. 412, si. 724— total, 22,769. Capital : Cum- 
berland. Public Works : Baltimore and Ohio E. E. ; Ches- 
apeake and Ohio Canal, and several railroads from Cum- 
berland to coal mines. 

Alleghany county, J¥. T. Situate S. W., and contains 
1,1S5 sq. m. Drained by Genesee r., which flows through 
the county. Surface finely variegated, the Genesee valley 
being bounded by ranges of table land, which extend N. 
and S. : soils highly fertile, and famed for the quality of 
their cereal products. Bog iron abounds, and there is a 
spring from which Seneca oil is obtained. Farms 3,173 ; 
manuf. 291 ; dwell. 6,963, and pop.— wh. 87,633, fr. col. 125— 
total, 37,808. Capital: Angelica. Public Works: Gene- 
see Valley Canal ; New York and Erie E. E. ; Buffalo and 
New York City E. E. 

Alleghany county, Penn. Situate W., and contains 1,022 
sq. m. Drained by Monongahela and Alleghany rivers, 
which, uniting near the centre of the county, form the Ohio 
r. Surface hilly and wooded, but fertile to a high degree. 
It is the centre of the W. iron region. Farms 3,729 ; manuf. 
1 ,290 ; dwell. 22,551, and pop.— wh. 134,827, fr. col. 3,463— to- 
tal, 13S,290. Capital : Pittsburg. Pullic Works : Penn- 
sylvania E. E. ; Ohio and Pennsylvania E. E. ; Steuben- 
ville E. E. ; Pennsylvania Canal, etc. 

Alleghany county, Virg. Situate centrally among the 
Alleghanies, and contains 520 sq. m. Drained by the head 
waters of James r. Surface varied, and in some parts rug- 
ged ; but in the valleys of the rivers the soils are rich and 
very productive. There are within the county several min- 
eral springs and much picturesque scenery. The products 
are wheat and oats, with some tobacco. Farms 216 ; manuf. 
10 ; dwell. 464, and pop.— wh. 2,763, fr. col. 5S, si. 694— total. 
8,515. Capital: Covington. 

Alleghany, t. and p. v., Cattaraugus co., N. Y. (formerly 
Burton) : on the New York and Erie E. E., 408 m. W. N. 
W. New York. 

Alleghany, p. city, Alleghany co., Perm. : opposite Pitts- 
burg, of which it is a suburb. Three papers are published 
here— the " Enterprize," daily ; " Freedom's Friend," daily 
and weekly; and the "News," weekly. . Pop. 21,261. 

Alleghany Beidge, p. v., M'Kean co., Penn. : 129 m. 
N. W. Harrisburg. 

Alleghany mountains (called also, Appallachian) con- 
stitute a long range, varying from 50 to 200 m. in breadth, 
and extend from Catskill Mountain in N. York, through 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, N. Carolina, into Alaba- 
ma. Their course is N. E. and S. W., parallel with the At- 
lantic Ocean, at a distance from it of from 60 to 150 m. 
These mountains consist of a number of parallel ridges, 
known as the Blue Eidge, Laurel Mountain, Cumberland 
Mountain, etc., and vary in elevation from 600 to 2,500 feet, 
forming the great watershed between the Atlantic slope and 
the Mississippi valley. Extensive valleys or glades lie be- 
tween the several ridges, in which is found much fine land, 
although generally of a rough and rugged aspect They 
abound in rocks and mineral deposits, as iron, coal, etc. ; 



and at their eastern base considerable gold has been col- 
lected. 

Alleghany river : a large stream, forming one of the 
great constituents of the Ohio r. : it rises on the W. side of 
the Alleghany mts. in Pennsylvania, about 30 m. E. of Lake 
Erie, and, running first N. W., into New York, then bend- 
ing S. W., re-entering Pennsylvania, through which it has 
a devious course to Pittsburg, where it is joined by Mo- 
nongahela r., and the united streams constitute the Ohio. 
The Alleghany has a steady current, and is navigable for 
boats to Hamilton, 260 m. above Pittsburg. Its banks are 
fertile, and for about 150 m. from the junction have ridges 
of white oaks and chestnuts, with some patches of poor pitch 
pines, interspersed wtth tracts of good land and low mead 
ows. The waters are always clear and limpid, whatever 
may be the state of the weather. 

Allejiakee county, la. Situate in N. E. comer, and 
contains 720 sq. m. Drained by Upper Iowa, Yellow, and 
other rivers, tributaries of the Mississippi, which forms the 
E. border. Farms 2 ; dwell. 152, and pop. 777. Capital : 
Lansing. 

Allejiance county, AT. Car. Situate N. middle, and con- 
tains 576 sq. m. "Watered by Haw r. and its creeks, Great 
Allamance, etc. Surface pleasantly varied, and soils of 
average fertility. Wheat, corn, oats, tobacco, and cotton 
are the chief products. Farms 923 ; manuf. 38 ; dwell. 
1,516, and pop.— wh. 7,924, fr. col. 324, si. 3,196— total, 
11,444. Capital: Graham. 

Allemance, p. v., Guilford co., N. Car. : on Great Alle- 
mance cr., 66 m. W. Ealeigh. 

Allen county, Ind. Situate N. E., and contains 672 sq. 
m. The county is well watered, and has numerous fine 
mill-streams. Little r. and Aboite r. rise in the W., and, 
uniting, fall into the Wabash ; and the St. Joseph's and St 
Mary's, from Ohio, unite at Fort Wayne, and form the Mau- 
mee, which falls into Lake Erie. These were formerly 
navigable at high water, but are now only used for milling. 
Bee cr., Crooked cr., and Cedar cr., afford also considerable 
power. Surface level, and well timbered. Soils excellent : 
near the streams a sandy loam, and in the interior, clay, in- 
termixed with marl. In the N. W. are numerous oak- 
openings, or barrens. Farms 1,300; manuf. 127; dwell. 
3,097, and pop.-^wh. 16,817, fr. col. 102— total, 16,919. Cap- 
ital : Fort Wayne. Public Works : Wabash and Erie 
Canal : several railroads are projected. 

Allen county, Ky. Situate S. centrally, and contains 
510 sq. m. Drained by numerous tributaries of Green r., 
which bounds it on the N. Surface level or undu'fsting, 
and soils of average fertility. The chief products are In- 
dian corn, oats, wheat, and tobacco, and some cotton. 
Farms 740 ; manuf. 7 ; dwell. 1,249, and pop.— wh. 7,3S9, fr. 
col. 39, si. 1,314— total, 8,742. Capital : Scottsville. Pub- 
lic Works : Nashville and Lexington E. E. 

Allen county, Ohio. Situate N. W., and contains 3S0 
sq. m. Drained chiefly by the branches of Auglaize r. Sur- 
face elevated and rolling ; soils very fertile. Wheat and 
Indian corn are the principal products. Timber is abun- 
dant. Farms 1,146 ; manuf. 50 ; dwell. 2,070, and pop. — 
wh. 12,0S5, fr. col. 24— total, 12,109. Capital : Lima. Pub- 
lic Works : Miami Canal, and Ohio and Indiana E. E. 

Allen, t. and p. o., Alleghany co., N. Y. : 216 m. W. S. 
W.Albany. Pop. 355. 

Allen, p. v., Cumberland co., Peivii. : 28 m. S. W. Har- 
risburg. 

Allen Centre, p. o., Alleghany co., If. Y. : 216 m. W. S. 
W. Albany. 

Allen Centre, p. o., Union co., Ohio : 30 m. W. N. W. 
Columbus. 

Allendale, v., Bergen co., N~. Jer. : on Eamapo and Pat- 
terson E. E., 9 m. N. Patterson. 

Allendale, p.v., Greene co., Ky. .'71 m. S.S.W. Frankfort 

Allendale, p. v., Barnwell dist, S. Oar. : 89 m. S. S. W. 
Columbia. 

89 



ALL 



ALV 



Allen's, p. o., Miami co., Ohio : 66 m. W. Columbus. 
Allen's Bridge, p. o., Marion dist., S. Car. : 80 m. E. 
Columbia. 

Allensbukgh, p. v., Highland co., Ohio: 58 m. S. W. 
Columbus. 

Allen's Fresh, p. o., Charles co., Md. : on the cr. of the 
same name, 42 m. S. S. W. Annapolis. 

Allen's Grove, p. o., Walworth co., Wise. : 49 m. S. E. 
Madison. 
Allen's Grove, p. o., Scott co., La. : 46 m. E. Iowa City. 
Allen's Hill, p. o., Ontario co., J¥. Y. ; 1S1 m. W. Al- 
bany. 

Allen Springs, p. v., Allen co., Ky. : near Sulphur fork 
of Big Barren r., 102 m. S. W. Frankfort. 

Allen's Settlement, p. o., Claiborne par., La. ; at the 
head of Crow's cr., 193 m. N. E. Baton Rouge. 

Allen's Station, p. o., Hancock co., Temi. : 194 m. E. 
Nashville. 

Allenstown, t. and p. v., Merrimac co., A. Hamp. : on 
Suncook r., 10 m. S. E. Concord. Pop. 562. 

Allensville, p. v., Alleghany co., A". Y. : 218 m. W. 
Albany. 

Allensvtlle, p. v., Switzerland co., lnd. : 86 m. S. E. 
Indianapolis. 

Allensville, p. v., Todd co., Ky. : on Elk fork of Red 
r., a tributary of the Cumberland, 151 m. S. W. Frankfort. 
Allensville, p. v., Vinton co., Ohio : 46 m. S. S. E. Co- 
lumbus. 

Allensville, p. v., Mifflin co., Penm. : 42 m. N. W. Har- 
risburg. 

Allenton, p. v., Wilcox co., Ala. : on Pine Barren cr., 
49 m. S. W. Montgomery. 

Allenton, p. v., Washington co., R. I. : 28 m. S. S. W. 
Providence. 

Allentown, p. v., Monmouth co., 2L. Jer. : 12 m. E. by 
N. Trenton. 

Axlentown, p. v., Allen co., Ohio: 61 m. N. W. Colum- 
bus. 

Allbntown, p. v., and cap. Lehigh co., Peivn. : on S. side 
of Lehigh r., T8 m. E. by N. Harrisburg. It is beautifully 
situate on an elevation in the midst of a well cultivated, 
pleasant, and populous country. It contains, besides the 
county buildings, a bank, several handsome churches, an 
academy, and eight schools, and a number of flourishing 
mills ; and its trade is considerable. Six newspapers are 
published here — five weekly, and one semi-monthly: the 
" Lehigh Reporter" (neutral) ; the " AUentown Democrat ;" 
the " Lehigh Patriot" (whig) ; the " Unabhcengiger Repub- 
likaner" (dem.) ; and the " Friedensbothe" (neutral), are 
issued weekly ; and the " Youth's Friend," every second 
week. Pop. 3,780. 

Alligator, p. v., and cap. Columbia co., Flo?: (formerly 
Lancaster) : 9T m. E. S. E. Tallahassee. 

Alligator, p. v., Crittenden co., Ky. : 192 m. W. Frank- 
fort. 

Alligator, p. v., St. Mary's par., La. : 52 m. S. S. W. 
Baton Rouge. 
Allison, p. v., Logan co., Ky. : 14S m. S. W. Frankfort. 
Allisonville, p. v., Marion co., Lnd. : on the Indianapo- 
lis and Peru R. R., 11 m. N. Indiana. 

Allow at, p. v., Wayne co., K. Y. : on the E. side of the 
outlet of Canandaigua Lake, 179 m. W. Albany. 

Allowatstown, p. v., Salem co., A Jer. : on Alloway's 
cr. of the Delaware, 60 m. S. S. W. Trenton. 

Allsborough, p. v., Franklin co., Ala. : 169 m. N. W. 
Montgomery. 

Almekante, p. v., Walton co., Flor. : on Yellow Water 
r., 146 m. W. N. W. Tallahassee. 
Almond, p. v., Portage co., Wise. / 92 m. N. Madison. 
Almond, t. and p. v., Alleghany eo., Ai Y. : on Canisteo 
T., and on the N. Y. and Erie R. R., 194 m. W. Albany. 

Almont, t and p. v., Lapeer co., Mich. : 61 m. E. Lan- 
sing. 

40 



Alna, t. and p. v., Lincoln co., Me. : on Sheepscot r„ 24 
m. S. E. Augusta. Pop. 916. 

Alpena county, Mich. Situate N. E. on Lake Huron, 
and contains 576 sq. m. : a new county since 1850. 
Alpha, p. v., Greene co., OMo : 5S m. W. Columbus. 
Alpine, p. v., Chattooga co., Ga. : 152 m. ST. W. Mil- 
ledgeville. 
Alpine, p. v., Clark co., Ark. : 70 m. S. W. Little Rock. 
Alpine Dep6t, p. o., Morgan co., Yirg. : on Baltimore 
and Ohio R. R., 148 m. N. Richmond. 

Alps, p. o., Rensselaer co., A". Y. : 21 m. E. by S. Al- 
bany. 

Alqutna, p. v., Fayette co., Lnd. : 60 m. E. by S. Indian- 
apolis. 

Alstead, t. and p. v.. Cheshire co., A". LTamp. : on Cold 
r., 39 m. E. Concord. Pop. 1,425. 
Alston, p. v., Fairfield dist, S. Car. : 33 m. N. Columbia. 
Altamont, p. v., and cap. Grundy co., Temi. : centre of 
co., 72 m. E. S. E. Nashville. 

Altamont, v., Alleghany co., Md. : a station on the Bal- 
timore and Ohio R. R., 224 m. W. Baltimore. 

Alta Springs, p. o., Limestone co., Tex. : 126 m. N. 
Austin City. 
Altat, p. v., Steuben co., AI Y. : 170 m. W. Albany. 
Althouse's st., Berks co., Penn. : on Philadelphia and 
Reading R. R,, 66 m. W. N. W. Philadelphia. 
Alto, p. o., Howard co., Lnd. : 46 m. N. Indianapolis. 
Alto, t. and p. o., Fond du Lac co., Wise. : on E. branch 
of Rock r., 61 m. N. N. W. Madison. Po->. 630. 
Alto, p. v., Louisa co., Yirg. : 46 m. N. W. Richmond. 
Alton, t. and p. v., Kent co., Mich. : 58 m. W. N. W. 
Lansing. 

Axton, t. and p. city, Madison co., PI. : on Mississippi r., 
3 m. above the mouth of the Missouri. It possesses great 
commercial advantages, and will probably become an im- 
portant railroad terminus. Bituminous coal is abundant 
near the city. It is the largest place on the river above 
St. Louis. Shurtliff College and other institutions of a high 
character are located here ; and there is also a weekly pa- 
per, the " Telegraph and Review," issued. The Chicago 
and Mississippi R. R. terminates here, and other Railroads 
are projected. Pop. 12,000. 

Alton, p. v., Franklin co., Ohio : on a branch of Scioto 
r., 10 m. W. Columbus. 

Alton, p. v. and cap. Denton co., Tex. : between Hick- 
ory cr. and Elm fork of Trinity r., 208 m. N. N. W. Austin 
City. 
Alton, p. v., Penobscot co., Me. 

Alton, t. and p. v., Belknap co., N. Ramp. : on a bay 
of Lake Winnepiseogee, 22 m. N. N. E. Concord. The Co- 
checo R. R. passes through the village, 27 m. N. W. from 
Dover. Pop. of 1. 1,795. 

Alton, p. v., Wayne co., Al Y.: on the Ridge Road, 
169 m. W. Albany. 

Alton Hill, p. o., Macon co., Term. : 216 m. E. S. E. 
Nashville. 

Amoona, p. v., Blair co., Perm. : on Pennsylvania E. E., 
131 m. W. Harrisburg. 

Alum Bank, p. o., Bedford co., Perm. : 86 m. W. S. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Alum Creek, p. o., Delaware co., Ohio : on a cr. of the 
same name, tributary to the Scioto r., 23 m. N. Colum- 
bus. 

Alum Rock, p. o., Alleghany co.,' Yirg. : 149 m. W. Rich- 
mond. 

Alum Rctn, p. o., Monroe co., Ohio : on a cr. of the same 
name, flowing to the Ohio r., 106 m. E. S. E. Columbus. 

Alum Springs, p. o., Rockbridge co., Yirg. : 111 m. W. 
Richmond. 

Alvan, p. v., Jefferson co., Penn. : 122 m. W. N. W. Har- 
risburg. 

Alvtba, p. v., Lycoming co., Penn. : 66 m. N. W. Har- 
risburg. 



ALV 



AMS 



Alviso, v., Santa Clara co., Calif. : on Guadalupe r., 4S 
m. S. Yallego. 

A-slacetta, p. v., Wayne co., Virg. : 263 m. W. Eioh- 
mond. 

Amagansett, p. v., Suffolk co., AC Y. : near ttfe E. ex- 
tremity of Long Island, oq tlie Atlantic, 181 m. S. E. Al- 
bany. 

Amanda, p. v., Greenup co., Ky. : 1CS m. E. N. E. Frank- 
fort. 

Amanda, t. and p. v., Fairfield co., Ohio : on Clear cr., 
26 m. S. E. Columbus. Pop. 1,536. 

Amandaville, p. v., Elbert co., Ga. : 83 m. N. by E. 
MiUedgevUle. 

Amazon, p. v., Madison co., la. : 131 m. W. by S. Iowa 
City. 

Ambee, p. v., Onondaga co., Jf. Y. : near Otisco Lake, 
126 m. W. by N. Albany. 

Amberson's Valley, p. o., Franklin co., Perm. : 58 m. 
W. by S. Harrisburg. 

Ambler's Mills, p. o., Louisa co., Virg. : 46 m. W. N. 
W. Eichmond. 

Amboy, p. v., Lapeer co., Mich. : 73 m. E. by N. Lan- 
sing. 

Ambot, t. and p. o., Oswego co., AC Y. : on Salmon and 
Scriba creeks, 123 m. W. Albany. Pop. 1 132. 

Ambot, p. v., Ashtabula co., Ohio: 168 m. N. E. Co- 
lumbus. 

Ambot Centre, p. o., Oswego co., AC Y. : 124 m. W. Al- 
bany. 

Amelia county, Virg. Situate in the S. E. on Appomat- 
tox r., and contains 298 sq. m. Drained by the tributa'ries 
of the Appomattox. Surface level or undulating, and the 
soils originally rich and produotive. The staples are corn 
and tobacco. Farms 354 ; manuf. 5 ; dwell. 568, and pop. 
— wh. 2.T94, fr. col. 157, si. 6,819— total, 9,770. Capital: 
Amelia C. H. 

Amelia, p. v., Clermont co., Ohio: 109 m. S. W. Co- 
lumbus. 

Amelia Island, Nassau co., Flor. : between St. Mary's 
Sound and Nassau r. Fernandina, a village at its N. ex- 
tremity, was formerly cap. of the co., and had considerable 
commerce, but is now almost deserted. 

Amelia, p. v., and cap. Amelia co., Virg. : on Eichmond 
and Danville E. B., 36 m. W. Eichmond. It contains the 
usual county offices, and several factories. 

Amenta, t. and p. v., Duchess co., AC Y. : on Housatonic 
r. The Harlem E. E. passes through it 88 m. N New York 
City, and in a valley between Taghkannic and Fishkill mts., 
62 m. 8. by E. Albany. Marble, magnetic iron ore, and 
m in eral springs are found in the township. Pop. 2.229. 

Amenia Union, p. v., Duchess co., AC Y. : 67 m. S. by E. 
Albany. 

America, p. v., "Wabash co., Ind. : on S. co. line, 78 m. 
N. N. W. Indianapolis. A proposed E. E. from Kokomo to 
the Wabash, will intersect it. 

American river {Rio de los Americanos), Calif. : a trib- 
utary of Sacramento r., famous for its golden sands. It 
rises in many branches on the W. slope of the Sierra Nora- 
da, and disembogues opposite Sacramento City. 

Americtts, p. v. and cap. Sumter co., Ga. : on a cr. of 
Flint r., and on the line of the South-western E. E., 91 m. 
8. W. Milledgerille. 

Americus, p. v., Tippecanoe co., Ind. : on Wabash r. and 
canal, 61 m. N. N. W. Indianapolis. 

Ames, t and p. o., Montgomery co., A 7 . Y. : 51 m. W. 
N. W. Albany. 

Amesbcry, t. and p. v., Essex co., Mass. : on N. side 
Merrimac r., 37 m. N. E. Boston. Considerable manufac- 
tures, favored by an immense water-power, are carried on, 
and vessels of large tonnage are built on the Powow, a trib- 
utary of the Merrimac. The Eastern E. E. passes through 
the E. part of the town. Pop. 3,143. 
Amesville, p. v., Boone co., 111. : on a branch of Eock 

F 



r., 178 m. N. E. Springfield, and on the Galena and Chicago 
Union E. E. 
Amesville, p. v., Ulster co., AC Y. 
Amesvllle, p. v., Athens co., Ohio : 39 m. S. E. Colum- 
bus. 

Amherst county, Virg. Situate centrally at the base of 
Blue Eidge, and contains 418 sq. m. Drained by Pedlar 
cr. anil Tye r., affluents of James r., which washes its S. 
boundary. Surface elevated and much varied by hill and 
dale. Soils good, and very productive of wheat, Indian 
corn, oats, and tobacco. Farms 728 ; dwell. 1,127, and pop. 
— wh. 6,353, fr. col. 393, si. 5,953— total, 12,699. Capital ; 
Amherat C. H. Public Works : James Eiver Canal. 

Amherst, t. and p. y., Hancock co., Me. : 72 m. E. N. E. 
Augusta. Pop. S23J 

Amherst, t. and p. v., Hampshire co., Mass. : 73 m. W. 
Boston ; is the seat of Amherst College, one of the best 
educational establishments in the Union. Pop. 3,052. 

Amherst, t., p. v., and cap. Hillsboro' co., AC ITamp. : on 
Souhegan r., a branch of the Merrimac, 24 m. S. S. W. Con- 
cord. Pop. 1,613. 

Amherst, t. and p. v., Lorain co., Ohio : 108 m. N. N. E. 
Columbus, and on the Cleveland and Sandusky E. P.1,400. 
Amherst, p. v. and cap. Amherst co., Virg. : 84 m. W. 
Eichmond, on Buffalo cr. of James r. 

Amicalola, p. v., Lumpkin co., Ga. : 92 m. N. W. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

AMiasYTL-Li;, p. v., Eappahannock co., Virg. : on S. side 
of Hedgeman's r., 86 m. N. N. W. Eichmond. 

Amitie river, Miss, and La. : rises in Mississippi, and 
flows S. and S. E. 100 m. to Lake Maurepas, uniting at Gal- 
veston with the Iberville. 

Amite county, Miss. Situate S. W. on State line, and con- 
tains 860 sq. m. Drained by the branches of Amit§ r. Sur- 
face, except near the streams, uneven, and the soil inferior. 
Cotton, Indian corn, and rice are the staple products. 
Farms 510 ; manuf. 1 ; dwell. 660, and pop.— wh. 8.641, fr. 
col. 3, si. 6,050— total, 9,694. Capital : Liberty. 

Amittsville, p. v., Monongalia co., Virg. : 194 m. N. W. 
Eichmond. 

Amity, t. and p. v., Aroostook co., Me. : 132 m. N. E. Au- 
gusta. The monument at the sources of the St. Croix lies at 
the N. E. corner of the town. Pop. 256. 
Amitt, p. v., Clark co., Ark. : 78 m. S. W. Little Eock. 
Amity, p. v., Johnson co., Ind. : 19 m. S. S. E. Indianap- 
olis. 

Amity, p. v., Orange co., A 7 ! Y. : on a branch of Willkil] 
r., near S. State line, 98 m. S. Albany. 

Amity, p. v., Washington co., Perm. : 193 m. W. by S. 
Harrisburg. 

Amittville, p. v., Suffolk co., AC Y. : 161 m. S. E. Al- 
bany. 

Ammonia, p. t., Shelby co., Term.: 171 m. W. S. W. 
Nashville. 

Ammonoost/c (Upper) river, A 7 ! Ramp. : rises N. of White 
mts., and, passing N. E., approaches the Androscoggin r. ; 
and thence turning S. W., flows on to the Connecticut. Its 
length is about 50 m., and the valley through which it flows 
from 7 to 8 m. wide and 20 m. long. The scenery of the 
neighboring country is beautiful. 

Ammonoosuo (Lower) river, AC Hamp. : rises W. of the 
White mts., and, after a course of 50 miles, falls into the 
Connecticut, at Haverhill, by a mouth 100 yards wide. The 
valley of the river is about half a mile wide, and about 6 or 
7 m. from the Notch of the White mts. has a fall of some 
50 feet, cut through a mass of stratified granite. 

Amoskeag, p. v., Hillsboro' co., AC Samp. : 17 m. S. £. 
Concord, on Merrimac r., at the Falls, where the descent is 
54 feet in a mile and a half, and around which there is a 
canal. The vil. has considerable manufactures, and a 
newspaper, is issued weekly. 

Amsterdam, t. and p. v., Montgomery co., AC Y. : on the 
Mohawk r., 33 m. W. Albany. The vil. is on the N. side 

41 



AMS 



AND 



of the r., and a station on the TJtica and Schenectady B. B. 
The " Intelligencer," a newspaper published here, is is- 
sued weekly. Pop. of t. 4,12S. 

Amsterdam, p. v., Jefferson co., Ohio : 121 m. E. by N. 
Columbus. 

Amsterdam, p. v., Cass co., Ind. : on the Wabash r., 68 
m. N. W. Indianapolis. 

Amsterdam, p. t., Botetourt co., Yirg. : 122 m. W. Eich- 
mond. 

Anacostia, p. o., "Washington co., D. C. : on the cr. of the 
same name, 4 m. N. E. Washington. 

Anadarco, p. v., Eusk co., Tex. : 262 m. N. E. Austin City. 

Anahuac, p. v., Liberty co., Tex. : on the E. side of Gal- 
veston Bay. 210 m. E. by S. Austin City. 

Analomtnk, p. v., Cherokee co., Tex. (formerly Branch- 
town) : 1S4 m. N. E. Austin City. 

Anamosa, p. v. and cap. Jones co., la. : 32 m. N. N. E. 
Iowa City. 

Anandale, p. v., Butler co., Penn. : 162 m. W. Harris- 
burg. 

Anandale, p. v., Fairfax co., Yirg. : 92 m. N. Bich- 
mond. 

Anaqfasscook, p. v., Washington co., A! Y. : 33 m. N. 
by E. Albany. 

Anastatia island, Plor. : situate on the E. coast, and is 
18 m. long, and H broad. At its N. end, in lat. 29° 50', and 
long. 4° 29' W. from Washington, is a signal tower, well 
known to seamen. 

Ancient, p. o., Dane co., Wise. 

Ancram, t. and p. v., Columbia co., 27[ Y. : 49 m. S. E. 
Albany, on Ancram and Punch creeks, on the former of 
which are extensive iron works — iron ore, as also galena, 
being plentiful in the vicinity. Pop. 1,570. 

Ancram Lead-mine, p. v., Columbia co., JVi Y. : on Punch 
cr., where there are considerable quantities of galena. 

Andalusia, p. v. and cap. Covington co., Ala. : 72 m. S. 
Montgomery. 

Andalusia, p. v., Eock Island co., Ml. : 126 m. N. W. 
Springfield. 

Andalusia, Bucks co., Penn. : 92 m. E. Harrisburg. 

Anderson county, Ky. Situate N. centraDy, and contains 
240 sq. m. Drained by Salt r. and its creeks, and Ken- 
tucky r., which washes its E. border. Surface various — 
chiefly undulating, and soils good, producing Indian corn, 
•wheat, etc., and 6ome small quantity of tobacco and cotton. 
Farms 420 ; mannf. 37 ; dwell 8S3, and pop.— wh. 4,94S, 
fir. col. 30, si. 1,2S2— total, 6,260. Capital : Lawrenceburg. 

Anderson district, S. Car. Situate N. W., and contains 
7S0 sq. m. ; lying between the Savannah and Saluda, it is 
well drained by a number of the large tributaries of these 
rivers. The surface is undulating, and the soils very pro- 
ductive. The chief products are Indian corn, w T heat, and 
tobacco, and an abundance of live stock is owned in the 
district. Farms 1,986 ; manuf. 66 ; dwell. 2,440, and pop. 
— wh. 13,S71, fr. col. 90, si. 7,514— total, 21,475. Capital: 
Anderson. Public Works : Anderson Branch of Green- 
ville and Columbia E. E., etc. 

Anderson county, Tenn. Situate E. centrally, and con- 
tains 750 sq. m. Drained by Clinch r. and its creeks, and 
the head streams of the S. fork of Cumberland r. Surface 
uneven — sometimes hilly and broken, but soils of an aver- 
age fertility, producing wheat, corn, oats, and tobacco. 
Farms 698 ; manuf. 9 ; dwell 1,091, and pop.— wh. 6,391, 
fr. col. 41, si. 506— total, 6,933. Capital : Clinton. 

Anderson county, Tex. Situate N. E. centrally, between 
Trinity and Neehes rivers, and contains about 800 sq. m. 
Drained by Caddo, Brushy, Walnut, Hurricane, Still's, and 
Ionic creeks of the Neehes, and Cat-fish, Lake, Keacheye, 
and Parker's creeks of Trinity. Surface various, elevated 
in the middle, and sloping E. and W. Soils rich, and pro- 
ductive of sugar and cotton. Farms 206 ; dwell. 375, and 
pop.— wh. 2,234, fr. coL— , sL 600— total. 2,SS4. Capital : 
Palestine. 
43 



Anderson, p. v., Clark co., HI. : 108 m. W. Springfield. 
Anderson, t., p. v., and cap. Madison co., Ind. : on S. 
side of White r., 36 m. N. E. Indianapolis, and on the In- 
dianapolis and Bellefontaine E. E., where it is intersected 
by the Eichmond and Newcastle Extension E. E. The 
" Anderson Gazette" is issued weekly. 
Anderson, p. v., Warren co., N. Jer.: 56 m.N. Trenton. 
Anderson, p. v., Walker co., Ga. : 172 m. N. W. Mil- 
ledge ville. 

Anderson, p. v. and cap. Anderson dist., S. Car. : 110 
m. W. N. W. Columbus. A branch of Greenville and Co- 
lumbia E. E. terminates here, and it is probable that a rail- 
road will be built westward through Eabun Gap, toward the 
Tennessee lines. The " Anderson Gazette" is issued week- 
ly, and the " Farmer and Planter" monthly. 

Anderson, p. v. and cap. Grimes co., Tex. : on Hollands 
cr. of the Navasota r., 132 m. E. Austin City. 

Andersonburgh, p. v., Perry co., Penn. : 32 m. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Anderson Eiver, p. o., Spencer co., Ind. : on a r. so 
called, flowing to the Ohio r., 122 m. S. S. W. Indianapolis. 
Anderson's Mills, p. o., Butler co., Penn. : 168 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Anderson's Store, p. o., Caswell co., A". Car. : 68 m. N. 
W. Ealeigh. 

Anderson's Store, p. o., M'Nairy co., Tenn. : IIS m. W. 
S. W. Nashville. 

Anderson's Store, p. o., Morgan co., Ohio : 58 m. E. by 
S. Columbus. 

Andersonvtlle, p. v., Franklin co., Ind. : on a cr. of 
White Water r., 49 m. E. by S. Indianapolis. 

Andersonville, p. v., Anderson dist., & Car. : on Sen- 
eca cr., at its junction with Savannah r., 120 m. W. by S. 
Columbia. 

Andes, t. and p. v., Delaware co., A! Y. : on Papacton 
branch of Delaware r., 71 m. S. S. W. Albany. 

Andesvtlle, p. v., Perry co., Penn.: 28 m. W. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Andora, p. v., Philadelphia co., Penn. : 93 m. W. Har- 
risburg. 
Andover, p. v., Tolland co., Conn. : 18 m. E. Hartford. 
Andover, p. v., Henry co., PI. : on N. side of Edward's 
r., 102 m. N. N. W. Springfield. 

Andover, t. and p. o., Oxford co., Me. : on Ellis r., of the 
Androscoggin, 46 m. W. N. W. Augusta. Poj). 701. 

Andover, t. and p. o., Essex co., Mass. : 21 m. N. Bos- 
ton, on the S. W. side of Merrimac r. It is noted as the 
seat of a Theo. Seminary and other educational establish- 
ments ; and has numerous manufactures. Pop. 6,74S. 

Andover, t. and p. o., Merrimac co., A". Harnp. : on 
Blackwater r., 23 m. N. W. Concord, or by the Northern 
E. E., which passes through it, 28 m. Pop. 1,220. 
Andover, p. v., Sussex co., AI Jer. : 27 m. N. Trenton. 
Andover, t. and p. v., Alleghany co., A". Y. : 216 -m. W. 
S. W. Albany, or 358 m. W. N. W. from New York by Erie 
E. E., which passes through it. Pop. 1,476. 

Andover, t. and p. v., Ashtabula co., Ohio : 168 m. N. E. 
Columbus. Pop. 963. 

Andover, t. and p. v., Windsor co., Yerm. : on the head 
waters of Williams' river, at the E. base of the Green 
Mountains, 69 m. S. Montpelier. Pop. 725. 

Andrew county, Mo. Situate N. W. on Missouri r., and 
contains 433 sq. m. Drained by Nodaway r. and the forks 
of Little Platte r. Surface level, mostly prairie, and ttje 
soils very productive. Farms S73 ; manuf. 5 ; dwell. 1,377, 
and pop.— wh. 8,758, fr. col. 13, si. 662— total, 9,433. Capi- 
tal : Savannah. 

Andrew, p. v. and cap. Jackson co., la. : 5 m. N. of 
Macoquetais r., and 53 m. E. N. E. Iowa City. A newspa- 
per, the " Western Democrat," is issued weekly. 

Andrew Chapel, p. o., Madison co., Tenn. : 121 m. W. 
by S. !N ash ville. 
Andrews, p. v., Morrow co., Ohio : 51 m. N. Columbus, 



AND 



ANT 



Andrews, p. o., Spottsylvania co., Yirg. : 46 m. N. Eich- 
raond. 

Androscoggin river, Me. : is formed by the junction of 
Magalloway r., and the outlet of Lake Umbagog, in New 
Hamp., in which State it has a S. course of about 40 m. 
After entering Maine, it takes a serpentine course, first, E., 
then S., and finally E., for about 100 m., when it runs over 
Pejepskeag Falls, and joins the Kennebec at Merry-meet- 
ing Bay, 6 m. above Bath, and 18 m. from the sea : its whole 
course is about 150 m. The confluent streams from this 
bay is sometimes called the Sagadahock. 

Angelica, t., p. v., and cap. Alleghany co., 2F. T. : on An- 
gelica cr. of Genesee r., 221 m. W. by S. Albany. It con- 
tains the county buildings, a bank, the " Alleghany County 
Bank," and several churches ; and a newspaper, the " An- 
gelica Beporter," is issued weekly. Pop. 1,592. 

Angelina county, Teas' Situate E. between Neches and 
Angelina rivers, and contains about 1,320 sq. m. Drained 
by Caney, King's, Buck, Shawnee, and other creeks of the 
Neches, and by Durazno, Poffer, and others of Angelina r. 
Surface beautifully varied — the watershed running parallel 
and near to Angelina r. Soils fertile, and produce cotton 
and sugar largely. Farms 88 ; dwell. 166, and pop. — wh. 
945, fr. col. 24, si. 196— total, 1,165. Capital: Marion. 

Angelina river, Teas. : a considerable stream in E. Tex- 
as falling into Neches r. 2 m. below Bevelport. 

Anglet's Branch, p. o., Barnwell di6t., 3. Car. : 69 m. 
S. by W. Columbia. 

Angola, t., p. v., and cap. Steuben co., Ind. : 142 m. N. 
N. E. Indianapolis. 

Angola, p. v., Lake co., III. : 184 m. N. N. E. Spring- 
field, and 6 m. below the Wisconsin State line. 

Angola, p. v., Erie co., N. Y. : 264 m. W. Albany. 

Angostura, p. v., Pike co., Ind. : about 130 m. S. S. W. 
Indianapolis. 

Angola, p. v., Sussex co., Del. 

Angola, p. o., Onslow co., AC Car.: 92 m. S. E. Ea- 
Ieigh. 

Annapolis City, port of entry and p. o. ; co. seat., Anne 
Arundel co., and cap. of the State of Maryland ; on W. side 
of Severn r., 3 m. from its entrance into Chesapeake Bay, 
and distant 38 m. E. N. E. of "Washington, D. C. Lat. 38° 
58' 50" N., long. 76° 29' 26" W., from Greenwich, 0° 32' 
40" E. from Washington. In 1830 the population was 2,623, 
in 1840 2,792, and in 1850 3,011— wh. 1,774, fr. col. 5S5, and 
si. 652. The government removed from St. Mary's, the old 
capital, to Annapolis, then called Providence, 1689. Annap- 
olis is regularly laid out, its streets diverging from the State 
House and Episcopal church, as from two principal centres. 
The State House is a substantial building ; in this the old 
Congress held some of its sessions, and the Senate Chamber, 
in which Washington resigned his commission to that au- 
gust body, has been preserved unaltered. The State library 
contains about 25,000 volumes. The city has a market- 
house, a bank (the Farmer's Bank of Maryland), a theatre, 
and about 420 dwellings, many of which are elegant and 
spacious. St. John's College, formerly a branch of the Uni- 
versity, is located here ; it was founded in 1784, and in 1S50 
Had 6 professors, 30 students, 150 alumni, 8 of- whom were 
ministers, and a library containing 3,292 volumes. The public 
press consists of two newspapers, the " Maryland Eepub- 
lican," and the " Free Press," issued weekly, together cir- 
culating 1,200 copies. Shipping owned in the collection 
district of Annapolis, on the 1st June, 1850, was 2,323 tons, 
of which 336 was navigated by steam power. Some smaE 
manufactures are carried on, and the coasting trade hence 
is on a liberal scale. The city communicates with the in- 
terior lines of travel by the Annapolis and Elkridge E. E., 
21 m. in length, diverging from it in a N. W. direction to a 
junction with the Washington Branch E. E., at a point 18 
m. from Baltimore, 22 m. from Washington. 

Annapolis, p. v., Jefferson co., Ohio : 122 m. E. by N. 
Columbus. 



Annapolis Junction, p. o., Anne Arundel co., Md. : 21 
m. N. W. Annapolis. 

Ann Arbor, i, p. v., and cap. Washtenaw co., Mich. : 
on both sides of Huron r., and on the line of Central E. E., 
37 m. W. Detroit and 51 m. E. S. E. Lansing. It is the seat of 
the University of Michigan, and an important point of in- 
ternal trade. There is a bank here ; and two newspapers, 
the " Michigan Argus" and the " Washtenaw Whig," are 
issued weekly. Pop. 4,870. 

Anne Arundel county, Md. Situate W. shore, and con- 
tains 678 sq. m. Drained by creeks running to Patapsco, 
Severn, and West rivers. Surface is generally undulating, 
with some broken spots and swamps. Soils vary from 
sandy to clayey loam ; iron, copper, etc., abundant, and 
marl found in several parts. Tobacco is largely grown — in 
fact, is the principal staple. Farms 1,295 ; manuf. 156 ; 
dwell. 3,712, and pop.— wh.16,542, fr. col. 4,602, si. 11,249— to- 
tal, 32,393. Capital : Annapolis. Public Works : Annapo- 
lis and Elkridge E. E. In 1851 Howard co. was erected from 
Anne Arundel. 

Annawaika, p. v., De Kalb co., Ala. : 150 m. N. N. W. 
Montgomery. 

Annisquam, p. v., Essex co., Mass. : 32 m. N. W. Boston. 

Annin Creek, p. v., McKean co., Perm.; on a cr. so 
named, 13S m. N. W. Harrisburg. 

Annville, t. and p. o., Lebanon co., Penn. : on Swatara 
cr., 18 m. E. by N. Harrisburg. 

Anselm, p. v., Gallia co., Ohio : 88 m. S. E. Columbus. 

Anson county, JST. Car. Situate S. on State line, and con- 
tains 760 sq. m. Drained by Tadkin r. and tributaries. 
Surface somewhat uneven, and the soils of a good quality, 
producing wheat, Indian corn, and cotton. Cotton is its 
great staple. Farms 675 ; manuf. 32 ; dwell. 1,166, and pop. 
— wh. 6,556, fr. col. 101, si. 6,832— total, 13,4S9. Capital: 
Wadesboro. 

Anson, t. and p. o., Somerset co., Me. : on W. bank of 
Kennebec r., 31 m. N. Augusta. Pop. S48. 

Ansonia, p. v., New Haven co., Conn. : on Naugatuck 
E. E., 16 m. N. Bridgewater. A station on Naugatuck 
E. E., 16 m. N. Bridgeport. 

Antestown, p. v., Blair co., Penn. : 86 m. W. Harrisburg. 

Anthony, p. v., Delaware co., Ind. : 49 m. N. E. Indian- 



Anthony's Creek, p. v., Greenbrier co., Yirg. : on a cr. 
so called, 173 m. W. Eichmond. 

Anthony's Nose : is the extreme point of a hill called the 
Klips, on the N. side of Mohawk r., and which forms a re- 
markable similitude to a magnificent proooscis, 300 or 400 
feet in length. 

Anthony's Nose : on the S. side of Breakneck Hill, on 
the E. bank of the Hudson. It is a promontory of the 
Highlands, 877 feet above the river, having a resemblance 
to the human feature, indicated by its name. There is an- 
other similar formation below West Point, at the S. extrem- 
ity of the Highlands. 

Anthony Shoals, p. o., Elbert co., Oa. : 86 m. N. N E. 
Milledgeville. 

Anthony's Village, p. v., Kent co., B. I. : 14 m. S. S.W. 
Providence. 

Anti Bank, p. o., Hinds co., Miss. 

Antietam creek, Md. : a fine stream of the Potomac, 
running through Washington co., Md. 

Antlm county, Mich. Situate N. W. on Lake Michigan, 
and contains 648 sq. m. A new eounty since 1S50. 

Antiooh, p. v. Troop co., Ga. : 10S m. W. Milledgeville. 

Antioch, p. v., Lake co., III. : 182 m. N. N. E. Spring- 
field. 

Antioch, p. v., Contra Costa co., Calif. : IS m. S. Yallejo. 

Antioch, p. v., Pickens co., Ala.: 106 m., W. N. W. 
Montgomery. 

ANnocn, p. v., Monroe co., Ohio. : 102 m. E. by S. Co- 
lumbus. Pop. 107. 

Antioch, p. v., Gibson co., Tenn. : 127 m. W. Nashville 

43 



ANT 



ARE 



Antioch, p. v., York dist., S. Car. : 47 m. N. Columbia. 

Antoin, p. t., Clark co., Ark. : on Antoin cr., 78 m. S. W. 
Little Eoek. 

Antbim, t, and p. o., Shiawassee co., Mich.: on Look- 
ing-glass r., 26 m. E. Lansing. Pop. 282. 

Antbim, t, and p. o., Hillsborough co., If. Eamp. : on 
Contoocook r., 25 m. S. W. Concord. Pop. 1,143. 

Antbim, p. y., Guernsey co., Ohio. : 81 m. E. Columbus. 

Antrim, p. v., Alleghany co., Perm. : 152 m. W. Harris- 
burg. 

Antwerp, t. and p. o., Jefferson co., If. Y. : on In- 
dian r., 146 m. N. W. Albany. The Watertown and Pots- 
dam E. E. passes through it. Pop. 3,665. 

Antweep, p. v., Paulding co., Ohio. : 122 m. N. W. Co- 
lumbus. 

Anvil, p. v., Clarke co., Ark. : 8 m. S. W. Little Eoek. 

Aonia, p. v., Wilkes co., Ga. : 58 m. N. N. E. Milledgc- 
Ville. 

Apollo, p. v., Armstrong co., Perm. : 152 m. W. by K. 
Harrisburg. 

Appalachicola river: is formed by the union of the 
Chattahoochee and Flint rivers, on the S. confines of Geor- 
gia; after which, flowing between E. and W. Florida, it 
falls into the Gulf of Mexico, E. of Cape Escondilla. It is 
wide and deep, the tide running up for 60 m. The estuary 
(Apalache Bay) forms a fine harbor, but its entrance at 
low water is only 3 fathoms deep. The Appalachicola and 
its branches drain a basin having an area of nearly 20,000 
sq. m. 

Appalachicola, p. v., port, and cap., Franklin co., Flor. : 
on a bluff at the W. side of the entrance to Apalaehkola r., 
62 m. S. W. Tallahassee. The harbor is deep enough for 
large vessels, and the port has considerable coasting trade. 
The tonnage in 1850 was 2,050 tons, all navigated by steam, 
and chiefly employed on the river. In the foreign trade 
17,132 tons cleared, and 12,196 tons entered in the same 
year. A newspaper, the " Commercial Advertiser," is is- 
sued weekly. The village occupies a plot one mile square, 
and is regularly laid out. It contains the county buildings, 
and has numerous substantial warehouses and dwellings. 

Appalachtn, p. v., Tioga co., If. Y.: 133 m. W. S. W. 
Albany. 

Appanoose county, la. Situate S. middle on State line, 
and contains 576 sq. m. Drained by Chariton r. and branch- 
es. Surface undulating, chiefly prairie and soils fertile. 
Farms 153 ; manuf. 2 ; dwell. 521, and pop.— wh. 3,124, fr. 
col. 7— total, 8,131. Capital : Centreville. 

Apperson*s, p. o., Charles City co., Virg. : 22 m. S. E. 
Eichmond. 

Apple Ckeek, p. o., Cape Girardeau co., Mo. : on a cr. 
of the Mississippi so called, 157 m. E. S. E. Jefferson 
City 

Apple Ckeek, p. o., "Wayne co., Ohio : on a cr. so called, 
78 m. N. E. Columbus. 

Apple Geote, p. v., York co., Penn. : 32 m. S. E. Har- 
risburg. 

Apple Grove, p. o., Morgan co., Ala. : 146 m. N. N. W. 
Montgomery. 

Apple Geove, p. v., Polk co., Ind. : 112 m. "W. by N. W. 
Iowa City. 

Apple Gkove, p. v., Meigs co., Ohio : 85 m. S. E. Co- 
lumbus. 

Appleton, p. v., Licking co., Ohio : 41 m. E. by N. Co- 
lumbus. Pop/42. 

Appleton, p. v., Perry co. III. : 111 m. S. Springfield. 

Appleton, p. v., "Winnebago co., Wise. : 82 m. N. by E. 
Madison. 

Appling county, Ga. Situate S. E., and contains 1,120 
m. Drained by Ocmulgee and Alatamaha rivers in the N., 
and the tributaries of Santilla r. in the S. Surface level, de- 
clining to S. E. : soils sandy and light Farms 313 ; dwell. 
410, and pop.— wh. 2,521, fr. col. 24, si. 404— total, 2,949. Cap- 
ital: Holmesville. 
44 



Appling, p. v. and cap., Columbia co., Ga. : on Great 
Kiokee cr., 63 m. E. by N. Milledgeville. 

Appling, p. v., Jefferson co., If. Y. : 149 m. W. N. W. 
Albany. 

Appomattox county, Virg. Situate centrally between 
James and Appomattox rivers, and contains 320 sq. m. 
Drained chiefly by Appomattox r. and several tributaries 
of James r. Surface level and soils of good quality. Farms 
602 ; manuf. 10 ; dwell. 7S5, and pop.— wh. 4,210, fr. col. 184, 
si. 4,799— total, 9,193. Capital : Clover Hill. 

Appomattox river, Vii'g. : is a branch of James r., which 
it joins 60 m. above its mouth, and is navigable to the falls 
20 m. above the junction ; and, by means of a canal-boat, 
navigation is extended 80 m. farther up. 

Appoquinimink, hund., Newcastle co., De..: area 73,073 
acres and pop. 3,327. 

Aquasco, p. v., Prince George's co., Md. : on "W. side 
Patuxent r., 2S m. S. S. "W. Annapolis. 

Aqueduct, p. v., Westmorland co., Penn. : 128 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Aqueduct, sta., Dauphin co., Perm. . on Pennsylvania 
E. E., IS m. E. Harrisburg. 

Aquia, p. v., Stafford co., Virg. : on N. side of cr. so 
called, 4 m. from its confluence with Potomac r., 61 m. N. 
Eichmond. 

Aquia Creek Landing, Stafford co., Yirg. : the N. ter- 
minus of the Eichmond, Frederic, and Potomac E. E. 
Steamers from Washington connect the northern and south- 
ern lines of railroads— distance 55 m. 

Aquilla, p. v., Franklin co., Ga. : 89 m. N. N. E. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Aquone. p. o., Macon co., I T . Car. : 273 m. W. S. W. Ea- 
leigh. 

Aeansas, p. v., Eefugio CO., Tex. : 192 m. S. AHstin City. 

Ababat, p. o., Patrick co., Virg. : 174 m. S. W. Eich- 
mond. 

Aeatob, p. v., Pettis co., Mo. : on a cr. of south fork of 
Missouri r., 49 m. W. Jefferson City. 

Arba, p. v., Eandolph co., Virg. : 168 m. N. W. Eich- 
mond. 

Arbacoochee, p. v., Eandolph [co., Ala. : 75 m. N. E. 
Montgomery. 

Abbuckle, p. v., Mason co., Virg.: 162 m. W. by N. 
Eichmond. 

Arcadia, p. v., Bienville par., La.: 177 m. N. W. Baton 
Eouge. 

Arcadia, t. and p. v., Wayne co., If. Y. : on Meed cr, 
191 m. W. Albany. The v. lies on the Erie Canal. 

Arcadia, p. v., Morgan co., III. : on TS. eounty line, 36 
m. W. Springfield. 

Arcadia, p. v., Washington co., B. I. : 28 m. 8. S. W. 
Providence. 

Arcadia, p. v., Madison co., Mo. : on a cr. of St. Fran- 
cois r., 106 m. S. E. Jefferson City. 

Ajecadia, p. v., Sullivan co., Term. : 121 m. E. Nashville. 

Archee, t. and p. o., Harrison co, Ohio : 98 m. E. JT. E. 
Columbus. Pop. 876. 

Archibald, p. o., Luzerne co., Penn. : 92 m. N. E. Har- 
risburg. 

Arcola, p. v., Loudon co., Virg.: in S. E. extremity of 
co.. 92 m. N. Eichmond. 

Aecola, p. v., Warren co., If. Car. : 49 m. N. N". E. Ea- 
leigh. 

Aecola, p. v, Lake co., Ohio : 151 m. N. N. E. Columbus. 
The iron works of the village are extensive, and it is other- 
wise flourishing. 

Arena, t. and p. v., Iowa co., Wise. : on the S. side Wis- 
consin r, 31 m. W. by N. Madison. Pop. 402. 

Arenac county, Mich. Situate E. on Saginaw Bay, and 
contains 504 sq. m. Drained by Eifle, Pine, and other 
streams. A new co. since 1S50. 

Arendtsville, p. v., Adams co., Perm. : 42 m. S. S. W. 
Harrisburg. 



ARE 



ARK 



Akexzyiixe, p. Vi, Cass cO., III. : on a cr. of Illinois r., 
49 m. W. Springfield. 

Absenting, t. and p, o., Genesee co., Mich. : on Shia- 
wassee r., 36 m. E. Lansing. Pop. 436> 

Aeq-o, p. v., Carroll co., III. : 152 m. N. ST. W. Springfield. 

Argo, p. t., Hall eo., Ga. : 98 m. N. Milledgeville. 

Aego, p. v., Crawford co., Mo. : in the N. "W. corner Co., 
on a branch of Bourbease cr. of Maramec r., 54 m. E. Jef- 
ferson City. 

Aegosviiie, p.. t., Schoharie co., JVI Y. : 42 m. "W. Alj 
bany. 

Abgtjs, p. t., Montgomery co., Ala, : 21 m. S. E. Mont- 
gomery. . 

Aegyle, t. and p. o., Penobscot co., Me. : on W. side Pen- 
obscot r., 69 m. N. E. Augusta. Pop. 838. 

Aegyle, p. v., Lafayette, co., Wise: on Peketonica r., 
36 m. S. W. Madison. 

Aegyle, p. v., Cumberland co., If. Car, : 42 m. S. Ealeigh. 

Aegyle, p. v., Jefferson co., Mo. : 94 m. E. by S. Jeffer- 
son City. 

Aegyle, t. and p. v., "Washington co., iV". Y. : on Moses- 
kill, 33 m. N. Albany. Pop. 3,274. 

Aegyle, p. v., M'Donough co., III. : 70 m. N. W. Spring- 
field. 

Ariel, p. v., Marion dist., S. Car. : 80 m. E. Columbia. 

Aeiel, p. v., Wayne co., Penn. : 102 m. N. E. Harrisburg. 

Aeispe, p. v., Bureau co., III. : 108 m. N. Springfield. 

Aek, p. v., De Kalb co., Ga. : 74 m. N. W. Milledgeville. 

Arkadelphia, p. v. and cap. Clark co., Ark. : 79 m. S. 
"W. Little Eoek. 

Arkansas county, Ark. Situate E. on Arkansas r., near 
its entrance into the Mississippi r., and contains 960 sq. m. 
Drained by a number of creeks, tributaries of Arkansas r., 
and of "White r., which latter forms its N. E. border. Sur- 
face generally level, low, and subject to inundation. "West- 
ward it rises somewhat, and here commences " Grand Prai- 
rie," a fine, fertile country. Farms 153 ; dwell. 32S, and 
pop.— wh. 1,695, fr. col. 12, si. 1,53S— total, 3,245. Capital : 
Arkansas Post. 



Arkansas Post, p. v. and cap. Arkansas co., Ark. : on 
the N. side of Arkansas r., 52 m. from its confluence with 
Mississippi r. It is the oldest town in the State, having 
been founded by the French in 16S5. 

Arkansas river : one of the principal tributaries of the 
Mississippi r. It rises in the Bocky mts., near the sources 
of the Del Norte, about Iat. 40° N., and falls into the 
Mississippi, 400 m. above Bed r., in lat. 33° 40'. Its whole 
length is 2,170 m., of which 1,9S0 are navigable. It sur- 
passes all the rivers of the middle region of the U. S. in 
the gracefulness and regularity of its windings, and the 
beauty and luxuriance of the cotton-wood groves that adorn 
its banks. In spring floods, steamboats can ascend it near- 
ly to its source : the channel is broad, and the navigation is 
safe, unobstructed by rocks, shoals, ot rapids. The shores, 
as far W. as Little Bock, are unhealthy, large tracts on both 
sides being covered with lakes and stagnant pools. The 
country is a dead level, and there the drainage is imper- 
fect. On the Great Prairie, that commences immediately 
above the port, and extends for 90 m. up the country, the 
climate becomes more healthy, and this tract is thoroughly 
ventilated; but in the closely-wooded bottoms the air is 
heavy and inelastic, and the mosquitos very troublesome. 
Still further up, the climate and country improve. Near the 
sources of the river, silver has been found ; and the soil of 
the districts through which the river flows is so saturated 
with salt, that the waters are strongly impregnated and 
rendered unfit for drinking. Independent of the too saline 
quality of the water, the vast proportion of red mold which 
is carried away by the current, produces a similar disquali- 
fying effect as to its uses for general purposes. Arkansas 
Biver has been called the " Paradise of Savages," from the 
number of wild animals that are continually wandering 
along its banks. 

Aekansas (Little) river: a tributary of Arkansas r. It 
rises in the deep sand alluvial district, and crosses the traders' 
route from Missouri to Santa Fe, and falls into the Arkan- 
sas Proper, 1,700 m. from its junction with the Mississippi 
r., in lat. 32° 30' N., and long. 9S° "W. 



THE STATE OF ARKANSAS. 

Arkansas is bounded on the north by Missouri, on the east by Tennessee and Mississippi, on the south by Louisiana, 
and en the west by the Indian Territory and Texas ; and extends generally between the latitudes 83° and 36° 30' north, 
and the longitudes 89° 30' and 94° 30' west from Greenwich, or 12° 2S' and 17° 28' west from Washington. Its length 
from north to south is 242 miles, and its breadth from east to west varies from 170 miles on the south line to 25S miles on 
the 36th parallel, where it is widest. The area of the State is 52,19S square miles. 

The surface of Arkansas presents great variations in its configuration. Along tho Mississippi Biver, which demarks its 
boundary on the east, and for 30 to 50 miles inland, the country is low and widoly interspersed with lakes and swamps, 
and with inconsiderable exceptions, is annually overflowed by the floods of tho Mississippi, Arkansas, and St. Francis. 

In regard to the country west of the Mississippi, says Col. Long, it is proper to observe, that the broad valley of the 
Lower Mississippi, which is terminated to the north by the hilly country, connected with a continuous rocky bar, or reef, 
traversing the beds both of the Mississippi and the Ohio, about 12 miles above their junction, and denominated the Grand 
Chain of those rivers respectively, and which stretches southward, interrupted by a single hill, or ridge, elevated more 
than a few feet above the reach of the highest floods ; that this entire valley region, once probably an arm or estuary of 
the ocean, and inhabited by the monsters of the deep, but long since reclaimed by the immense alluvion precipitated 
over the Grand Chain, in cataracts incomparably more grand and stupendous than that of Niagara, and borne thither 
on the backs of countless floods, is one- continued and almost boundless flat, broken only by a multiplicity of water- 
courses, lagoons, and bayous, some of them tributary to tho Mississippi, and others supplied from it, and exhibits an as- 
pect variegated rather than embellished by the inequalities just mentioned, together with countless swamps, slashes, 
stagnant pools, etc. Across this valley there are as yet no passes by land secure from frequent and protracted interrup- 
tions, occasioned by overflows from the rivers by which it is traversed, nor is there any encouraging prospect that roads 
can be hereafter constructed to any tolerable advantage, except in a very few instances. 

The country through which the St, Francis Biver passes is one continuous swamp. The surface presents, in ordi- 
nary times, an alternating appearanee of lakes, bayous, cypress lands, and marshy ground : the lakes free from any growth 
of timber, except of cypress, growing in the water close to the banks, and the bayous, also free from timber, but frequently 
lying in broad and deep valleys, wooded not less thickly than the high ground, and containing comparatively little 
undergrowth. The valleys are in many cases inundated to the depth of 15 or 20 feet, or even more. The ponds are 
mostly filled with very large cypress trees, growing in the water, where its depth docs not exceed 3 or 4 feet, except in 
time of overflow. The marshy ground is filled with trees of immense size, principally gum and sycamore, in the lower 
places, and white oak and hickory in those that are a little higher and dryer, having occasionally brakes of cane very 
thickly set, and frequently rising to the height of 20 and 30 feet, and of proportionate diameter. 

Farther west the surface rises, and toward the centre of the State becomes moderately hilly, and farther west still it 

45 



ARKANSAS. 



rises into the Ozark Mountains. There are numerous and extensive prairies interspersed throughout, but much of the 
land is well wooded, and in many places it is covered with a heavy forest. 

Of the highlands that have been called the Ozark or Masserne Mountains, our knowledge is very imperfect. They 
consist of several low ridges, irregular in their direction, and seldom rising to an elevation of more than 1,500 or 2,000 
feet. They appear to be composed chiefly of secondary rocks, limestones, clay slates, and sandstones, traversed in many 
places by dykes of greenstone, granite, and sienite. Those portions of this region which have been examined are 
found to be rich in metallic minerals, of which iron and lead, copper and zinc exist in great profusion. Coal and salt 
also abound ; and there are valuable thermal and sulphurous springs. The Hot Springs of the Washita are remarkable 
for their high temperature, but are not powerfully impregnated with any mineral substances ; they burst forth in great 
numbers and volume in a small valley lying between two lofty ridges of sandstone, and vary in temperature from 105° 
to 151° Fahr. There are said to be more than seventy of these springs, several rising from the bed of a small stream 
which flows through the valley, and others issuing from the bounding ridges, at various heights. The "Washita oilstones, 
or novaculites, so much esteemed, are found in this region. 

The climate of Arkansas is temperate, but subject to sudden and frequent variations ; and the whole country is ex- 
posed to the effect of the cold north winds which render the central portions of the United States so cheerless in the 
winter season. The same winds traverse southward to the equator, and are known in the Gulf of Mexico as the " north- 
ers," the terror of seamen navigating that sea. Yet in the spring, summer, and fall the seasons are highly propitious to 
agriculture, and here cotton, Indian com, and, in fact, all the great staples of the country find the climate highly con- 
genial. The soils vary from the most sterile to the most fertile, and on the margins of all the rivers the productiveness 
is unbounded. On most of these the soil is a rich alluvion deposited from the washings of the floods, deep and wide, 
covering millions of acres. Back from the rivers the soil becomes more and more sterile, and in many parts it is unfit for 
culture, either from scarcity of water or from metallic impregnation. The principal growths are pines, cypresses, syca- 
mores, and oaks, according to the formation, and on the prairies, which are extensive, is that rank gTass for which this 
description of land is so famous. On the whole, Arkansas has many advantages for agriculture, and it has many dis- 
advantages. "Where the latter, however, exist they are fully compensated for by the abundance of its minerals. It is 
also well stocked with wild animals, as the buffalo, deer, elk, beaver, otter, rabbit, raccoon, wild cat, catamount, wolf, 
bear, etc., which are valuable for their skins, and there is also a plentiful supply of wild turkeys, geese, quails, and other 
species of birds. 

The State is traversed or washed by several of the largest rivers in Am erica. The Mississippi bathes its eastern front for 
more than 350 miles by its windings, but affords no sites suitable for large towns in the present condition of the country. 
The Arkansas, one of the largest tributaries of the Mississippi, traverses the whole breadth of the State through its centre 
by a very tortuous course of about 1,530 miles, and is navigable during the greater part of the year far above its western 
limits. The Eed Eiver flows through the south-western corner, which is thus rendered accessible to steamboats. All (he 
other rivers, some of which are of great magnitude, empty themselves into these three, affording navigable facilities to 
almost every quarter of the State. The St. Francis is a large and full river, rising in the eastern highlands of Missouri. 
Its channel, however, is much obstructed by numerous rafts or jams of fallen trees, and above and below the northern 
boundary its waters are dispersed in such a manner as to render the navigation intricate and difficult. The " Spread," 
as it is called by the inhabitants, extends for the space of about 50 miles, with a width in some parts of 20 miles, and is 
attributed to the earthquake of 1811, at which time a large tract of country sunk considerably below its former level, and 
the waters of the rivers were dissipated in numerous lakes and branches. The "White Eiver has its sources in the south- 
western part of the State, and passes into Missouri, whence it soon returns, reaching the Mississippi in a general 
south-easterly course. Its length is not less than 600 miles ; and although at present it is choked up in many places by 
accumulations of drift-wood, steamboats ascend it as far as Balerville, 260 miles, and on th« removal of these obstructions 
will be able to ascend it 200 miles farther. The "White Eiver receives several large tributaries from Missouri, of which 
the Big Black, a navigable stream, is the principal ; the Cache and Little Eed Eiver have their courses wholly within 
this State. The Arkansas receives no considerable tributary. The "Washita, a noble river running through a fertile and 
beautiful region, drains nearly the whole southern part of the State : rising near the western border, it flows nearly 
parallel with the "White Eiver and the Arkansas, first east, and then south-east, and is navigable upward of 350 miles 
from its mouth. The Little Missouri, the Saline, the Bayou Bartholomew, the Bayou Bceuff, and the Bayou Macon, are 
its principal tributaries. 

Arkansas formed a part of French Louisiana, and subsequently and until 1S19, a portion of Missouri Territory. At the 
latter date it was erected into a separate territory, under its present name. In 1S36 it was admitted into the Union as an 
independent State. The progress of its population was comparatively slow from 1820 to 1S40 ; but since— as shown by 
the last census— the progress compares well with the most progressive of the States. In 1S00 it contained only 1,052 
inhabitants, chiefly settled near the mouth of the Arkansas Eiver, and consisting of Frenchmen, whose progenitors 
settled Aransas Post, the oldest white settlement of the country. In 1S20 the population was 11,273 ; in 1830, 30,338 ; in 
1840, 97,574, and in 1S50, 209,639, of which 162,068 were white persons, 5S9 free colored persons, and 46,982 slaves. Deaf 
and dumb, S9 ; blind, 81 ; insane, 63 : and idiotic, 102. The State was, at the latter date, divided into 51 counties, as 
follows :• Arkansas, Ashley, Benton, Bradley, Carroll, Chicot, Clark, Conway, Crawford, Crittenden, Dallas, Desha, Drew, 
Frauklin, Fulton, Greene, Hempstead, Hot Springs, independence, Izard, Jackson, Jefferson, Johnson, Lafayette, Law- 
rence, Madison, Marion, Mississippi, Monroe, Montgomery, Xewton, Perry, Philips, Pike, Poinsett, Polk, Pope, Prairie, 
Pulaskj, Eandolph, St. Francis, Saline, Scott, Searcy, Sevier, Union, Van Buren, "Washington, Washita, White, and Yell. 

Arkansas is almost wholly occupied in agricultural pursuits; its manufactures are merely in their inception, whether 
as to diversity or number of establishments ; nor has it the advantage of a seaward commerce. The statistics afforded 
by the census of 1S50, and other official reports, exhibit the condition of the State to be as follows : 

Occupied Lands, etc.— Improved lands, TS1,531 acres, and unimproved lands. 1,S16,634 acres, valued at $15,265,245. 
Number of farms, 17,753. Yalue of farming implements and machinery, $1,601,296. 

Live Stock.— Horses, 60,197 ; asses and mules, 41,559 ; milch cows, 93,151 ; working oxen, 34,239 ; other cattle, 165,320 ; 
sheep, 91.256; swine, S36,727— valued at $6,647,969. 

Product*.— "Wheat, 199,639 bushels ; rye, S,047 ; Indian corn, 8,393,939 ; oats, 656,1 S3 ; barley, 177 ; buckwheat. 175 ; peas 

and beans, 235,738 ; Irish potatoes, 193,832 ; sweet potatoes, 7SS.149 bushels; rice, 63,179 pounds ; tobacco, 218,936 pounds ; 

ginned cotton, 65,346 bales of 400 pounds ; hay, 3,977 tons ; clover seed, 90 bushels, and other grass seed, 436 ; hops, 157 

pounds; water-rotted hemp, 15 tons ; flax, 12,291 pounds; flaxseed, 321 bushels; maple sugar, 9,330 pounds; molasses, 

46 



ARKANSAS 



IS gallons ; wine, 35 gallons; value of products of orchards, $40,141, and of market-garden products, $17,150; beeswax 
and honey, 192.33S pounds ; silk coccoons, 38 pounds ; wool, 182,595 pounds ; butter, 1,584,239, and cheese, 30,088 pounds ; 
and the value of animals slaughtered, $1,162,918. Home-made manufactures were valued at $638,217. 

Manufacture*.— Aggregate capital invested, $0,000,000 ; value of raw material, fuel, etc., consumed, $000,000 ; 
average number of hands employed, 0,000; males, 0,000, and females, 000; average monthly cost of male labor, $00,000, 
and of female labor, $0,000 ; annual value of products, $000,000. The whole number of manufacturing establishments, 
producing to the value of $500 and upward annually, was 271 ; and of these three were cotton factories, employing a 
capital of $16,500, and using 170 bales of cotton annually, valued at $8,975 ; hands employed, 13 males and 18 females ; 
entire monthly cost of male labor, $190, and of female labor, $106 ; annual product, Sl,200 pounds yam, valued at 
$16,637. The remaining and most numerous of the industrial pursuits of Arkansas, are those incident to all agricultural 
States, or such as are immediately needed, as carriage-makers, blacksmiths, tanners, etc. The distribution of manufac- 
tures in this State is very unequal ; of the counties, 15 have no manufacturing establishments, 17 have less than five, 7 
have Ave and less than ten, 7 have ten and less than fifteen, 2 have fifteen and less than twenty, and 3 have twenty and 
upward. 

Commerce, Internal Communication, etc. — Arkansas has no direct intercourse with foreign countries. Its export 
staples are carried to New Orleans for shipment, and most of its supplies are drawn from the same quarter. On all the 
great rivers steamboats ply regularly, and in sufficient numbers for the present wants of the population. Few of the 
roads are good, being chiefly earth tracks, almost impassable in wet weather. No railroads exist throughout the State, 
but there are several projected, and the spirit of enterprise appears to be alive on the subject. The initial point of the 
system projected is Helena, on the Mississippi, whence a direct line will be built to Little Rock, the capital, with an ex- 
tension from that point to the Red Eiver to meet the Texas roads pointing east, and another extension by way of Van 
Buren and Fort Smith, to be ultimately carried into the Indian territory, this latter being a part and parcel of the Great 
Southern Pacific Railroad. From these trunk lines branches will be built tapping the principal valleys, and giving to 
each section of the State facilities of direct railroad communication with the Mississippi rivers, and New Orleans the nat- 
ural outlet of Arkansas products ; a railroad is also projected from the main trunk west of White River northward 
through the fine agricultural and mineral region of Northern Arkansas and Southern Missouri. 

Banks. — " No bank or banking institution shall be hereafter (1847) incorporated or established in this State." None 
are now in operation, and the old " State Bank" has for some time been in liquidation. 

Government. — In accordance with the State Constitution, adopted 4th January, 1S30, every free white male citizen 
of the United States, 21 years old, and a citizen of Arkansas for six months next before the election, may vote in the 
district or county in which he resides. The Legislature consists of a Senate of 25 members, and a House of Representa- 
tives of 75 members. Senators must be at least 30 years of age, inhabitants of the State for one year before the election, 
and of the district at the time, and are chosen for four years. Representatives must be at least 25 years of age, resident 
in their counties, and are chosen for two years. The governor is eleoted by a plurality of votes ; he must be 30 years 
of age, a native born citizen of the United States, and have resided in the State four years, and is chosen for four years 
(but is not eligible more than eight in any twelve years). His veto to "any bill passed is negatived by a subsequent ma- 
jority vote of each house. In ease of his disability or death, first the President of the Senate, and after him the Speaker 
of the Representatives, becomes governor to the end of the term. The Secretary of State, auditor, and treasurer, are 
elected by joint vote of the two houses. The Legislature .meets at the Capital biennially. 
Arkansas, under the law regulating the distribution of Representatives to Congress, has a delegation of two] members. 
The judiciary consists of a Supreme Court, which has a chief and two associate justices, an attorney, clerk, and reporter ; 
six circuit courts, each with a judge and attorney, and county courts, etc. The Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction 
only, except in particular cases pointed out by the Constitution. It holds two terms annually, in April and October, at 
the seat of government. The justices are elected by the General Assembly, by joint ballot, for eight years. Circuit 
courts have original jurisdiction over all criminal cases not expressly provided for otherwise by law, and exclusive 
original jurisdiction of all crimes amounting to felony at common law; and original jurisdiction of all civil cases which 
are not cognizable before justices of the peace ; and in all matters of contract where the sum in controversy is over $100. 
Two terms are held annually in each circuit. The judges and prosecuting attorneys are elected by the people, the former 
for four years, and the latter for two years. The justices of the peace in each county form a county court, and have 
exclusive jurisdiction in civil cases below $100. The justices are elected in towns for two years. 

Finances. — The whole revenue for the biennial period 1849-50, amounted to $329,615 54, and the whole amount re- 
ceived into the treasury from all sources, was $495,194 84. The total paid out amounted to $433,975 OS, leaving a balance 
of various accounts of $61,219 76. The State debt consists of bonds issued to the State Bank, and which are unre- 
deemed; these consist of 6 per cents., amounting to $936,000, due 1868, and accumulated interest thereon, $519,4S0; and 
5 per cents., $39,000, due 18S7, and interest, $17,062 50— or a total of debt and interest, $1,506,562 50, on which the annual 
accruing interest is $90,131 80. The total value of taxable property in the State in 1S50, was $84,995,885, on which in 
that year a tax of $93,540 was levied. 

Religious Denominations. — The principal denominations in this State, according to statistics published by their own 
bodies in 1S50, exhibited the following statements of their relative strength : Baptists, 6 associations, 7S churches, 49 
ministers, and 2,509 members ; Methodists, 60 traveling, 4 superannuated, and 153 local preachers, and 12,151 members ; 
Roman Catholic, 7 churches, and 12 other stations, 6 ministers, and about 3,000 members ; Protestant Episcopal, 2 clergy. 
The Roman Catholics are under the Bishop of Little Rock, and the Protestant Episcopalians under the missionary 
Bishop of Arkansas. The Presbyterians are numerous, but in consequence of the statistics of this denomiiation being 
included in synods, not co-extensive with the State, it is impossible to assess the apportionment due to Arkansas 
separately. 

'Schools and Education.— Although Arkansas has had advantages to foster education equal to any others of the new 
States, her improvident legislators have not improved them. There are but few common schools in the State. In each 
township the 16th section is given by Congress for the support of schools, and the revenue arising from leases of salt 
springs, and from estrays sold, forms part of the school fund. There are academies and high schools in Little Rock, 
Fayetteville, Washington, Camden, and some other places. There is no State College, although Congress granted to the 
S\ate seventy-two sections of land (2,592 acres) for the purpose of founding an institution of learning : this, by a law of 
the Legislature of 1S49, and in utter defiance of the intentions of Congress, was distributed among the counties. The 
only effort to establish a college has been made by the Roman Catholics. In 1S50 the Legislature granted them a charter 

47 



ARK 



ASH 



for the College of St. Andrews, near Fort Smith, in Crawford county. The college has a president and five professors 
and its course of studies embraces all the branches taught in the best institutions. The Ecclesiastical Seminary is located 
on the college grounds, and is considered one of the finest edifices in the Union. St. Mary's Academy, for youn» ladies 
at Little Book, is also a Catholic institution. 

Periodical Press. — In all the State there are but 14 periodicals — 13 are issued weekly, and one at a period of two 
weeks. The aggregate circulation of the weekly papers is only 7,250 copies, or 377,000 copies annually. Of the whole 
number of papers, three are "Whig in politics, and five Democratic, the remaining six being devoted to literature, religion 
and various other subjects. Many single counties in New York and Ohio contribute more to literature than the whole 
of this State. 

" Arkansas, with all that nature has done for her, is far behind her neighbors in improvements, population, and general 
prosperity. It is a source of humiliation to make these acknowledgments ; but the truth should be told, though the 
heaveiis fall." Such was the language of the Committee on Arkansas Railroads, at the New Orleans Convention, in 
1851, and such must be the response of every intelligent resident of the State. With her increase of population, and 
reviving prosperity, however, it is to be hoped that so magnificent a State, one so richly endowed and so blessed with a 
propitious climate and soil, will take heed and redeem itself from the just opprobrium of the enlightened among them 
selves, and of the world that is observant of their progress. 

Little Lock is the State capital. 



Arkpqrt, p. v., Steuben co., JS r . Y. : on Canisteo r., 218 
m. W. by S. Albany. 

Aekville, p. v., Delaware co., XT. Y. : 57 m. S. W. Al- 
bany. 

Arkwright, t. and p. v., Chautauque co., 2T. Y. : 396 m. 
W. by S. Albany. Pop. 1,283. 

Arlington, p. o., Hancock CO., Ohio : 83 m. N. N. W. 
Columbus. 

Aelington, t. and p. v., Bennington co., Verm. : on 
Green r. and Battenkill, S9 m. S. S. W. Montpelier. Fine 
marble abounds in the t. Pop. 1,0S4. 

Arlington, p. v., Bureau co., III. : 110 m. N. Springfield. 

Absiada, p. v., Macomb co., Mich. : on the N. branches 
of Clinton r., S4 m. "W". Lansing. 

Armagh, p. v., Indiana co., Perm. : in S. E. corner of co., 
128 m. W. Harrisburg. 

Armenia, p. v., Scriven co., Ga. : 110 m. E. S. E. MU- 
Iedgeville. 

Armtesburg, p. v., Parke co., Ind. : on E. side of Ver- 
million r., 66 m. W. Indianapolis. 

Armington, p. v., Tazewell co., III. : in the S. E. corner 
of co., 42 m. N. by E. Springfield. 

Armstrong county, Penn. Situate W. middle, and con- 
tains 575 sq. m. Drained by several tributaries of Alle- 
ghany r., which runs through it. Surface somewhat hilly, 
but agreeably diversified. Soils of average fertility, pro- 
ducing principally wheat and oats. Farms 1,612 ; manuf. 
93 ; dwell. 5,052, and pop.— wh. 29,431, fr. col. 129— total, 
29,560. Capital: Kittaning. 

Armstrong, p. v., Wabash co., III. : on a cr. of Wabash 
r., 142 m. S. E. Springfield. 

Armstrong Academy, p. o., Choctaw Nation, Ind. Ter. 

Armstrong Mills, p. o., Belmont co., Ohio : 10S m. E. 
Columbus. 

Aemuchee, p. v., Floyd co., Ga. : on the W. side of Ari 
mnchee cr. of Oostanaula r., a tributary of Coosa r., 144 m. 
N. W. Milledgeville. 

Aeneytown, p. v., Burlington co., IT. Jer. : 15 m. S. E. 
Trenton. 

Arnheim, p. v., Brown co., Ofiio : 82 m. S. S. W. Colum- 
bus. Pop. 61. 

Arnoldsbubg, t., Gilmer co., Yirg. : 216 m. W. by N. 
Bichmond. 

Aexoldton, p. v., Ulster co., IT. Y. : 58 m. S. Albany. 

Arnoldton, p. v., Campbell co., Yirg. : 102 m. W. S. W. 
Bichmond. 

Arnon, p. v., Wills co., III. : 5 m. from Indiana State 
line, and 146 N. E. Springfield. 

Aroostook county, Me. Situate N. and N. E., and con- 
tains about 6,800 sq. m. Drained by the Woolastook, Alla- 
gash. Aroostook of the St. John, and Mattawamkeag of the 
Penobscot. Numerous lakes and isolated hills are spread 
over the county. This is the largest county of the State, 
but is peopled only in its S. E. portion. Wheat, oats, and 
potatoes are the chief products. Farms 1,228 ; manuf. 59 ; 
4S 



dwell. 2,038, and pop.— wh. 12,529, fr. col. 6— total, 12,535. 
Capital: Houlton. 

Aroostook, p. v., Aroostook co., Me. 

Aroostook river, Me. : rises in the N. part of the State, 
its head waters being separated from those of Penobscot r. 
by a stretch of highlands. Its course is circuitous, general- 
ly easterly, until it falls into St. John's r. on the New Bruns- 
wick line, in lat 40° 05' N. The lands on this river are 
fertile, and produce the finest qualities of grain and grasses. 
Its length is upward of 100 m. 

Arrington, p. v., Williamson, co., Term. : 18 m. S. Nash- 
ville. 

Arrowood, p. v., Spartanburg diist., S. Car. : 72 m. N. N. 
W. Columbia. 

Arrow Bock, p. o., Saline co., Mo. : on 8. bank of Mis- 
souri r., 54 m. W. N. W. Jefferson City. 

Areowsmtths, p. o., Defiance co., Ohio : 104 m. N. W. 
Columbus. 

Arsenal, p. o., Alleghany co., Penn. : 19 m. W. Harris- 
burg. 

Aethursbubg, p. v., Duchess co., 2f. Y. : 76 m. S. by E. 
Albany. 

Aethueton, p. v., M'Henry co., III. : 17S m. N. E. 
Springfield. 

Aetic, p. v., De Kalb co., Ind. : 122 m. N. E. Indian- 
apolis. 

Asbuey, p. v., La Salle co., III. : in the N. E. part of the 
co., a mile W. of Bock r. and 134 m. N. N. E. Spring- 
field. 

Asbury, p. v., Fayette co., Ala. : on the E. side of Loox- 
apatilla cr., 126 m. N. W. Montgomery. 

Asbuey, p. v., Warren co., if. Jer. : 41 m. N. Trenton. 

Asbuey, p. v., Perry co., Ohio : 47 m. E. S: E. Columbus. 

Asbury, p. v., Montgomery co., Term. : 52 m. W. N W. 
Nashville. 

Asbuey, p. v., Troup co., Ga. : 102 m. W. Milledgeville. 

Ascension parish, La. Situate S. W. of E. Dist., on 
both sides of Mississippi r., and contains 280 sq. m. Drained 
W. by tributaries of Grand r., and E. by those of Amitie, 
etc. Surface low and level, subject to inundation, from 
which it is partially protected by levees or embankments. 
Oranges, figs, peaches, etc., grow in profusion : cotton and 
sugar are the staple products. Farms 157 ; dwell. 755, and 
pop.— wh. 3,339, fr. col. 147, si. 7,266— total, 10,752. Capi- 
tal: Donaldsonville. 

Ascutney mountain, Verm. : situate in the towns of 
Windsor and Wethersfield. It is chiefly composed of gran- 
ite, and is almost destitute of vegetation. Its elevation above 
the Connecticut r. is 3,116, and above the ocean, 3,320 feet. 
Its ascent is steep and rugged. 

Ashapoo Feeey, p. o., Colleton dist., S. Car. : 108 m. S. 
E. Columbia. 

Ashborough, p. v., and cap. Bandolph co., JV. Car. : 69 
m. W. Baleigh. 

AsnBUEXHAM, t. and p. o., Worcester co., Mass. : a hilly 



ASH 



AST 



district, drained by tributaries of the Connecticut and Mer- 
rimac, 48 m. W. N. W. Boston. Pop. 1,S75. 

Asiiburnham Depot, p. o., Worcester co., Mass. : on the 
Vermont and Massachusetts E. B., 11 m. N. W. Fitchburg. 
Asiibt, p. v., Coles co., III. : 74 E. Springfield. 
Ashby, t. and p. o., Middlesex co., Mass. : 4A m. N. W. 
Boston, on a branch of Nashua r. Pop. 1,218. 

Ashbysburg, p. v., Hopkins co., Ey. : 122 m. W. by S. 
Frankfort, 

Ashe county, A 7 ! Car. Situate N. W. extreme, and con- 
tains 760 sq. m. Drained by New r. of the Great Kana- 
wha, and other streams. Surface, an elevated plateau, be- 
tween Blue Eidge and Stony Mountain : soils good. Farms 
1,253 ; manuf. 3 ; dwell. 1,407, and pop.— wh. 8,096, fr. col. 
S6, si. 5,951— total, 8,777. Capital : Jefferson. 

Ash Creek, p. o., Oktibbeha cr., Miss.: 107 m. N. E. 
Jackson. 
Ashert, p. o., Hancock co., Ohio : 70 m. N. W. Columbus. 
Ashfield, t. and p. o., Franklin co., Mass. : in S. W. 
part of co., 162 m. W. Boston. 

Ashford, t. and p. o., Windham co., Conn. : 29 m. E. 
Hartford. Pop. 1,291. 

AsnroED, t. and p. v., Cattaraugus co., JV. Y. : on S. side 
of Cattaraugus cr., 264 m. W. by S. Albany. Pop. 1,658. 

Asn Grove, p. o., Green co., Mo. : 132 m. S. by W. Jef- 
ferson City. 

Ash Grove, p. o., Iroquois co., III. : 109 m, N. E. Spring- 
field 

Ashtpun, p. v., Washington co., Wise. : 76 m. E. by N. 
Madison. 

Ashland county, Ohio. Situate N. centrally, and con- 
tains 342 sq. m. It occupies the watershed between Lake 
Erie and the Ohio r. Drained in the S. by the branches 
of Walhonding r., and in the N. by those of Vermillion and 
Black rivers. Surface rolling, and soils rich and produc- 
tive. Farms 2,235 ; manuf. 71 ; dwell. 4,123, and pop. 
— wh. 28,7S9, fr. col. 3— total 23,792. Capital : Ashland. 

Ashland, p. v., Wapello co., la. : 61 m. S. S. W. Iowa 
City. 

Ashland, p. v., Forsyth co., Ga. : 98 m. N. N. W. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Ashland, Franklin co., Ey. : the late home of Henry 
Clay, tfie statesman of the Union; 1^ m. S. E. Lexington. 
Ashland, p. v., Union co., Ey .. 168 m. W. Frankfort. 
Ashland, t. and p. v., Greene co., A r . T. : 44 m. S. W. 
Albany. Pop. 1,289. 

Ashland, p. v., Wayne co., Tenn. : on the S. side of Buf- 
falo r., 69 m. S. W. Nashville. 

Ashland, p. v., Middlesex co., Mass.: 46 m. N. W. 
Boston. Pop. of 1. 1,304. 

Ashland, p. v., De Soto par., la. : 1SS m. W. N. W. Baton 
Eouge. 

Ashland, p. v., Bertie co., A 7 ! Car. : 89 m. E. by N. Ea- 
leigh. 

Ashland, p. v., Henry co., Ind. : 22 m. E. by N. Indian- 
apolis. 

Ashland, p. v., and cap. Ashland co., Ohio: 72 m. N. N. 
E.Columbus. Pop. of v. 1,264. The "Ashlander" (whig), 
and the " Ohio Union" (dem.), are published weekly. 

Ashland, p. v., Wayne, co., Perm-. : 132 m. N. E. Harris- 
burg. 

Ashland Ftthnace, p. v., Cambria co., Penn. : 94 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Ashley county, Ark. Situate S. E. on State line, and 
contains 660 sq. m. Drained by creeks falling into the 
Bayou Bartholomew, on the E., and Spline and Wachita 
rivers on the W. Surface level prairie, and fertile. Farms 
173 ; dwell. 269, and pop.— wh. 1,409, fr. col. 5, si. 644— total, 
2,058. Capital : Ashley C. H. 

Ashley, p. v., Carroll co., Ark. : 132 m. N. N. W. Little 
Eock. 

Ashley, p. v., Pike co., Mo. : on a branch of Indian cr., 
69 m. N. E. Jefferson City. 

G 



Ashley, v., Delaware co., Ohio : on Cleveland, Columbus, 
and Cincinnati E. E., 31 m. N. Columbus. 

Ashley Falls, p. v., Berkshire co., Mass. : 122 m. W. 
Boston. 

Ashleyville, p. v., Hampden co., Mass. : 86 m. W. 
Boston. 

Ash Eidge, p. o., Brown co., Ohio : 84 m. S. S. W. Co- 
lumbus. 
Asn Eidge, p. o., Pulaski co., III. : 180 m. S. Springfield. 
Ash Bun, p. o., Pendleton co., Ey. : 49 m. N. N. E. 
Frankfort. 

Ash Spring, p. o., Harrison co., Tex. : 312 m. N.E. 
Austin City. 

Ashtabula county, Ohio. Situate N. E. on Lake Erie, 
and contains 1,020 sq. m. Drained by Conneaut cr. and the 
Ashtabula and Grand rivers, which fall into Lake Erie, and 
by several creeks, affluents of Chenango cr., which flows 
toward the Ohio. Surface elevated and rolling, and soil 
generally fertile. Farms 2,243 ; manuf. 251 ; dwell. 5,306, 
and pop.— wh. 28,719, fr. col. 41— total 28,766. Capital : Jef- 
ferson. Public Works : Cleveland, Painesville, and Ash- 
tabula E. E. 

Ashtabula, t. and p. v., Ashtabula co., Ohio : on Ash- 
tabula r., near its entrance into Lake Erie, 171 m. N. E. 
Columbus. It is a place of commercial activity, both as a 
shipping port and railroad dep6t, being on the line of the 
Lake Shore E. E. ; and contains several fine warehouses 
and stores. Two newspapers, the " Sentinel" and the " Tel- 
egraph," are issued weekly. Pop. of v. S21, of t. 2 177. 
Abhton, p. o., Dane co., Wiso. 

AlBhton, p. v., Clark co., Mo. : 130 m. N. N. E. Jefferson 
City. 

Ashton's, p. o., Shelby co., Tex. : 182 m. E. by N. Aus- 
tin City. 

Ashton's Mills, p. o., Frederick co., Tirg. : 118 m. N. 
Eichmond. 

Ashuelot river, 27". Ramp. : situate chiefly in Cheshire 
co. It has its source in a pond in Washington, and thence 
has a southerly course to Keene, where it receives a con- 
siderable tributary, and another joins it at Swanzey. From 
the latter point its course is S. W. to the Connecticut, which 
it joins 3 m. above the State line. 

Ashville, p. v., and cap. St. Clair co., Ala. : on S. side 
of Canoe cr. of Coosa r., 93 m. N. Montgomery. 
Ashville, p. v., Pickaway co., Ohio : 23 m. S. Columbus. 
AsnviLLE, p. v., Holmes co., Miss. : 56 m. N. Jackson. 
Ashville, p. v., and cap. Buncombe co., N. Car. : on 
French Broad r., 218 m. W. Ealeigh. Two newspapers, 
the " Ashville Messenger" and the " Ashville News," both 
whig/ in politics, are published weekly. 

Ashwood, v., Tensas par., La. : 102 m. N. N. W. Baton 
Eouge. 

Ashwood, p. v., Maury co., Tenn. : 38 m. S. S. W. Nash- 
ville. 

Abpen Grove, p. o., Pittsylvania co., Virff. : near Ban- 
nister r. of the Dan, 102 m. W. S. W. Eichmond. 

Aspen Wall, p. o., Charlotte co., Virff. : 46 m. S. W. 
Eichmond. 

Assabet, p. o., Middlesex co., 3Iass. : on the r. of same 
name, 33 m. N. W. Boston. 

Assumption parish, La. Situate S. W. of the State, and 
contains 396 sq. m. Drained by Bayou La Fourehe, and 
other streams. Surface low and marshy, subject to inunda- 
tion. Soils rich and fertile, producing corn, cotton, and 
sugar. Farms 520 ; dwell. 926, and pop. — wh. 5,170, fr. col. 
27, si. 5,341— total 10,538. Capital : Napoleonville. 

Assumption, p. v., and cap. Assumption par., La. : on 
W. side Bayou La Fourehe, 3S m. S. Baton Eouge. 
Assyria, p. v., Barry co., Mich. : 32 m. S. W. Lansing. 
Astoria, p. v., Wright co., Mo. : on a branch of Gascon- 
ade r., 84 m. S. Jefferson City. 

Astoria, p. v., Fulton co., Itt. : on a run of Sugar cr., 
6 m. N. W. Illinois r. and 57 m. W. N. W. Springfield. 

49 



AST 



ATT 



Astoria, p. v., Queen's co., If. Y. : on Hallett's Cove, a bay 
of the East r., near Hellgate, 132 m. S. Albany. Many New 
York merchants reside here, and are accommodated by reg- 
ular steamboat navigation. 

Astoria, p. v., Clatsop co., Oreg. : on S. side Columbia 
r., S m. from its mouth. It is a port of entry, and was for- 
merly a noted trading post, founded in 1811 by John J. 
Astor, the modern Croesus, and even at the present tune is 
little more. There are many more eligible places than this 
for both foreign and internal commerce near the mouth of 
the river. 

Astltjm, t. and p. o., Bradford co., Perm. : on the S. W. 
side of Susquehannah r., 98 m. E. N. E. Harrisburg. Wy- 
alusing Falls are in this town. 

Atchafalaya, p. v., Point Coupee par., La. : 42 m. N. 
W. Baton Eouge. 

Atohafayaxa river, La. : an outlet of the Mississippi r., 
from which it separates 2 m. below the mouth of Eed r., in 
31° 20' N. lat, and 90° 40' W. long., and hence has a course 
S., through Louisiana, upward of 147 m. to the bay of the 
same name on the Gulf coast. It receives in its course the 
Plaquemine, another outlet of the Mississippi. The navi- 
gation is obstructed by rafts. 

Atchison county, Mo. Situate in N. W. corner of State, 
on Missouri r., and contains 5S0 sq. m. Drained by the 
Nishnabatona, the Nodoway, and the head waters of Big 
and Little Tarkio rivers. Surface prairie, and exceedingly 
fertile. Farms 1SS ; manuf. 5 ; dwell. 291, and pop. — wh. 
1,641, fr. col. 7, si. 30— total, 1,678. Capital : Linden. 

Athens county, Ohio. Situate S. E. on Ohio r., and con- 
tains 468 sq. m. Drained by Hocking r. and its tributaries. 
Surface somewhat hilly and broken, but the soils are very 
fertile. Limestone, iron ore, and bituminous coal are abun- 
dant, and salt wells have been successfully operated in sev- 
eral districts. Farms 1,372 ; manuf. 60 ; dwell. 3,120, and 
pop.— wh. 1S,119, fr. col. 96— total, 1S,215. Capital : Athens. 
Public Works : Hocking Canal, Belpr6 E. E., etc. 

Athens, p. v., and cap. Izard co., Ark. : on N. side of 
White r., 94 m. N. Little Eock. 

Athens, p. v., and cap. Limestone co., Ala. : on a cr. of 
Tennessee r., 166 m. N. Montgomery. 

Athens, p. v., and cap. Clark co., Ga. : on W. bank of 
Oconee r.. 57 m. N. Milledgeville. It is the seat of th£ Uni- 
versity of Georgia, and is connected by E. B. with Savan- 
nah and Charleston. Four newspapers are published 
weekly — the " Athens "Whig," the " Athens Banner" (dem.), 
the " Home of Mirth," and the " American Mechanic." 

Athens, p. v., Menard co., III. : 3 m. E. of Sangamon, 
r. and 11 m. N. Springfield. 

Athens, p. v., Fayette co., Ky. : on a small branch of 
Kentucky r., 33 m. E. S. E. Frankfort. 

Athens, p. o., Claiborne par., La. : 212 m. N. W. Baton 
Eouge. 

Athens, t. and p. v., Somerset co., Me. : on a tributary of 
Kennebec, r., 38 m. N. Augusta. Pop. 1,466. 

Athens, p. v., Monroe co., Miss. : on a small tributary of 
Little Tombigbee r., 152 m. N. E. Jackson. 

Athens, t. and p. o., Calhoun co., Mich. : on a tributary 
of St. Joseph's r., 59 m. S. W. Lansing. Pop. 532. 

Athens, p. v., and cap. Gentry co., Mo. : 162 m. N. W. 
Jefferson City. 

Athens, p. v., Clark co., Mb. : on S. TV. side of Des Moines 
r., 140 m. N. Jefferson City. 

Athens, t. and p. v., Greene co., If. Y. : on W. side of 
Hudson r., opposite the city of Hudson, between which 
there is a steam ferry, 36 m. S. Albany. The v. is a place 
of considerable business, and numerous sloops ply to and 
from N. York City ; and the Albany and Troy steamboats 
make it a stopping place. Pop. 2,986. 

Athens, t., p. v., and cap. Athens co., Ohio : on the N. 

bank of Hocking r., 62 m. S. E. Columbus. It is the seat 

of the Ohio University, and contains numerous handsome 

buildings. The Cincinnati and Belpr6 E. E. passes 

~50 



through it. A branch of the State Bank is located here, 
and a newspaper, the " Athens Messenger," is issued week- 
ly. Pop. of v. 898, of t. 2,361. 

Athens, t. and p. v., Bradford co., Perm. : at the junc- 
tion of Chemung r. with the Susquehanna, 121 m. Ni Har- 
risburg. The North Branch Canal terminates here. Pop. 
of village 706. 

Athens, p. v., and cap. M'Minn co., Term. : on Eastan- 
alla cr., and the East Tennessee and Georgia R, E., 53 m. 
N. Dalton. A newspaper, the "Athens Post," is issued 
weekly. 

Athens, p. v., and cap. Henderson co., Tex. (formerly 
Alfred) : on a branch of Cedar cr., 222 m. N. N. "VV. Austin 
City. 

Athens, p. v., Caroline co., Yirg.: 3S m. N. Richmond. 

Athens, t, and p. o., "Windham co., Venn. : 78 m. S. 
Montpelier. 

Athensville, p. v., Greene co., III. : on Apple cr., in 
the N. E. corner of the co., 42 m. S. W. Springfield. 

Athensville, sta., Delaware co., Perm. : on Columbia 
R. E., 9 m. W. Philadelphia. 

Athol, t. and p. o., Worcester co., Mass. : on Miller's cr., 

61 m. W. N. W. Boston. Pop. 2,033. 

Athol, t. and p. o., Warren co., If. Y. : on a tributary of 
Hudson r., 62 m. N. N. W. Albany. Pop. 1,590. 

Athol Depot, p. o., Worcester co., Mass. : on the Ver- 
mont and Massachusetts E. E., 30 m. W. Fitchburg and S3 
from Boston. 

Atkinson, t, and p. v., Piscataquis co., Me. : on S. side 
of Piscataquis r., 64 m. N. N. E. Augusta. Pop. 895. 

Atkinson, t. and p. o., Eockingham co., If. Ilamp. : 28 
m. S. E. Concord. Pop. 600. 

Atkinson's Mills, p. o., Mifflin co., Peim. : 58 m. W. 
N. W. Harrisburg. 

Atlantic county, If. Jer. Situate S. E. on Atlantic 
Ocean, and contains 54S sq. m. Drained by Great and 
Little Egg Harbor rivers, and lined on the coast by nu- 
merous low islands, forming shallow bays and inlets. Sur- 
face level, and soils light and sandy. Farms 327 ; manuf. 

62 ; dwell. 1,584, and pop.— wh. S,750, fr. col. 210, si. 1— total, 
8,961. Capital : May's Landing. 

Atlanta, p. v., De Kalb co., Ga. : at the junction of the 
Georgia, Western, and Atlantic and the Macon and West- 
ern railroads — an important depot of internal commerce. 
Distance to Augusta 171 m. and to Charleston 30S m. ; to 
Savannah 292 m. ; to Montgomery, Ala., 175 m. ; to Chatta- 
nooga 104 m. ; to Nashville 291 m., and to Knoxville 263 m. 
by R. R. A newspaper, the " Atlanta Intelligencer," is is- 
sued weekly. Pop. 4,S12. 

Atlas, p. v., Pike co., III. : 63 m. W. by S. Springfield, 
on the E. side, near Snycartee Slough, which is navigable 
for steamboats to this point in high flood. 

Atsion, p. v., Burlington co., If. Jer. 

Attala county, Miss. Situate centrally, and contains 
720 sq. m. Drained by the head branches of Pearl and nu- 
merous creeks of Big Black r. Surface undulating, and the 
soils fertile. Indian corn, rice, tobacco, and cotton are the 
chief products. Farms 1,336; manuf. 44; dwell. 1.431, and 
pop.— wh. 7,578, fr. col. 9, si. 3,412— total, 10,999. Capital : 
Kosciusko. 

Attalaville, p. v., Attala co., Miss. : 56 m. N. N. W. 
Jackson. 

AnAPULGrs, p. v., Decatur co., Ga. : on W. side of Flint 
r., 172 m. S. S. W. Milledgeville. 

Attica, p. v.. Fountain co., Ind. : on the S. E. side of 
Wabash r., 66 m. N. W. Indianapolis. 

Attica, p. v., Greene co., Wise. : 38 m. S. W. Madison. 

Attica, p. v., Wyoming CO., If. Y. : on Buffalo and Roches- 
ter E. R., 32 m. E. Buffalo, and 25S m. W. Albany. The 
village has considerable trade, and carries on manufactures 
of several kinds. A weekly newspaper, the "Wyoming 
County Mirror," is published here, and circulates about S00 
copies. 



ATT 



AUG 



Attica, p. v., Seneca co., Ohio : in S. E. corner of co., 72 
m. N. Columbus. 

Attica Centre, p. o., Wyoming co., A 7 ". Y. : 253 m. W. 
Albany. 

Attica, p. v., Lenawee co., Mich. : 73 m. S. E. Lansing. 

Attleborough, t. and p. o., Bristol co., Mass. : on Paw- 
tucket r., 33 m. S. W. Boston. The Boston and Providence 
B. B. passes through the town. Pop. 4,200. 

Attleborough, p. v., Bucks oo., Perm. : 21 m. N.N. E. 
Philadelphia and 100 E. Harrisburg. 

Attleburt, p. t., Duchess co., 2f. Y. : 58 m. S. S. E. Al- 
bany. 

Atwater, p. v., Portage co., Ohio: on Cleveland and 
Pittsburg B. E., 50 m. S. S. E. Cleveland and US m. E. N. 
E. Columbus. 

Atwood, p. t., De Kalb co., Ala. : 152 m. N. E. Mont- 
gomery. 

Aubbe£naubbb, p. o., Fulton co., Ind. : 8 m. N. Indian- 
apolis. 

Auburn, p. v., Macon co., Ala. : on Montgomery and 
"West Point E. E., 60 m. W. by N. Montgomery. 

Aubuen, p. v., Gwinnett eo., Ga. : 54 m. N. W. Milledge- 
ville. 

Auburn, p. v., Sangamon co., III. : on Sugar cr., 15 m. 
S. by W. Springfield. 

Aubuen, p. v., and cap. De Kalb co., Ind. : on Eel r., 126 
m. N. E. Indianapolis. 

Auburn, p. v., Mahaska co., la. : 64 m. W. by S. Iowa 
City. 

Auburn, p. v., "Wake co., N. Car. 

Auburn, t. and p. v., Fond du Lac co., Wise. : on Eod- 
man r., 80 m. N. E. Madison. 

Auburn, p. v., Cumberland co., Me. 

Auburn, p. v., Worcester co., Mass. : 42 m. W. Boston. 

Auburn, p. v., Oakland co., Mich. : 78 m. E. by S. Lan- 
sing. 

Auburn, p. v., Hinds co., Miss. : 24 m. W. by S. Jackson, 

Auburn, p. v., Lincoln co., Mo. : 72 m. N. E. Jefferson 
City. 

Auburn, p. v., and cap. Placer co., Calif. : on E. bank 
on the N. fork of American r., 6 m. above ita confluence 
with the S. fork. 

Auburn, p. v., Eockingham co., AT Hamp, Pop. 810. 

Auburn, p. v., and cap. Cayuga co., Jf. Y. : at the outlet 
of Owasco Lake, and on the Eochester and Syracuse E. B., 
174 m. W. Albany. It is the site of a State Prison, which 
occupies an area of 500,000 sq. ft., inclosed by a stone wall 
4 ft. thick. The discipline of this prison is very strict, and 
the convicts are kept to hard labor. The Presbyterians 
have a theological seminary at Auburn, and there are also 
several flourishing academies. The "Journal" and the 
" Advertiser" are published daily ; the " Cayuga New Era," 
the " Cayuga Chief," and the " Northern Christian Advo- 
cate," weekly, and the " Masonic Union," monthly. Nu- 
merous manufactures are carried on. Pop. 9,548. 

Auburn, p. v., Schuylkill co., Perm. : on Philadelphia 
and Beading B. E., 83 m. N. W. Philadelphia. . 

Auburn, t. and p. v., Geauga co., Ohio : on Chagrine r., 
136 m. N. E. Columbus. 

Auburn, p. t., Fauquier co., Yirg. : 80 m. N. N. W. 
Eichmond. 

Aubuen, p. v., Cannon co., Term. : 47 m. W. S. W. Nash- 
ville. 

Aubuen Four Corners, p. o., Susquehanna co., Perm. : 
in S. E. part of co., 108 m. N. E. Harrisburg. 

Auctlla, p. v., Jefferson co., Flor. : on the r. of the 
same name, 26 m. S. W. Tallahassee. 

Audeain county, Mo. Situate E. middle, and contains 
1,220 sq.m. Drained by tributaries of Salt r. Surface level 
or undulating, and soils excellent, producing the cereals 
abundantly and some tobacco. Farms 417; manuf. 10; 
dwell. 498, and pop.— wh. 8,048, fr. col. 1, si. 457— total 
3,506. Capital: Mexico. 



Audubon county, la. Situate S. W., and contains 576 
sq. m., taken from the Pottowottamie in 1S51. 

Audubon, p. v., Montgomery co., III. : 42 m. S. E. Spring- 
field. 

Audubon, p. v., Hardeman co., Term. : on a cr. of Big 
Hatchee r., 134 m. W. S. W. Nashville. 

Augerona, p. v., Jackson co., Yirg, : 218 m. W. N. W. 
Eichmond. 

Auglaize county, Ohio. Situate N. W., and contains 396 
sq. m. Drained by Auglaize r. and its tributaries. Surface 
undulating, and soil moderately fertile. Farms 1,393 ; 
manuf. 30 ; dwell. 2,020, and pop.— wh. 11,251, fr. col. 87— 
total 11 ,338. Capital : Wapaukonnetta. Public Works : 
Miami Canal, etc. 

Auglaize, p. v., Van Wert co., Ohio: on Little Auglaize 
r., 98 m. W. N. W. Columbus. 

Augusta county, Yirg. Situate centrally between Blue 
Bidge and Great North Mountain, and contains 860 sq. m. 
Drained by the head waters of Shenandoah and James 
rivers. Surface picturesquely varied, antl soils fertile. 
There are several medicinal springs in the county. Wheat, 
Indian corn, and oats are the chief products, and cattle 
raising is much engaged in. Farms 1,264; manuf. 181; 
dwell. 3,207, and pop.— wh. 19,024, fr. col. 533, si. 5,053— 
total 24,610. Capital: Staunton. Public Works: Virginia 
Central E. E., etc 

Augusta, p. v., Benton co., Flor. : 160 m. S. E. Talla- 
hassee. 

Augusta, p. city, and cap. Eichmond co., Ga. : on Sa- 
vannah r., and at the intersection of the South Carolina, the 
Georgia, and the Burke County railroads. It is an im- 
portant commercial point, and the depot of an extensive 
and fertile country, the produce of which, cotton, tobacco, 
etc., is sent down to Charleston, 137 m., by E. E., and to 
Savannah by the Savannah r. The city is well laid out, and 
has many spacious stores and dwellings. The public build- 
ings are a City Hall, County Court House and Jail, a thea- 
tre, arsenal, hospital, and numerous churches. The " Sen- 
tinel" and " Constitutionalist" are published daily, and have 
also tri-weekly and weekly editions ; the " Eepublic" is is- 
sued tri-weekly and weekly, and there are two monthly 
publications issued — the " Southern Medical Journal" and 
the " Southern Cultivator." 

Augusta, p. v., Jackson co., Ark. : 44 m. E. N. E. Little 
Eock. 

Augusta, p. v., Hancock co., III. : in S. E. corner of co., 
78 m. W. by N. Springfield. 

Augusta, p. v., Marion co., Ind. : in N. W. corner of oo., 
12 m. N. W. Indianapolis. 

Augusta, p. v., Des Moines co., la. : on the Chicagua or 
Skunk r., 61 m. S. S. E. Iowa City. 

Augusta, p. v., Bracken co., Ky. : on the S. bank of the 
Ohio r., 66 m. N. E. Frankfort. It is the seat of Augusta 
College, a Methodist establishment, founded in 1S25. 

Augusta, t, p. city, and cap. Kennebec co., Me., and cap- 
ital of the State of Maine: on both sides of Kennebec r., at 
the head of steamboat navigation, 43 m. from the ocean. 
Lat. 44° 18' 43" N., and long. 69° 50' W. from G., or 7° 12' 
E. from W., and distant 595 m. N. E. Washington. A fine 
bridge, 520 feet long, connects the two parts of the v., vrhieh 
is regularly laid out, and rises gradually from the shores of 
the river. It contains the State House, Insane Hospital, the 
co. buildings, a U. S. Arsenal, and numerous churches and 
school-houses, many of which are elegant structures. The 
State House is located half a mile 8. of the v. The build- 
ing is of white granite, and has spacious halls for the legis- 
lature and executive officers. Four newspapers are pub- 
lished weekly, the "Kennebec Journal" (whig), the "Age" 
(dem.), the " Maine Farmer" (agric), and the " Gospel 
Banner." The Kennebec and Portland E. E. terminates 
here, connecting the v. with Portland and other New 
England cities, and steamboats ply regularly between this 
place and the principal north Atlantic ports. Pop. S,225 

51 



-___„ AUG 

Augusta, p. v., and cap. Perry co., Miss. : on Leaf cr., 
a branch of Pascagoula r., 100 m. S. E. Jackson. 

Augusta, p. v., St. Charles co., Mo. : 80 m. E. by N. Jef- 
ferson City. 
Augusta, p. t., Sussex co., J7I Jer. : 62 m. N. Trenton. 
Augusta, p. v., Oneida co., AT T. : on Shanandoah cr., 
90 m. W. by N. Albany. 

Augusta, t and p. v., Carroll co., Ohio : on a tributary 
of Sandy cr., 114 m. E. by N. Columbus. Pop. 1,297. 

Augusta, t. and p. o., Northumberland co., Perm. : on 
E. bank of Susquehanna r., 3S m. N. Harrisburg. 

Auman's Hill, p. o., Montgomery co., AT Car. ; 78 m. S. 
"W. Ealeigh. 

Aueaeia, p. v., Lumpkin co., 6a. : on a branch of Chat- 
tahoochee r., 108 m. N. W. Milledgeville. Gold is found in 
the vicinity, and hence its name. 

Aueelia, p. v., Washington co., Ohio : in N. W. part of 
CO., on Duck cr., 86 m. E. by S. Columbus. 

Aueelius, t and p. v., Cayuga co., A 7 : Y. : between the 
outlets of Cayuga and Owasco lakes, 148 m. W. Albany. 

Aueiesvllle, p. t., Montgomery co., AT Y. : on the S. 
bank of the Mohawk, and on the Erie Canal, 42 m. W. N. 
W. Albany. 

Aueoea, p. v., Marshall co., Ala. : on a cr. of Locust 
fork of Black "Warrior r., 121 m. N. Montgomery. 

Aueoea, p. v., Kane co., HI. : on E. side of Fox r., 122 m. 
N. E. Springfield. The "Aurora Branch" of Galena and 
Chicago Union E. E. terminates here, and an extension 
continues the road to the Illinois r. at La Salle. 

Aueoea, p. v., Dearborn co., Ind. : on Ohio r., 108 m. S. 
E. Indianapolis. It is a place of considerable business and 
commercial activity. A newspaper, the "Western Com- 
mercial," is issued weekly. 

Aueoea, p. v., Marshall co., Ky.: 216 m. W. by N. 

Frankfort. 

Aueoea, t. and p. v., Hancock co.. Me. : 90 m. E. Augusta. 

Aueoea, p. v., Cayuga co., AT Y. : on the E. bank of 

Cayuga Lake, and a steamboat station on the Cayuga and 

Susquehanna route. Pop. 600. 

Aueoea, t. and p. v., Portage co., Ohio : in N. W. cor- 
ner of co., 126 m. E. N. E. Columbus. Pop. 823. 

Au Sable river, AT Y. : rises near the sources of Hudson 
r., and empties into Lake Champlain, in the S. part of Clin- 
ton co. It has two main branches, which unite at Au Sable 
Forks village. Its falls afford extraordinary water-power. 
Immediately below the lower falls at Birmingham the river 
passes through a chasm for the distance of 2 m., the walls 
of which are perpendicular rocks from 75 to 150 feet hi"h 
and from 50 to 65 apart at the top. 

Au Sable, p. v., Kendall co., HI. : on Au Sable r. a 
branch of the Illinois r., 130 m. N. E. Springfield. 

Au Sable, v., Essex co., .AT Y. : 105 m. N. Albany. The 
" Au Sable Gazette" is published weekly. 

Au Sable Foeks, p. o., Essex co., A 7 ! K : at the junction 

Of the forks of Au Sable r., 126 m. N. Albany. 

Austeelitz, p.v., Kent co., Mich. : 57 m. W. by N. Lansing. 

Austerlitz, t. and p. v., Columbia co., AT Y. : on Green 

r., a branch of the Housatonic, 31 m. S. S. E. Albany. Pop 

1,874. 

Austin county, Tex. Situate S. E., centrally, on Brazos 
r, and contains about 1,100 sq. m. Drained by Caney, 
Piney, and Mill creeks from the W., and Fishpond Spring 
and others from the E., tributaries of Brazos r. ; also by 
creeks of San Bernardo r., which bounds it W. Surface 
generally level, in the N. undulating, and along the streams 
heavily timbered. The prairies are extensive and the soils 
very fertile. Farms 230 ; dwell. 432, and pop. — wh. 2,2S6 
fr. col. 6, si. 1,549— total 3,S41. Capital: BellviUe. 

Austin, p. v., Atchison co., Mo. : 212 m. N. W. Jefferson 
City. 
Austin, p. v., Eoss co., Ohio : 51 m. S. Columbus. 
Austin, p. v., and cap. Tunica co., Miss. : 16S m. N. 
Jackson. 



AVO 

Austin, p. city and cap. Travis co., Tex. : and capital of 
the State of Texas, on N. side of Colorado r., about 200 m. 
from the Gulf, and 1,420 m. S. W. Washington. It is as yet 
a mere village, but is rapidly improving. Pop. about 1,500 
Two newspapers, the "State Gazette," and the "South- 
western American," are issued weekly. 

Austinbueg, p. v., Ashtabula co., Ohio : on N. side of 
Black r., 159 m. N. E. Columbus. 

Austin's Feeey, p. o., Grainger co., Term. : 176 m. E 
Nashville. 

Austin's Lake, p. o., Kalamazoo co., Mich. : 66 m. S. W 
I^ansing. 

Austinville, p. v., Wythe co., Yirg. : on Cripple cr., 206 
m. W. S. W. Eichmond. 

Autauga county, Ala. Situate centrally on Alabama r., 
end contains 1,152 sq. m. Drained by Autauga, Mulberry, 
and other creeks of the Alabama ; Ockmulgee cr. of Ca- 
tawba r., etc. Surface varied — in places broken and rough. 
Soils of average fertility ; very rich on the streams. Pro- 
ducts com and cotton. Farms 711 ; manuf. 61 ; dwell. 1,114, 
and pop.— wh. 6,274, fr. col. 19, si. 8,730— total 15,023. Cap. 
ital: Kingston. Public Works: Selma and Tennessee 
Eiver E. E. 

Autaugavtlle, p. v., Autauga co., Ala. : IS m. W. N. 
W. Montgomery. 

Ava, p. v., Winnebago co., HI. : 3 m. N. of Peketonica 
r., 172 m. N. N. E. Springfield. 
Ava, p. v., Oneida co., AT Y. : 100 m. W. N. W. Albany. 
Avalanche lake, AT Y.:s. small body of water, between 
ML M'Intyre and Mt. M 'Martin, in Essex co. : it is ele- 
vated 2,900 feet above tide, and is consequently the highest 
water in the State. It is tributary to the Hudson. 
Avery, p. v., Monroe co., la. : 86 m. S. S. W. Iowa City. 
Avxey, p. v., Jo Daviess co., III. : 181 m. N. W. Spring- 
field. 

Aveeysboeough, p. v., Cumberland co., AT Car. : on the 
E, side of Cape Fear r., 30 m. S. Ealeigh. 

Avery's Ceeek, p. o., Buncombe co., AT Car. : on a cr. 
80 called, 228 m. W. by S. Ealeigh. 

Aveey's Goee, p. o., Franklin co., Verm. : 52 m. N. by 
W. Montpelier. 

Avtlla, p. v., Noble co., Ind. : 113 m. N. by E. Indianap- 
olis. 
Ayiston, p. v., Clinton co., III. : 81 m. S. Springfield. 
Avoyelles parish, La. Situate E. of W. Dist., having 
the Wachita, Eed Eiver, and Bayou Atchafalaya on its E. 
border, and contains 1,200 sq. m. Drained by numerous 
tributaries of the border rivers. Surface low and swampy 
near the rivers, and subject to inundations; but in the W. 
more elevated, and the soils fertile, producing excellent cot- 
ton. Farms 393 ; manuf. 5 ; dwell. 792, and pop.— wh. 4,066, 
fr. col. 99, si. 5,161— total 9,326. Capital : Marksville. 
Avo, p. v., Patrick co., Virg. : 162 m. S. W. Eichmond. 
Avoca, p. v., Livingston co., PI. : on N. fork of Ver- 
million r., 92 m. N. E. Springfield. 

Avoca, p. v., Fond du Lac co., Wise. : 82 m. N. E. 
Madison. 

Avoca, p. v., Jefferson co., Mo. : 89 m. W. by S. Jeffer- 
son City. 

Avoca, p. v., Steuben co., .AT Y. : on Conhoeton r., 212 
m. W. by S. Albany, and a station on the Buffalo, Corning, 
and New York E. E. 

Avon, t. and p. v., Hartford co., Conn. : 10 m. W. of 
Hartford, and a station on New Haven and Northampton 
E. E., 37 m. N. New Haven. Pop. 1,995. 

Avon, p. v., St. Genevieve co., Mo. : 122 m. E. S. E. Jef- 
ferson City. 

Avon, t. and p. v., Eock co., Wise. : on Sugar cr., 36 m. 
S. Madison. Pop. 55S 

Avon, t. and p. v., Franklin co., Me. : on Sandy r., 3S m. 
N. W. Augusta. 

Avon, t. and p. o., Ionia co., Mich. : 32 m. W. N. W. 
Lansing. 



AVO 



BAK 



Avon, t. and p. v., Livingston co., & Y. : 162 m. W. 
Albany. Pop. 2,807. 

Avon, t. and p. v., Lorain co., Ohio : on Lake Erie, 114 
m. N. N. E. Columbus. 

Avondalb, p. v., Chester co., Perm. : 66 m. S. E. Har- 
risburg. 

Avon Lake, p. o,, Lorain co., OMo : 116 m. N. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Axeville, p. v., Cattaraugus co., If. Y. : 213 m. W. by 
S. Albany. 

Ayeesvllle, p. v., Defiance co., OMo : 132 m. N. W. 
Columbus. 

Ayersville, p. v., Stokes co., 2T. Car. : 112 m. W. N. W. 
Ealeigh. 

Aylettes, p. o., King "William co., Yirg. : 25 m. N. E. 
Eichmond. 

Azalia, p. v., Bartholomew co., Ind, : on E. side of E. 
fork of White r., 4S m. S. S. E. Indianapolis. 

Aztalan, p. v., Jefferson co., Wise. : 27 m. E. by S. 
Madison. 



Babcock Hill, p. o., Oneida co., IT. Y. : SS m. W. N. W. 
Albany. 

Babcock's Grove, p. o., Du Page co., III. : 160 m. N. 
N. E. Springfield. 

Babylon, p. v., Suffolk co., W. Y. : on Great South Bay, 
142 m. S. S. E. Albany— a pleasant and fashionable sum- 
mer resort. 

Bachelor's Grove, p. o., Eock co., Wise, : 37 m. S. by 
E. Madison. 

Bachelor's Hall, p. o., Pittsylvania co., Virg. : 118 m. 
W. S. W. Eichmond. 

Bachelor's Home, p. a, Lee co., Virg.: 296 m. W. by 
S. Eichmond. 

Bachelor's Eeteeat, p. o., Pickens co., S. Car. : 119 m. 
N. W. Columbia. 

Bachman's Mills, p. o., Carroll co., Md. : at the head of 
Big Pipe cr., 56 m. N. W. Annapolis. 

Back Creek, Md. : a large cr. of Elk r., which, with the 
Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, forms a navigable pas- 
sage across the neck of the peninsula. 

Back Creek Y alley, p. o., Frederick co., Virg. : hi the 
valley of Back cr., a tributary of Potomac r., 128 m. N. by 
W. Eichmond. 

Back Eiver, Md, : a large inlet of Chesapeake Bay, E. 
of Susquehanna r. 

Bacon's Castle, p. o., Surry co., Virg. : 51 m. S. E. Eich- 
mond. 

Bad Axe county, Wise. Situate E. of Mississippi r., and 
contains 720 sq. m. Drained by Kiekapoo, Bad Axe, and 
Raccoon rivers. Surface generally level, with large bot- 
toms on the Mississippi : soils deep and rich. Erected since 
1850. 

Bad Axe, p. v., Bad Axe eo., Wise. : on Bad Axe r., a 
tributary of the Mississippi, 98 m. "W". by N. Madison. 

Badger, p. o., Fond du Lac co., Wise. : 70 m. ST. E. 
Madison. 

Bagdad, p. v., Smith co., Term. : 52 m. E. N. E. Nash- 
ville. 

Bagdad, p. v., Lafayette co., Mo. : 98 m. W. by N. Jef- 
ferson City. 

Bahama Channel, or Gulf of Florida, the narrow sea 
between the eoast of the United States and the Bahama 
Islands, 135 m. long and 46 in mean breadth. The currents 
here are most violent, and vessels are frequently wrecked 
in passing through this strait. 

Baileysburgh, p. v., Perry co., Perm. : on the line of 
the Pennsylvania E. E., 23 m. W. by N. narrisburg. 

Bailey's Creek, p. o., Osage co., Mo. : on a creek so 
called, falling into the Missouri r., 24 m. E. Jefferson City. 



Bailey Creek, p. o., Tioga co., Perm. : 105 m. N. by W. 
Harrisburg. 

Bailey's Four Corners, p. o., Greene co., 2f. Y. : 38 m 
S. S. W. Albany. 

Baileyville. t. and p. v., "Washington co., Me. : on St, 
Croix r., immediately S. of the outlet of Schoodic Lakes, 
126 m. E. by N. Augusta. Pop. 431. 

Bainbridge, p. v., Macon co., Ala. : 52 m. E. Mont- 
gomery. 

Bainbridge, p. v., and cap. Decatur co., Ga. : on E. side 
of Flint r., 160 m. S. S. "W. Milledgeville. 

Bainbridge, p. v., Putnam co., Ind. : on Walnut fork of 
Eel r., 40 m. W. Indianapolis. 

Bainbridge, p. v., Williamson co., III. : on a branch of 
Big Muddy r., 142 m. S. by E. Springfield. 

Bainbridge, p. v., Christian co., Ky. : 170 m. W. S. W. 
Frankfort. 

Bainbridge, t. and p. v., Berrien co., Mich. : 102 m. W, 
S. W. Lansing. 

Bainbridge, p. v., Eoss co., Ohio : on S. side Paint cr., 
a tributary of the Scioto r., and near the falls, 54 m. S. by 
W. Columbus. A branch of the Cincinnati. Hillsboro'. and 
Parkersburg E. E. terminates here. 

Bainbridge, p. v., Lancaster co., Perm,. : on the N. E. 
bank of Susquehanna r., 17 m. S. E. Harrisburg. 

Bainbridge, t. and p. v., Chenango co., JSf. Y. : on Sus- 
quehanna r., 96 m. W. by S. Albany. Pop. 3,388. 

Bainbkidge, p. v., Eobertson co., Term. : 28 m. 1ST. by W. 
Nashville. 

Bairdstown, p. v., Oglethorpe co.. Ga, : 46 m. N. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Baiting Hollow, p. v., Suffolk co., K. Y. : 152 m. S. E. 
Albany. 

Baker county, Ga. Situate S. W., and contains 1,296 
sq. m. Drained by Chickasawatchie cr. and Ichawaynoch- 
away r., tributaries of Flint r., which traverses it in a N. E. 
and S. W. direction. Surface various — mostly level, and 
the soil sandy, but productive for cotton. Farms 444; 
manuf. 12 ; dwell. 755, and pop. — wh. 4,355, fr. col. 0, si. 
3,765— total 8,120. Capital: Newton. 

Baker's, p. o., Washington co., Ky. : 42 m. S. W. Frank- 
fort. 

Baker's, p. o., Champaign co., Ohio : 58 m. W. Columbus. 

Baker's Corners, p. o., Walworth co., Wise. : 56 m. E. 
by S. Madison. 

Baker's Falls, & Y. : on Hudson r., 52 m. aboye Al- 
bany. The descent is 76 feet in 60 rods. 

Bakersfield, t. and p. v., Franklin co., Verm, : on a 
branch of Missisque r., 40 m. N. by W. Montpelier. 1,523. 

Baker's Island : a small island in the Atlantic, off the 
coast of Maine. 

Baker's Island : a small island off the Massachusetts 
coast, 5 m. E. N. E. Salem. There is a lighthouse on the 
N. end. 

Baker's Eiver, 2f. Hamp. : a considerable stream, form- 
ed of two branches — the N. branch from Moosheloc mts., 
and the S. branch from the town of Orange ; after their 
union, the river has a S. E. course to the Pemegewaset r., 
into which it falls. 

Baker's Bun, p. o., Hardy co., Virg. : on a cr. so called, 
146 m. N. W. Eichmond. 

Bakerstown, p. v., Alleghany co., Penn. : 162 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Bakersville, p. v., Litchfield co., Conn, : 32 m. W. 
Hartford. 

Bakebsvtlle, p. v., Coshocton co., Ohio : 62 m. E. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Bakersville, p. v., Washington co., Md. : on the E. side 
Marsh cr., 94 m. W. N. W. Annapolis. 

Bakersville, p. v., Somerset co., Penn, : 12S m. W. S. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Bakersville, p. v., Yancey co., JK Car. : on Cane cr. 
of Nolichucky r., 198 m. W. Ealeigh. 

58 



BAL 



BAL 



Baldwin county, Ala. Situate S. W. on Mobile Bay, 
and contains 2,1 SO sq. m. Drained by numerous creeks 
and tributaries of the bay, Alabama r., and Perdido r. The 
coast on the Gulf of Mexico is lined by long sand islands, 
which also inclose Mobile Bay from the sea. Surface near 
the coast a sand plain, but the land rises inland. Soils, ex- 
cept on the streams, poor. Cotton is the chief product, 
Farms 121 ; manuf. SS ; dwell. 397, and pop.— wh. 2,100, 
fr. col. 96, si. 2,218— total 4,414. Capital : Blakely. Pub- 
lic Works: Girard and Mobile E. K. (proposed). 

Baldwin county, Ga. Situate centrally, and contains 
329 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Oconee r., which 
traverses from N. TV. to S. E. Surface uneven, and the soil 
of average fertility — Indian corn and cotton being the chief 
products. Farms 240; manuf. 3; dwell. 647, and pop— 
wh. 3,522 fr. col. 24, si. 4,602— total S,148. Capital : Mil- 
ledgeville. Public Works: Milledgeville and Gordon E. B., 
and Eatonton E. E. « 

Balcony Falls, p. o., Bortibridge co., Yu'ff. : 118 m. TV. 
Eichmond, on James r., at the passage of the Blue Ridge, 
and the W. terminus of James River Canal. The river is 
here narrow, and crossed by a feeder dam, and the scenery 
highly picturesque. 

Bald Creek, p. o., Yancey co., K. Car.: on a cr. so 
called, 192 m. TV. Raleigh. 

Bald Eagle, p. o., Bath co., Ky. : 5S m. E. Frankfort. 

Bald Eagle, p. o., York co., Penn. : 32 m. S. by E. Har- 
risburg. 

Bald Eagle Mountains, Penn. : on the confines of 
Huntingdon and Centre counties, and N. E. of Juniata r., 
about 80 m. TV. Harrisburg. Bald Eagle, or Sinking Spring 
Valley, lies at the E. base on the edge of Bedford county, 
and is 5 m. wide. It is remarkable for a phenomenon called 
the " Swallows," which absorb several large streams, and 
discharge them again after a subterranean passage of sev- 
eral miles. 

Bald Eagle River, Penn. : rises in Centre co., and runs 
N. E. to the W. branch of Susquehannah r. after a course 
of 60 miles. 

Bald Head, He. : a headland'on the S. TV. side of Wells 
Bay, lat, 43°, and long. 80° 35' TV. from Greenwich. 

Bald Head, K. Car. : a cape at the S. W. end of Smith's 
island, at the mouth of Cape Fear r. A lighthouse is erect- 
ed here, 24 m. N. N. TV. from Frying-pan Shoal, lat. 38° 
51', and long. 7S° 18' TV. from Greenwich. 

Bald Hill, p. o., Muscogee co., Ga. : 96 m. TV. S. TV. 
Milledgeville. 

Bald Hill, p. o., Norfolk co.. Mass. : 22 m. S. S. TV. 
Boston. 

Bald Mount, p. o., Lucerne co., Penn. : S2 m. N. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Bald Mountain, p. o., Oakland co., Mich. 

Baldwin, p. v., Chemung co., A 7 ". Y. : 156 m. TV. S. TV. 
Albany. 

Baldwin, p. v., Butler co., Penn. : 173 m. TV. N. TV. 
Harrisburg. 

Baldwinsyille, p. v., "Worcester co., Mass. : on the line 
of the Vermont and Massachusetts R. R,, 21 m. TV. Fitch- 
burg, and 71 from Boston. 

Baldwlnsville, p. v., Onondaga co., AT Y. : on the N. 
TV. side of Oswego r., 13S m. TV. by N. Albany. A newspa- 
per, the " Onondaga Gazette," is issued weekly. 

Baldwinvxlle, p. v., Edgar co., III. : 114 m. E. Spring- 
field. 

Balize, or North-east Pass of the delta of the Mississippi 
r., 100 m. below New Orleans. It is the principal ship pas- 
sage to and from the Gulf of Mexico. 

Balize, p. v., Plaquemine par., La. : on the pass of the 
6ame name, 15S m. S. by E. Baton Rouge. 

Ballard county, Ky. Situate TV. on the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi rivers, and contains 372 sq. m. Drained by the 
Humphrey. Willow, and May field creeks. Surface rugged, 
but soils fertile, producing grain in abundance, with tobacco 
54 



and some cotton. Farms 4S3 ; manuf. 7 ; dwell. 775, and 
pop.— wh. 4,628, fr. col. 26, si. 842— total 5,496. Capital: 
Blandville. Public Works: Mobile and Ohio R. E. 

Ballard's Bridge, p. o., Chowan co., X. Car. : 138 m, 
E. N. E. Ealeigh. 

Ballakdsville, p. v., Oldham co., Ky. : on S. E. line of 
co., 26 m. TV. N. TV. Frankfort. 

Ballakdsville, p. v., Boone co., Yirg. : on E. side of 
Guyandotte r., 252 m. TV. Richmond. 

Ballard Vale, p. o., Essex co., Mass. 

Ballengee's, p. o., Tipton co., Ind. : 87 m. N. Indianap- 
olis. 

Ballew's Ferry, p. o., Calcasieu par., La. ; on E. side of 
Sabine r., 152 m. TV. by S. Baton Eouge. 

Ball Ground, p. o., Cherokee co., Ga. : 104 m. N. by TV. 
Milledgeville. 

Ball Play, p. o., Monroe co., T&rm. : 15S m. E. by S. 
Nashville. 

Ball's Pond, p. o., Fairfield co. Conn. : 54 m. S. TV. 
Hartford. 

Ballston Centre, p. v., Saratoga co., N. Y. : 24 m. N. 
N. TV. Albany. 

Ballston Spa, p. v., and cap. Saratoga co., N. Y. : on a 
small branch of Kayaderosseras cr., 27 m. N. N. TV. Alba- 
ny. It is much celebrated for its mineral springs, and is 
the most fashionable summer resort in the Union. Bail- 
roads connect it with Troy, Schenectady, and Albany, south- 
ward, and with Whitehall, etc., northward. Two newspa- 
pers, the " Ballston Democrat," and ''Ballston Journal," are 
issued weekly. 

Ballstown, p. v., Eipley co., Ind. : 56 m. S. E. Indian- 
apolis. ■ 

Ballsvtlle, p. v., Powhatan co., Yirg. : on Deep cr. of 
James r., 38 m. TV. Eichmond. 

Baltimore county, Md. Situate N. E., and contains 631 
sq. m. Drained by Patapsco, Gwinn's, Jones, and Great 
Gunpowder Falls rivers. Surface uneven and varied. 
Soils Uiin and rocky, but fertile. Timber abundant, as also 
iron, copper, and other minerals, with building stone of va- 
rious kinds. Farms 1,655 ; manuf. 2,569 ; dwell. 30,065, and 
pop.— wh. 175,358, fr. col. 2S,570, si. 6,718— total 210,646. 
Capital : Baltimore. Public Works : Baltimore and Ohio 
E. E. ; Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore E. E. ; Bal- 
timore and Susquehanna R. E., with "Westminster Brancn; 
and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. A E. E. also runs 
from "Westchester, Pa., direct to Baltimore (in progress). 

Baxtlmore City, sea-port, p. city, and cap. Baltimore co., 
Md. : on the N. side Patapsco r., 14 m. from its entrance into 
Chesapeake Bay, and 204 m. from the Atlantic Ocean, by 
ship channel, and 2S m. N. Annapolis ; lat. 39° 17' 23", and 
long. 0° 24' E. Washington. 

The city is pleasantly situated on a slightly undulating 
ground, and some of the elevations in the vicinity command 
fine views. As laid out, it includes four miles square, and is 
built around the bay. The streets are regular and spa- 
cious, the buildings mostly of brick, and some of them ex- 
hibiting beautiful architectural combinations. Jones' Falls, 
a small stream from the N., divides the city into two parts, 
and over it are erected several handsome stone and wooden 
'bridges. 

The harbor of Baltimore is capacious and safe, and con- 
sists of an inner basin and an outer harbor— the latter at 
Fell's Point, and accessible to the largest ships. The en- 
trance is commanded by Fort M'Henry. 

The principal public buildings are the City Hall, the 
County Court House, the State Penitentiary, County Prison 
and House of Eefuge, the Eoman Catholic Cathedral, the 
finest in the Union, and numerous buildings devoted to 
collegiate, academic, and other literary and educational 
purposes. The monuments of Baltimore, and its nume- 
rous fountains, are distinguishing features in the adornments 
of the city. 

The population, in 1350, amounted to 169,054 souls, of 



BAL 



BAN 



which 140,666 were whites, 25,442 fh col., and 2,946 si. 
The total value of real and personal estate was $80,237,900, 
and the taxes raised, $617,994, of which $3S1,509 was city 
tax. Baltimore has 4 colleges, 67 academies and private 
schools, and 71 primary and public schools. The Univer- 
sity, St. Mary's College, and Washington Medical College, 
are the principal collegiate institutions. There are 99 
churches of all denominations, of which 6 are Baptist, 10 
Episcopal, 3 German Beformed, 8 Lutheran, 42 Methodist, 
4 Bresbyterian, 8 Boman Catholic, and 8 others not speci- 
fied. The public press consists of 6 daily, 4 tri-weekly, 10 
weekly, 1 semi-monthly, and 2 monthly periodicals and 
newspapers ; and of these 6 are religious, 1 agricultural, 1 
musical, and 1 colonization ; the remainder are devoted to 
politics and general news. 

The industrial employments of the citizens are various 
and extensive. There are 2,243 establishments ; the man- 
ufacturing capital invested, $6,541,922 ; males employed, 
15,442 ; females employed, 5,044 ; raw material consumed, 
$9,444,244 ; monthly cost of labor, $459,441 ; annual pro- 
ducts, $20,416,511 ; of these establishments, 71 are blacksmith, 
356 boot and shoe, 111 cabinet ware, 120 cigar, 238 cloth- 
ing, 26 coach and carriage, 10 brass founding, 13 iron found- 
ing, 10 gunsmith, 12 machine, 10 piano-forte, 17 printing 
and publishing, 24 sail-making, 21 ship-building, 13 ship- 
joiner, 16 ship-smith, 31 silver-smith, etc., 19 stove, 15 weav- 
ers, 21 wheelwright, and 10 whitesmith — the remainder va- 
rious, and of common interest. 

As a commercial city Baltimore ranks next to New Or- 
leans among the southern ports. It has an immense inland 
trade, which will be greatly increased when the lines of 
communication are completed to a junction with those of 
Ohio and other western States. In 1850, the principal re- 
ceipts from the interior for consumption and export, were : 
Cumberland eoal, 146,645 tons, and anthracite, 160,000 tons ; 
whaat, 2,600,000 bushels (about 1,750,000 bushels taken by 
millers, and 850,000 bushels shipped) ; Indian corn, 3,000,000 
bushels ; oats, 450,000 bushels, and considerable lots of rye, 
barley, peas, and beans ; beef, pork, and bacon ; tobacco, 
41,S33 hhds. ; wool, 590,000 lbs., etc., etc. ; the inspections 
of flour amounted to 896,592 barrels ; of corn meal, to 46,000 
barrels ; and of rye flour, to 5,441 barrels ; of leather, to 
413,974 sides. Flour and tobacco, however, are the two 
great staples of Baltimore, and well has it been designated 
as " the greatest market for tobacco in the United States, 
and the principal flour market in the world." Its coastwise 
trade is also very extensive, and the shipping of BaltTmore 
is found in every port from Bassamaquoddy Bay to the 
Bio Grande ; the lumber of Maine, and the cotton and sugar 
of the Gulf States are brought here in vast quantities, as are 
also the various manufactures and merchandises of the in- 
termediate Atlantic ports ; in 1S50, 25,000 bales cotton were 
landed from southern ports, and 63,000,000 feet of lumber 
from Bangor and other ports of Maine. The shipping 
owned in the collection district, of which Baltimore is the 
port, amounted on the 1st of June, 1850, to 140,019 tons, of 
which was registered 90,670 tons ; enrolled and licensed 
57,612 tons, and licensed under 20 tons 737 tons ; and of the 
enrolled and licensed tonnage, 13,115 tons, navigated by 
steam-power. In 1849-50, 66 vessels, of an aggregate bur- 
den of 11,6S3 tons, were built in the port district. The Bal- 
timore clippers are pronounced to be the perfection of naval 
architecture ; and they are no less fitted for trade than for 
privateering, in which capacity they made a great figure in 
the last war with England. 

Boston, New York, and New Orleans are the only sea- 
board ports of the Union, the foreign commerce of which 
exceeds that of Baltimore. In 1849-50, the entrances 
amounted to 438 vessels and 99,588 tons, and the clear- 
ances to 521 vessels and 126,819 tons; and the value of mer- 
chandise imported was $6,124,201, and of that exported, 
$6,967,353. The great bulk of the foreign commerce of 
Baltimore is carried on with the States of South America 



and the West India colonies, and the continent of Europe. 
With the British ports in Europe the connection is very 
limited. 

There are 10 banks in Baltimore, with an aggregate 
capital of $7,101,051. The circulation in 1850 amounted 
to $2,073,578, discounts to $10,925,106, and deposits to 
$3,61S,S19, and the amount of specie on hand to $2,113,758. 
There are also a number of insurance companies and sav- 
ings' institutions. 

The city is bountifully supplied with pure and wholesome 
water from public springs and fountains ; these are inclosed 
by circular railings, and covered by small, open templets, 
consisting of columns supporting a dome, which are highly 
ornamental. The city, however, derives its great supply 
from an elevated part of Jones' Falls, from which the wa 
ter is conducted through an aqueduct to a reservoir on Cal- 
vert-street, whence it is distributed in pipes. 

The lines of travel diverging from Baltimore, are : the 
Baltimore and Bhiladelphia E. B., 97 m. long ; the Balti- 
more and Susquehannah B. B., extending to Harrisburg, 
Fa. ; and the Baltimore and Ohio B. B., with a branch E. K. 
to Washington ; and lines of steamships or sail-vessels ply 
to Philadelphia, Norfolk, and other Atlantic ports. These 
great routes of communication unite the city with every 
part of the Union, and insure a rapid and certain transit to 
its ever-increasing trade. 

Baltimore was first laid out as a town in 1729, and in 
1765 it contained only 50 houses. It was chartered as a city 
in 1797. Since this period its increase has been constant, 
and its prosperity material. 

Baltimore, p. v., Warren co., Ind. : on W. side of Wa- 
bash r., 72 m. W. N. W. Indianapolis. 

Baltimore, hund., Sussex co., Del. : facing on the ocean. 
Area 52,210 acres, and population 2,301. 

Baltimore, p. v., Fairfield co., Ohio. : on both sides of 
Miami Canal. 20 m. E. S. E. Columbus. Pop. 492. 

Baltimore, p. v., Barry co., Mich. : 32 m. W. by S. Lan- 
sing. 

Bancroft county, la. Situate N. W., and contains 432 
sq. m., taken from Potto wottomee in 1S51. 

Bancroft, p. v., Hampshire co., Mass.: 118 m. W 
Boston. 

Bangor, t., p. city, port of entry, and cap. Penobscot co., 
Me. : at the head of navigation on the Penobscot r., 30 m. 
N. by E. from Belfast Bay, and 60 from the sea. Lat, 44° 
47' 50" N., and long. 68° 47' W. from Greenwich. Pop. 
14,432. Kenduskeag r. divides the city into two parts, 
which are connected by bridges ; a mile above the city it 
has a fall which affords mill-power. The harbor is spa- 
cious, and at tide is deep enough for the largest vessels. 
The principal staple of trade is timber. The Bangor Theo- 
logical Seminary, and other good schools, are located here ; 
and the periodical press consists of two daily papers, the 
" Mercury" and the " Whig and Courier," and four weekly 
papers, two of which are editions of the daily papers, and the 
others, the " Democrat" and the " Jeffersonian." Churches of 
all denominations are numerous. There is a E. B. extending 
hence to Old Town, and another, the Kennebec and Pen- 
obscot B. B., will afford, when finished, a direct B. B. com- 
munication southward. Steamboats ply regularly to and 
from the river villages, and also to and from Boston and 
Portland. Bangor was incorporated as a town in 1791, and 
was chartered as a city in 1S34. Just above the city, a 
bridge, 1,320 feet long, spans the Penobscot, connecting 
Bangor with Orrington. 

Bangor, t. and p. v., Franklin co., JF. T. : on a tributary 
of Salmon r , 152 m. N. N. W. Albany. The Northern R. B. 
passes through it 63 m. W. Bouse's Point, and 55 E. Og- 
densburg. Pop. 2,160. 

Bank Lick, p. o., Kenton co., Ky. : 62 m. N. Frank 
fort. 

Bankston, p. v., Choctaw co., Miss.: 82 m. N. by E. 
Jackson. 

55 



BAN 



BAR 



Banksville, p. v., Fairfield co., Conn. : 5S in. S. TV. 
Hartford. 

Bankton, p. v., Saline CO., IU. : between the middle and 
S. forks of Saline cr., 156 m. S. S. E. Springfield. 

Banker, p. o., Kane co., III. : 159 m. N. N. E. Spring- 
field. 

Banner, p. o., Lafayette co., Miss. : 134 m. N. Jackson. 

Bannerman, p. o., New Hanover co., If. Car. : 110 m. S. 
by E. Baleigh. 

Bantam, p. o., Clermont co., Ohio : 102 m. S. W. Colum- 
bus. 

Bantam Falls, p. o., Litchfield co., Conn. : 86 m. W. 
Hartford. 

Baptist Mission, p. o., Cherokee Nation, Ind. Ter. 

Baftistown, p. v., Hunterdon co., N. Jer : 29 m. W. N. 
"W". Trenton. 

Baptist Valley, p. o., Tazewell co., Yirg. : 24S m. W. 
by S. Richmond. 

Baraboo, p. v., Sauk co., Wise, : on S. side Baraboo r., 
33 m. N. by W. Madison. 

Barber's, p. o., Columbia co., Flor. 

Barber's Corners, p. o., Will co., III. : 143 m. N. N. E. 
Springfield. 

Barber's Creek, p. o., Jackson co., Ga. : 60 m. N. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Barber's Cross Roads, p. o., Isle of "Wight co., Virg. : 
64 m. S. E. Eichmond. 

Barbersvtlle. p. v., Jefferson co., Ind. : 76 m. S. E. In- 
dianapolis. 

Barbour county, Ala. Situated S. E. on Chattahoochee 
r., and contains 9S0 sq. m. Drained by numerous creeks 
of Chattahoochee r., the head waters of Choctawatchie r., 
and Pea r., which forms its W. border. Surface undulat- 
ing, and the soils generally fertile. Corn and cotton are 
the staple products. Farms 1,325 ; manuf. 39 ; dwell. 2,306, 
and pop.— wh. 12,842, fr. col. 10; si. 10,780— total 23,632. 
Capital: Clayton. 

Barbour county, Virg. Situate N. W., and contains 
3S0 sq. m. Drained by the numerous creeks forming the 
E. fork of Monongahela r. Surface much diversified, some- 
what rough, and soils rich, producing wheat, corn, oats, and 
tobacco abundantly. Maple sugar is made largely. Farms 
1,075; dwell. 1,467, and pop.— wh. 8,671, fr. col. 221, si. 
118— total 9,005. Capital: Phillippa. 

Barbour, p. v., Choctaw co., Ala. : IIS m. W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Barbour's Mills, p. o., Lycoming co., Penn. : S6 m. N. 
by W. Harrisburg. 

Barboursville, p. v., and cap. Knox co., Ky. : on N. side 
Cumberland r., 112 m. S. E. by S. Frankfort. 

Barboursville, p. v., Cabell co., Yirg. : on N. bank of 
Guyandotte r., 260 m. "W. by N. Eichmond. 

Barboursville, p. v., Orange co., Virg. : 64 m. N. W. 
Eichmond, near the line of the Central K. E. 

Barboursvtlle, p. v., Delaware co., If. Y. : 96 m. TV. S. 
TV. Albany. 

Barcelona, p. v., Chautauque co., If. Y. : on Lake Erie, 
29S m. TV. Albany, and on the Buffalo and State Line E. E. 
It is a port, and place of considerable business. 

Barclay, p. v., TVhitesides co., IU. 

Barclaysytlle, p. v., Cumberland co., A 7 ! Car. 
Bardstown, p. v., and cap. Nelson eo., Ky. : on E. side 
of Beech fork of Salt r., 42 m. S. TV. Frankfort. It is the 
site of St. Joseph's College, a Catholic institution. 
Baresville, p. o., Monroe co., Ohio : 108 m. E. Columbus. 
Bareville, p. v., Lancaster co., Penn. 
Bargain-town, p. v., Atlantic co., If. Jer. : 56 m. S. by E. 
Trenton. 

Barges, p. o., Butler co., Ala. : on Pine Barren cr., 48 m. 
S. TV. Montgomery. 

Barhamsytlle, p. v., New Kent co., Yirg.: 40 m. E. 
Richmond. 
Bar Harbor, p. o., Hancock co., Me. : 9S m. TV. Augusta. 
56 



Baring, t. and p. v., Washington co., Me. : on St. Croix 
r., 133 m. E. by N. Augusta. The Calais and Baring E. E., 
6 m. long, connects it with Calais. Pop. 330. 

Barker's Settlement, p. v., Barbour co., Yirg. : 172 m. 
N. W. Richmond. 

Baekersville, p. v., Saratoga co., If. Y. 

Barkersville, p. v., Marion co., la. : 88 m. W. by S. 
Iowa City. N 

Barkiiamstead, t. and p. o., Litchfield co., Conn.: on a 
branch of Farmington r., 24 m. N. W. Hartford. Pop. 1,525. 

Bark River, t. and p. o., Jeffersoc co., Wise. : 31 m. E. 
Madison. 

Barksdale, p. o., Halifax co., Yirg. : on a cr. of Eoan- 
oke r., 9S m. S. TV. Eichmond. 

Barlow, t and p v., Washington co., Ohio: 78 m. E. S. 
E. Columbus. Pop. 1,062. 

Barnard, t. and p. o., Windsor eo., Venn. : on tributaries 
of White and Queechee rivers, 83 m. S. Montpelier. P.1,647, 

Barnardsyille, p. v., Eoane co., Tenn. : on S. side of 
Tennessee r., 124 m. E. by S. Nashville. 

Barnborough, p. v., Gloucester co., A 7 ! Jer. 

Barnegat, v., Dutchess co., A 7 ". Y. : on E. side of Hudson 
r., 4 m. S. of Poughkeepsie, and 7S m. S. Albany. Noted 
for its lime. 

Barnegat, p. v., Ocean co., AT Jer. : 56 m. S. E. Trenton. 

Barnegat Bay ant> Inlet, If. Jer. : a long, narrow bay, 
separated from the ocean by Island Beach and Squam 
Beach, and having its entrance southward by an inlet of the 
same name. It is 20 m. long, and from 1 to 4 m. wide, 
and receives several considerable creeks, of which Metede- 
cunk r., at its N. extremity, is the largest, 

Barnerville, p. v., Schoharie co., A 7 ". Y. : 38 m. W. by S. 
Albany. 

Barnes, p. o., Eichland co., Ohio. : 58 m. N. by E. Co- 
lumbus. 

Barnes' Corners, p. o., Lewis co., If. Y. : 123 m. N. W. 
Albany. 

Barnes' Cross Eoads, p. o., Dale co., Ala. : 90 m. S. E. 
Montgomery. 

Barnesville, p. v., Pike co., Ala. : 42 m. S. S. E. Mont- 
gomery. 

Barnesville, p. v., Montgomery co., Ga. : 73 m. S. E. 
Milledgeville. 

Barnesville, p. v., Belmont co., Ohio : 96 m. E. by N. 
Columbus. 

Barnet, t. and p. v., Caledonia co., Verm. : on W. side 
Connecticut r., 27 m. E. Montpelier. The Connecticut and 
Passumpsic Rivers E. E. passes through it, 51 m. N. of 
White Eiver Junction, and 9 m. S. St. Johnsbury. P. 2,521. 

Barneys, p. o., Philips co., Ark. 

Barnhaet's Island, If. Y. : the most northerly of the 
St. Lawrence r. islands, belonging to the United States. 

Barnhaet's Mills, p. o., Butler co., Penn. : 170 m. W. 
by N. Harrisburg. 

Barn Island (Great), If. Y. : lies in the East r. N. of 
Hell Gate, 147 m. S. by E. Albany, and is about 2 m. in cir- 
cuit. Little Barn Island lies to the N. E., and is separ- 
ated from the above by a narrow channel called Little Hell 
Gate, and at the confluence of Harlem r. with East r. 

Barnstable county, Mass. Situate S. E., and contains 
about 335 sq. m. This county includes the whole of Cape 
Cod, and is a sandy, unproductive region. Farms 7S9; 
manuf. 423; dwell. 6,532, and pop.— wh. 35,153, fr. col. 123 
—total 35,276. A great portion of the male inhabitants de- 
rive their living from the fisheries or other maratime em- 
ployments. Capital: Barnstable. 

Barnstable, t., p. v., sea-port, and cap. Barnstable co., 
Mass. : on Barnstable Bay, 62 m. S. E. Boston. Tonnage 
of the port 91,102 tons, chiefly employed in the fisheries. 
The Uiy opens on Cape Cod Bay, and at its bar has from 6 
to 7 feet water. Pop. 4,902. 

Baknstead, t. and p. v., Belknap co., If. Uamp. : on 
Suncook r., IS m. N. E. Concord. Pop. 1,S48. 



BAR 



BAS 



Barnwell district, S. Car. Situate S. W., and contains 
1,160 sq. m., lying between the Savannah and tho South 
Edisto rivers. Drained by tho Salkawatchie, and the trib- 
utaries of the two first named rivers. There are several 
sulphur springs in tho district. Surface undulating and in- 
clining to the S. W. ; and the soils fertile. Indian corn, 
rice, and cotton are the principal products. Farms 1,55S; 
manuf. S5; dwell. 2,460, and pop.— wh. 12,2S9, fr. col. 311. 
si. 14,0OS— total 26,60S. Capital : Barnwell. Public Works : 
South Carolina K. E. 

Barnwell, p. v., and cap. Barnwell dist., S. Car. : on 
Turkey cr., near Salkahatchie r., 5T m. S. S. W. Columbia. 

Barracksville, p. v., Marion co., Virg. 

Barre, t. and p. v., Worcester co., Mass. : on "Ware r., 
56 m. W. Boston. Two newspapers, the " Barre Patriot" 
and the " Barre Gazette," are issued weekly. Pop. 2,976. 

Barre, t. and p. v., Washington co., Verm. : on Onion 
r., S m. S. by E. Montpelier. The town furnishes fino 
building granite: the State House at Montpelier is con- 
structed of material furnished from its quarries. Pop. 1,8S5. 

Barre Centre, p. o., Orleans co., If. Y. : 226 m. W. Al- 
bany. 

Barren county, Ky. Situate S. centrally, and contains 
546 sq. m. Drained by the head waters of Big Barren, 
an arm of Green r. Surface uneven, and sometimes roll- 
ing, and soils of average fertility, producing largely tobacco 
and the cereals. Farms 1,813; manuf. 33; dwell. 2,667, 
and pop.— wh. 15,543, fr. col. 113, si. 4,5S4— total 20,240. 
Capital: Glasgow. Public Works: Nashville and Lex- 
ington E. E. 

Barren, p. o., Harrison co., Ind. : 112 m. S. Indianapolis. 

Barren, p. o., Williamson co., Tenn. : 22 m. S. Nashville. 

Barren Creek Springs, p. o., Somerset co., Mil. : on N. 
side Barren cr. of the Nanticoke, 55 m. S. E. Annapolis. 

Barren Grove, p. o., Bureau co., III. : 54 m. N. Spring- 
field. 

Barren Hill, p. o., Montgomery co., Peivn. : 92 m. E. 
by S. Harrisburg. 

Barren Hill, p. o., Henry co., Tenn. : SS m. W. by N. 
Nashville. 

Barren Plain, p. o., Eobertson co., Tenn. : 26 m. N. 
Nashville. 

Barren Bidge, p. o., Vanzant co., Tex. : 2S8 m. N. N. 
E. Austin City. 

Barren rivers, (Big and Little), Ky. : tributaries of 
Green r. 

Baerettsvtlle, p. v., Lumpkin co., Ga. : 106 m. N. W. 
Milledgeville. 

Barreville, p. v., M'Henry co., El. : on W. side Fox r., 
183 m. N. E. Springfield. 

Barrington, p. v., Cook co.. III. : in N. W. part of co., 
1S2 m. N. E. Springfield. 

Barrington, t. and p. v., Strafford co., K Ramp. : 28 
m. E. Concord. The " Devil's Den," a curious cave with 
several large chambers, exists under this town— one of the 
chambers is 60 feet long, 10 to 15 feet high, and 8 wide. It 
has also numerous small lakes, the outlets of which afford 
water power. Pop. 1,754. 

Barrington, t. and p. v., Tates co., If. Y. : on E. side 
of Crooked Lake, 176 m. W. Albany. Pop. 1,556. 

Barrington, t. and p. v., Bristol co., P. I. : 8 m. E. S. E. 
Providence. Pop. 795." 

Bahr's Store, p. o., Macoupin co., III. : 42 m. S. W. 
Springfield. 

Barry county, Mich. Situate W. centrally, and contains 
576 sq. m. Drained by Thorn Apple r., a tributary of Grand 
r., and in the S. by streams flowing to the Kalamazoo. 
Surface undulating, well timbered, and soils fertile. Farms 
733 ; manuf. 26 ; dwell. 1,037, and pop.— wh. 5,033, fr. col. 
39— total 5,072. Capital: Hastings. 

Barrt county, Mo. Situate S. W. on the State line, and 
contains 650 sq. m. Drained E. by tributaries of White r. 
and W. by the head waters of Neosho r. of the Arkansas. 

H 



Surface undulating; in tho W. and middle hilly and broken. 
Timber abundant. Farms 3S9 ; manuf. 2 ; dwell. 544, and 
pop.— wh. 3,317, fr. col. 0, si. 150— total 3,467. Capital: 
Cassville. 

Barry, t. and p. v., Schuylkill co,, Penn.: on Deep cr. 
of the Susquehanna, 44 m. N. E. Harrisburg. 

Barky, p. v., Pike co., III. : 7S m. W. Springfield. 

Barky, p. v., Lawrence co., Ark. : 113 m. N. N. E. Lit- 
tle Rock. 

Barry, p. v., Frederick co., Mel. : C2 m. W. N. W. An- 
napolis. 

Barry, p. v., Jackson co., Midi. : on Sandstone cr., and 
on the line of the Michigan Central li. E., 30 m. S. Lan- 
sing. 

Barry, p. v., Clay co., Mo. : 186 m. W. N. W. Jefferson 
City. 

Barry, p. v., Cuyahoga co., Ohio: 126 m. N. N. E. Co- 
lumbus. 

Barry's Bridge, p. o., Lunenburg co., Virg. : 66 m. S. 
W. Richmond. 

Barryton, p. v., Choctaw co. (formerly cap. Washington 
co.), Ala. : on Oka Tappah cr. of Tombigbee r., US m. W. 
S. W. Montgomery. 

Barkytown, p. v., Duchess co., If. Y. : on E. side of 
Hudson r., 45 m. S. Albany. 

Barryville, p. v., Sullivan co., If. Y.: 9S m. S. W. Al- 
bany. 

Barryvtlle, p. v., Stark co., Ohio: 112 m. N. W. Co- 
lumbus. 

Bart, t. and p. o., Lancaster co., Penn : at the head of 
Octarara cr., 4S m. E. Harrisburg. Pop. 3,838. 

Barter Brook, p. o., Augusta co., Virg. : 9S m. W. 
Richmond. 

Bartuolomew county, Ind. Situate S., and contains 
405 sq. m. The principal streams are Driftwood r., Flat 
Rock cr., and Clifty cr., which have extensive bottoms. 
Surface hilly and broken in the W., but elsewhere level or 
undulating. In the bottoms the soil is a rich alluvion mix- 
ed with disintegrated limestone and gravel; tho hilly parts 
have a clay soil. Every part of the county is well adapted 
to agriculture. Farms 1,249; manuf. 49 ; dwell. 2,149, and 
pop.— wh. 12,346, fr. col. S2— total 12,42S. Capital : Co- 
lumbus. Public Works : Madison and Indianapolis R. R., 
and the Columbus and Jeffersonville R. R. 

Bartholomew, p. o., Drew co., Ark. : on E. side Bayou 
Bartholomew, 104 m. S. E. Little Rock. 

Bartlett, t. and p. v., Coos co., If. Ramp. : on Saco r., 
at the foot of the White mts., 68 m. N. E. Concord. P. 761. 

Bartlett, p. v., Washington co., Ohio : 76 m. S. E. Co- 
lumbus. 

Barton, t. and p. v., Tioga co., If. Y. : on the Susque- 
hanna and Chemung rivers, 128 m. W. S. W. Albany. 

Barton, t. and p. v., Orleans co., Verm. : on Barton r., 
36 m. N. E. Montpelier. Pop. 9S7. 

Barton, p. y., Lowndes co., Miss. : 12S m. N. E. Jack- 
son. 

Barton, p. v., Washington co., Wise. : 76 m. E. N. E. 
Madison. 

Barton Hill, p. o., Schoharie co., If. Y. : 3S m. W. Al- 
bany. 

Barton's Creek, p. o., Dickson co., Tenn.: 43 m. W. 
Nashville. 

Barton's Landing, p. o., Orleans co., Verm. 

Bartonsville, p. v., Monroe co., Penn. : 112 m. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Bartonsville, p. v., Windham co., Verm- : 92 m. S. 
Montpelier. 

Basan, p. o., Meigs co., Ohio : 84 m. S. E. Columbus. 

Bascobel, p. v., Jackson co., Ga. : 74 m. N. by W. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Bascom, p. o., Seneca co., Ohio : SO m. N. N.W. Columbus. 

Base Lake, p. o., Washtenaw co., Mich. : 46 m. S. E. 
Lansing. 

57 



BA£ 



BAT 



Basiiam's Gap, p. o., Morgan co., Ala. : 14S m. N. by 
W. Montgomery. 

Basiia_m's Mills, p. o., Johnson co., Ark. : S2 m. W. by 
N. Little Bock. 

Bashi, p. v., Clark co., Ala. : 9S m. S. W. Montgom- 
ery. 

Basin Knob, p. o., Johnson co., Mo. : 102 m. W. by N. 
Jefferson City. 

Baskeneidge, p. v., Somerset co., Jf. Jer.: 42 m. N. by 
E. Trenton, memorable for the capture of Gen. Lee by the 
English in the Revolutionary War. 

Basnettville, p. v., Marion co., Yirg. 

Bass Lake, p. o., Dajie co., Wise. 

Bass River Hotel, p. o., Burlington co., A! Jer. : 57 m. 
B. E. Trenton. 

Bastrop county, Tex. Situate S. W. on Colorado r., and 
contains about 1,400 sq. m. Drained by numerous creeks 
of the Colorado, which traverses the county from N. W. to 
S. E. Surface generally elevated and undulating — in the 
N. some low hills. The streams are fringed 'with heavy 
timber, between which are small and beautiful prairies. 
Soils a deep black mold mixed with sand. Indigo and 
wild grapes grow spontaneously, and the lands are highly 
favorable for cotton. Earms 219 ; manuf. 9 ; dwell. S7T, and 
pop.— wh. 3,1S0, fr. col. 0, si. 919— total 4,099. Capital ; 
Bastrop. 

Basteop, p. v., and cap. Morehause par., La. : on W. side 
of Bayou Bartholomew, 162 m. N. by "W. Baton Bouge. 

Bastrop, p. v., and cap. Bastrop co., Tex. : on N. side Bio 
Colorado, 26 m. E. S. E. Austin City. It is the centre of a 
rich agricultural country, and has great advantages as an 
interior commercial village. 

Batavia, p. v., Kane co., III. : on the Aurora branch of 
the Galena and Chicago Union B. B., 36 m. W. Chicago, 
and 194 m. N. N. E. Springfield. 

Batavta, t., p. v., and cap. Genesee co., K. Y. : on Tona- 
wanda cr., 226 m. W. Albany. Several railroads terminate 
at and pass through the place ; and there are two newspa- 
pers, the " Republican Advocate" (whig), and the " Spirit 
of the Times" (dem.), issued weekly. It is a neat village, 
and has considerable trade. Pop. of t. 4.461. 

Batavta, t and p. v., Branch co., Midi. : on Southern 
Michigan E. R., 60 m. S. Lansing. Pop. 724. 

Batavia, p. v., and cap. Clermont co., Ohio : on the N. 
bank of the E. fork of Little Miami r., SS m. S. W. Colum- 
bus. The " Clermont Sun" (dem.), and the " Clermont 
Courier" (whig), are published weekly. The village has 
some manufactures. 

Batavia Kill, p. o., Delaware co., 2> T . T. : 77 m. S. W. 
Albany. 

Bateman's Store, p. o., Houston co., Ga. : 42 m. S. S. 
W. MiUedgeviUe. 

Bates county, Mo. Situate S. "W. on State line, and con- 
tains 7S0 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Osage r. Sur- 
face undulating — principally prairie, and soils very fertile. 
Timber plentiful on the rivers. Farms 472 ; dwell. 626, and 
pop.— wh. 3,520, fr. col. 8, si. 140— total 3,668. Capital: 
Batesville. 

Batesville, p. v., and cap. Independence co., Ark. : on 
left bank of White r., 7S m. N. N. E. Little Bock. 

Batesville, p. v., Habersham co., Ga. : 133 m. N. by W. 
Milledgeville. 

Batesville, p. v., Guernsey co., Ohio : 92 m. E. Colum- 
bus. 

Batesville. p. v., and cap. Bates co. {formerly Harmo- 
ny Mission), Mo. : on N. bank of Osage r., 126 m. "W. Jef- 
ferson City. 

Batti county, Ky. Situate N. E., and contains 260 sq. 
m. Drained by Slate and other creeks, tributaries of Lick- 
ing r., which forms its E. Border. Surface occasionally 
hilly with much level or rolling lands; and the soils very 
fertile. The chief products consist of the cereals and to- 
bacco. Farms 1,018; manuf. 23; dwell. 1,595, and pop. — 
53 



wh. 9,477, fr. col. 103, si. 2,535— total 12,114. Capital. 
Otvingsvillc. 

Bath county, Yirg. Situate centrally among the Alle- 
ghanies, and contains 756 sq. m. Watered by the head 
streams of James r., flowing E., and of Greenbrier, flowing 
"W. to the Ohio. It is an elevated hilly country, and con- 
tains a number of medicinal springs. Soils very fertile in 
the valleys, producing grain, and feeding thousands of cat- 
tle and sheep. Farms 261; manuf 17; dwell. 410, and 
pop.— wh. 2,436, fr. col. 43, si. 947— total 3,426. Capital : 
Bath C. H. 

Batii, p. v., Franklin co., Ind. : (see Mixeeyille). 

Bath, p. v., and cap. Mason co., III. : on the E. bank of 
Illinois r., 3S m. N. W. Springfield. 

Bath, t., p. c, and sea-port, Lincoln co., Me. • on W. 
bank of Kennebec r., 12 m. from the ocean, and 2S S. Au- 
gusta. It is one of the principal commercial towns of the 
State, and is largely engaged in ship-building. Tonnage, 
103,626 tons, of which 76,606 tons are employed in foreign 
commerce. A branch of the Kennebec and Portland E. R., 
9 m. long, connects the place with the general railroad sys- 
tem of the U. S. Six newspapers are published here — the 
"Northern Tribune" (whig), tri-weekly and weekly; the 
" Eastern Times" (dem.) ; the " Weekly Mirror" (neutral), 
and the " Sagadahock Review" (neutral), weekly ; and the 
" Journal of Education," semi-monthly. Pop. 8,020. 

Bath, p. v., Beaufort co., A". Car. : on a cr. of Pamlico 
Sound, 12S m. E. Baleigh. 

Bath, t. and p. o., Grafton co., N.'Hamp. : on Ammo- 
noosuc r., at its confluence with Connecticut r., 69 m. N. N. 
E. Concord. At the v. the Ammonoosuc is crossed by a 
bridge 350 feet long. Pop. oft. 1.514. 

Bath, t., p. v., and cap. Steuben co., A! Y. : on the Con- 
hocton r., 173 m. W. S. W. Albany. The " Steuben Cou- 
rier" (whig), the " Farmer's Advocate," and " Steuben 
Democrat" (dem.), are published weekly. The village is 
an important station on the Buffalo, Corning, and New 
York City R. R., and has a large number of flourishing 
flour and saw mills. Pop. of t. 6,185. 

Bath, t. and p. v., Summit co., Ohio : on a cr. of Cuya- 
hoga r., 10S m. N. E. Columbus. Pop. 1,400. 

Bath, p. v., Northampton co., JPenn. : 90 m. E. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Bath, p. v., and cap. Bath co., Yirg. : 132 m. W. N. W. 
Richmond. The village is noted for its medicinal springs : 
the Warm Spring at this place has a temperature of 96° 
Fa7u\, and about 6 m. S. W. are hot springs, the tempera- 
ture being 112° ; these are much visited by invalids. 

Bath Alum, p. v., Bath co., Yirg. 

Bath Spring, p. o., Decatur co., Term. 

Baton" Rouge, East, parish, La. Situate on the E. bank 
of Mississippi r., and contains 2SS sq. m. The lands are 
well drained by numerous streams, tributaries of Amitie r., 
which borders it E. Surface slightly elevated above flood 
mark. Soils productive of corn, cotton, and sugar. Farms 
2S7, dwell. 1,044, and pop.— wh. 5,347, fr. col. 279, si. 6,851 
—total 11,977. Cajyitul: Baton Rouge. 

Baton Bouge, West, parish, La. Situate W. side of 
Mississippi, and contains 576 sq. m. Drained by creeks 
and bayoux falling into Bayou Atchafalaya, which borders 
it S. and W. Surface low, level, and subject to inundation, 
except along the streams where the land is slightly ele- 
vated. Cotton is the principal production. Farms 188; 
dwell. 392, and pop.— wh. 1,818, fr. col. 102, si. 4,350— total 
6,270. Capital : West Baton Rouge. 

Baton Rouge, p. v., and cap. East Baton Rouge par., 
La., and cap. of the State of Louisiana: on E. bank of Mis- 
sissippi r., 245 m. from its mouth, and 1,120 S. W. Washing- 
ton. It is the site of an Y. S. barracks, and contains the State 
House, the Louisiana Penitentiary, county offices, and other 
handsome public and private dwellings. It is mostly built 
upon an elevated plain, some 25 or 30 feet above the river, 
the business portion being at the foot of the bluff. The 



BAT 



BEA 



"Baton Eouge Gazette," and "Democratic Advocate," are 

published weekly. Pop. 4,262, 
Baton Eouge, C. H., p. v., and cap. "West Baton Eouge, 

La. : on the W. side of the Mississippi r., immediately oppo- 
site Baton Eouge. 

Baton Eouge, p. v., Chester dist., S. Car. : 62 m. N. Co- 
lumbia. 
Battahatchte river, Ala. and Miss. : a tributary of Tom- 

bigbee r. — it rise9 in Alabama, and after a course of 70 m. 

disembogues in Monroe eo., Miss. 
Batten Kill, a tributary of the Hudson r. from Vermont. 

It has a course of about 50 m., in which it furnishes many 

excellent mill sites, and falls into the Hudson below Fort 
Miller Bridge. 

Battenytlle, p. v., Washington co., N. T. : 38 m. N. E. 
Albany. 

Battleboeough, p. v., Edgecomb co., AT Car. : 46 m. E. 
by N. Ealeigh. 

Battle Creek, p. v., Calhoun co., JiS-oh. : at the junction 
of Battle cr. and Kalamazoo r., 42 m. S. W. Lansing. The 
Michigan Central E. E. intersects the v. 120 m. "W. Detroit. 
Battle Cbeek, p. o., Marion co., Tenn. 
Battle Ckeek, Mich. : the largest branch of Kalamazoo 
r. It is about 40 m. long, and furnishes many good mill 
sites. 

Battlefield, p. o., Lauderdale co., Miss.: 88 m. E. 
Jackson. 

Battle Geound, p. o., Tippecanoe co., Ind. : on the W. 
side Tippecanoe r., 66 m. N. "W. Indianapolis. Famous as 
the scene of General Harrison's victory over the Indians. 

Baumstown, p. v., Berks co., Perm. : 52 m. E. by 27. Har- 
risburg. 

Bayington, p. o., Washington co., Penn.: 192 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Baxter's, p. o., Muskingum co., Ohio : 50 m.W. Columbus. 

Bat, p. o., Pope co., III. : on Big Bay cr., 18S m. S. S. E. 
Springfield. 

Bat Hundbed, p. o., Talbot co., Md. : on E. side of East- 
ern Bay of the Chesapeake, 23 m. S. E. Annapolis. 

Bat Mount, p. o., Greene co., Tenn. : 132 m. E. Nash- 
ville. 

Bayou Chicot, p. v., St. Landry par., La. : 66 m. W. N. 
"W. Baton Eouge. 

Batou Goula, p. v., Iberville par., La. : 22 m. W. by S. 
Baton Eouge. 

Batou Piebee, p. o., Caddo par., La. : 172 m. N. "W. Ba- 
ton Eouge. 

Batou Eamois, p. o., St. Mary's par., La. : 58 m. S. W. 
Baton Eouge. 

Batou Eouge, p. o., Avoyelles par., La. : 53 m. N. "W. 
Baton Eouge. 

Bat's Bottom, p. o., Gallia co., Ohio : 9S m. S. E. Co- 
lumbus. Pop. 1,302. 

Bazett, p. o., Navarre co., Tex. : on the "W. side of Trin- 
ity r., 210 m. N. N. E. Austin City. 

Bazetta, t. and p. v., Trumbull co., Ohio : 145 m. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Beacii Beanch, p. o., Beaufort dist., S. Car. : 112 m. S. 
Columbia. 

Beach Geoye, p. o., Lucerne co., Penn. : 102 m. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Beach Haven, p. v., Lucerne co., Penn. : 98 m. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Beam Hill, p. 3., Ulster co., AT T.:T2 m. S. Albany. 

Beach Land, p. o., Chattooga co., Ga. : 162 m. N. W. 
Milledgeville. 

Beale's Mills, p. o., Juniata co., Penn. : 84 m. W. Har- 
risburg. 

Beallsville, p. v., "Washington co., Penn. : 208 m. W. by 
B. Harrisburg. 

Beallsville, p. v., Monroe co., Ohio: 104 m. E. Co- 
lumbus. 

Beamsvtlle, p. v., Darke co., Ohio : 92 m. W. Columbus. 



Bean Blossom, p. o., Brown co., Ind. : on a cr. so called, 
38 m. S. Indianapolis. 

Bean's Station, p. o., Grainger co., Tenn. : 1S8 m. E. by 
N. Nashville. 

Beantown, p. v., Charles co., Md. : 38 m. S. "W. Anna- 
polis. 

Beab Beanch, p. o., Duplin co., AT Car. : 52 m. S. S. E. 
Ealeigh. 

Beab Beanch, p. o., Ohio co., Ind. : 86 m. S. E. Indian- 
apolis. 

Beab Cbeek, p. o., Jay co., Ind. : on a cr. so called, a 
tributary of Wabash r., 62 m. E. N. E. Indianapolis. 

Beab Cbeek, p. o., Montgomery co., III. : 46 m. S. Spring- 
field. 

Beak Cbeek, p. o., Cedar co., Mo. : on a cr. so called, a 
tributary of Sac r. of the Ossage, 60 m. S. W. Jefferson 
City. 

Beab Cbeek, p. o., Poweshiek co., la. : 46 m. W. Iowa 
City. 

Beab Cbeek, p. o., Lucerne co., Penn. : 86 m. N.E. Har- 
risburg. 

Beab Cbeek, p. o., Montgomery co., Ohio. : 82 m. W. 
Columbus. 

Beab Cbeek, p. o., Sauk co., Wise. : 48 m. W. by N. Ma- 
dison. 

Bear Cbeek, p. o., Pickens eo., Ala. : 124 m. N. "W. 
Montgomery. 
Beab Cbeek, p. o., Sabine co., Tex. : 246 m. E. Austin City. 
Beaed's Bluff, p. o., Marshall co., Ala. : 132 m. N. 
Montgomery. 

Beabdstown, p. v., and cap. Cass co., III. : on E. side of 
the Illinois r., 48 m. W. by N. Springfield. 

Beardstown, p. v., Perry co., Tenn. : 78 m. S. "W. Nash- 
ville. 

Beab Gap, p. o., Northumberland co., Penn. : 72 m. N. 
Harrisburg. 

Beabmont, p. o., Schuylkill co., Penn. : 52 m. E. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Beab Bange, p. o., Autauga co., Ala. : 28 m. N. W. 
Montgomery. 
Beaesville, p. v., Ulster co., N. Y. : 69 m. S. S. E. Albanj\ 
Beartown, p. v., Lancaster co., Penn. : 48 m. S. E. Har- 
risburg. 

Bear Wallow, p. o., Barren co., Ky. : 103 m. S. by "W. 
Frankfort. 
Beaselet, p. o., Jefferson co., Flor. 
Bbatie's Bluff, p. o., Madison co., Miss. : 32 m. N. by 
E. Jackson. 

Beattie's Foed, p. o., Lincoln co., IT. Car. : 142 m. "W. 
by S. Ealeigh. 

Beatty's Bridge, p. o., Bladen co., Iff. Car. : S4 m. S. 
Ealeigh. 
Bbaty's Mills, p. o., Marion co., Tira. 
Beattstown, p. v., Warren eo., N. Jer. : on Muscone- 
teong cr., at the W. base of Schooley'a mt., 52 m. N. Tren- 
ton. 

Beaufoet county, AT Car. Situate E. on Pamlico and 
Pungo rivers, and contains 670 sq. m. Surface flat, and 
subject to inundation. Cotton and rice the staples. Farms 
594; manuf. 73; dwell. 1,663, and pop. — wh. 7,663, fr. col. 
904, si. 5,249— total 13,S16. Capital: Washington. 

Beaufort district, S. Car. Situate in 5. W. corner of 
the State, and contains 1,120 sq. m. Facing S. E. on the 
Atlantic, and lying between the Savannah and Cambahee 
rivers, and drained by their tributaries and the Coosawat- 
chie r. The coast is lined with a number of islands, the 
largest of which are Hilton Head, St. Helena, and Port 
Eoyal, which form a number of canals and inlets. Surface 
low and marshy, and soil generally sand}'. The chief pro- 
ducts are Indian corn, rice, and cotton. Farms S42 ; manuf. 
13 ; -dwell. 1.3S5, and pop.— wh. 5,945, fr. col. 581, si. 32,279 
— total 3S,S05. Capital : Coosawatchie. 
Beaufoet, p. v., sea-port, and cap. Cartaret co., AT Car. : 

59 



BEA 



BED 



126 m. E. S. E. Ealeigh. The harbor is spacious and safe, 
and admits vessels drawing 14 feet water, entrance being 
had by Old Topsail Inlet, 11 m. N. W. Cape Lookout, The 
port has a good commerce, and the shipping belonging to 
the district in 1S50 was 2,250 tons, chiefly coasters. On 
Bogue Point, at the entrance of the harbor, stands .Fort 
Macon. 

Beaufort, p. v., Franklin co., Mo. : 58 m. E. Jefferson 
City. 

Beaufort, p. v., sea-port, and cap. Beaufort, dist., S. Car. : 
on the W. side of Port Royal r., an inlet of the Atlantic, 16 
m. from the sea and 156 S. Columbia. The harbor is good, 
but on account of a bar at the mouth, vessels of more 
than 11 feet draft are prevented entrance. It has little or 
no commerce, and the site is unhealthy. 

Beaumont, p. o., Lucerne co., Penn. : T2 m. N. E. Har- 
risburg. 

Beaumont, p. v., and cap. Jefferson co., Tex. : on the W. 
bank of Neches r., 2S m. above its entrance into Sabine 
Bay, and 224 m. E. by S. Austin City. 

Beaver county, Penn. Situate W., and contains 8S2 sq. 
m. Drained by Beaver r. and the Ohio, which flows through 
it. Surface uneven, sometimes hilly, but soils fertile. Coal 
and iron are abundant. Farms 1,S41 ; manuf. 1S6 ; dwell. 
4,564, and pop.— wh. 26,444, fr. col. 245— total 26,6S9. Cap- 
ital: Beaver. Public Works: Cleveland and Pittsburg 
E. E., Ohio and Pennsylvania E. R., Beaver and Erie 
Canal, etc. 

Beaver, t. and p. v., Pike co., Ohio : on the line of the 
Cincinnati, Hillsboro', and Parkersburg E. E., 62 in. S. by 
E. Columbus. Pop. 520. 

Beaver, p. v., Anderson co., Tex. : 216 m. N. E. Austin 
City. 

Beaver, p. v., and cap. Beaver co., Penn. : at the con- 
fluence of Big Beaver r. with the Ohio r., 30 m., by the 
river course, below Pittsburg, and 1ST m, W. Harrisburg. 
Two newspapers, the " B. Argus," and the " Western Star" 
(whig), are issued weekly. Pop. 2,550. 

Beaver, p. v., Boone co., III. : on a cr. of Rock r., 164 
m. N. by E. Springfield. 

Beaver Brook, p. o., Sullivan co., A r . Y. : 121 m. S. S. 
W. Albany. 

Beaver Creek, p. v., Bond co., HI. : on Beaver cr. of 
Kaskaskia r., 72 m. S. by E. Springfield. 

Beaver Creek, p. o,, Pulaski co., Ind. : on a cr. of Tip- 
pecanoe r., SI m. N. N. W. Indianapolis. 

Beaver Creek, p. o., Washington co., Md. : on a cr. of 
Antietam r., 74 m. N. W. Annapolis. 

Beaver Creek, p. o., Campbell co., Yirg. : 9S m. W. by 
S. Richmond. 

Beaver Dam, p. o., Kosciusko CO., Ind. : 105 m. N. In- 
dianapolis. 

Beaver Dam, p. o., Union co., A 7 *. Car. : 116 m. S. W. 
Raleigh, 

Beaver Dam, p. o., Goochland co., Yirg. : 21 m. W. 
Richmond. 

Beaver Dam, p. o., Dodge co., Wise. : 51 m. N. E. Mad- 
ison. 

Beater Dam, p. o., Allen co., Ohio : 89 m. N. W. Co- 
lumbus. 

Beaver Dam, p. o., Clark co., Miss. : 9S m. E. by S. 
Jackson. 

Beaver Dam DepSt, p. o., Hanover co., Yirg. : on the 
line of the Virginia Central E. E., 40 m. (2S m. direct) N. 
W. Richmond. 

Beaver Dam Forks, p. o., Tipton co., Tenn. : 15S m. 
W. S. "W. Nashville. 

Beaver Dam Springs, p. o., Hickman co., Tenn. : 42 m. 
S. W. Nashville. 

Beaver Dams, p. o., Chemung CO., A 7 ! Y. : 162 m. W. S. 
W. Albany. 

Beaver Island, p. o., Michilimackinac co., Mich.: 212 
m. N. N. W. Lansing. The Beavers are a cluster of islands 
60 



at the entrance of Lake Michigan. The largest, Big Beaver, 
contains about 25,000 acres, and is now m possession of a 
band of Mormons, under the direction of Strang, one of 
the most eminent advocates of the church. 

Beaver Kill, p. o., Sullivan co., A! Y. : on a cr. of same 
name, tributary to the Papacton Branch of Delaware r., 74 
m. S. S. W. Albany. 

Beaver Meadow, p. o., Chenango co., 21. Y.: 101 m. 
W. Albany. 

Beaver Meadows, p. o., Carbon co., Penn. : in the an- 
thracite coal region of the Lehigh r., 78 m. N. E. Harris- 
burg. Pop. 525. 

Beaver Ponds, p. o., Montgomery co., Ky. : 60 m. E. by 
S. Frankfort. 

Beaver EiDge, p. o., Knox co., Tenn. : 153 m. E. by S. 
Nashville. 

Beaver Ruin, p. o., Union co., Ark. : 108 m. S. Little 
Rock. 

Beavee Springs, p. o., Union co., Penn. : 52 m. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Beavertown, p. v., Union co., Penn. : 59 m. N. "W. 
Harrisburg. 

Beaver Valley, p. o., Columbia co., Penn. : 57 m. N. 
E. Harrisburg. 

Becket, t, and p. v., Berkshire co., Mass. : on the Green 
mountain range, 104 m. W. Boston. Pop. 1,223. 

Becket's Store, p. o., Pickaway co., Ohio : 25 m. S. Co- 
lumbus. 

Becketsville, p. v., Tallapoosa co., Ala. : 32 m. N. E. 
Montgomery. 

Beckiiamsville, p. v., Chester dist., S. Car. : on the W. 
side of Wateree r., 44 m. N. Columbia. 

Beckley, p. o., Ealeigh co., Yirg. : 267 m. W. Eich- 
mond. 

Beckvllle, p. v., Carroll co., Miss. : 74 m. N. Jackson. 

Bedford county, Penn. Situate S. middle, and con- 
tains 9S2 sq. m. Drained by the head waters of Raystown 
Braiich of Juniata r., and several tributaries of the N. branch 
of Potomac r. Surface mountainous, with extensive and 
fertile valleys. Iron and bituminous coal abound. Farms 
1,S75; manuf. 117; dwell. 3,S96, and pop.-wh. 22,637, fr. 
col. 415— total 23,052. Capital: Bedford. 

Bedford county, Tenn. Situate centrally, and contains 
6S0 sq. m. Drained by Duck r. of the Tennessee and its 
tributary creeks. Surface finely variegated with hill and 
dale, with abundance of timber, and the soils generally fer- 
tile. Farms 9S6 ; manuf. 2S ; dwell. 2,754, and pop.— wh. 
15,93S, fr. col. 71, si. 5,503— total 21,512. Capital : Shelby- 
ville. Public Works: Nashville and Chattanooga" R. R., 
and branch to Shelbyville. 

Bedford county, Virg. Situate at the E. base of the 
Blue Ridge, between James and Staunton rivers, the in- 
terior being drained principally by creeks falling into the 
latter. It contains about 600 sq. m. Surface generally 
hilly, sometimes mountainous, and soils very fertile, pro- 
ducing Indian corn, oats, tobacco, etc., abundantly, The 
" Peaks of Otter" overlook it from the west. Farms 1,364; 
manuf. 16 ; dwell. 2,396, and pop.— wh. 15,556, fr. col. 463, 
si. 10,061— total 26,080. Capital: Liberty. Public Works : 
Virginia and E. Tennessee R. R. 

Bedford, p. v., and cap. Lawrence co., Ind. : between 
the E. fork of White r. and Salt r., 3 m. from the junction, 
and 64 m. S. S. W. Indianapolis E, R. ; is a place of some 
importance. The New Albany and Salem E. R. pas&scs 
through it N. and S., and the Cincinnati and St. Louis R. R. 
E. and W. A branch of the State bank is legated here. 

Bedford, p. v., and cap. Trimble co., Ky. : 38 m. N. W. 
Frankfort. A mile from the v. is an Epsom salts spring 
surcharged with sulphur, and near it accommodations are 
provided for invalid visitors. 

Bedford, t, and p. v., Calhoun co., Mich. : on Kalamazoo 
r., 46 m. S. W. Lansing. The Michigan Central R. R. pass- 
es through the S. part of the t., 124 m. W. Detroit. P. 74T. 



BED 



BEL 



Bedford, t. and p. v., Middlesex co., Mass. : on Shaw- 
Bheen r., 15 m. N. W. Boston. Pop. 975. 

Bedford, t, and p. v., Hillsborough co., 2T. Hamp. ; on 
Morrimac r., IS m. S. Concord. The t. has good water- 
power and furnishes various minerals. Pop, 1,006. 

Bedford, p. t., and cap. Westchester co., N. Y. : 12$ m. 
S. Albany. Pop. 8,209. 

Bedford, t. and p. v., Cuyahoga co., Ohio .' on Tinker's 
cr., 12S m. N E. Columbus. Pop. 1,854. 

Bedford, t., p. t., and cap. Bedford co., Penn. : on Boys- 
town branch of Juniata r., 94 m. W. by S. Harrisburg. It 
is pleasantly situate in the midst of a mountain valley, and 
is celebrated for its mineral springs. Three newspapers, 
the " B. Gazette" (dem.), the " Jackson Democrat," and the 
" Democratic Inquirer" (whig), are published weekly. The 
accommodations for visitors are ample and superior. 

Bedford Station, p. o., Westchester co., N. Y. : on the 
line of the Harlem R. E., 42 m. N. New York City. 

Bedi, p. o., Grimes co., Teas. : 132 m. E. Austin City. 

Bee Branch, p. o., Pettis co., Mo. ; 66 m. W. by N. Jef- 
ferson City. 

Beech Bluff, p. o., Dallas co., Ark. : 64 m. S. E. Little 
Rock. 

Beech Creek, p. o., Clinton co., Penn. : 92 m. N. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Beech Fork, p. o., Washington co., Ky. : on a creek of 
Salt r. so called, 45 m. S. W. Frankfort. 

Beech Grove, p. o., Bush co., Ind. : 42 m. E. S. E. In- 
dianapolis. 

Beech Grove, p. o., Philips co., Ark. : 89 m. E. by S. 
Little Bock. 

Beech Grove, p. o., Coffee co., Tenn. : 48 m. S. E. Nash- 
ville. 

Beech Island, p. o., Edgefield dist., S. Car. : 58 m. W. 
Columbia. 

Beech Land, p. o., Licking co., Ohio : 32 m. E. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Beech Land, p. o., Union co., Ark. : 112 m. S. S. E. Lit- 
tle Bock. 

Beech Woods, p. o., Warren co., Penn. : 184 m. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Beecht Mire, p. o., Union co., Ind. : 70 m. E. by S. In- 
dianapolis. 

Beehive, p. o., Clinton co., Mo. : on Smith's fork of Little 
Platte r., 138 m. N. "W. Jefferson City. 

Beekman, t. and p. v., Duchess co., V. Y. : on Fishkill r., 
a tributary of Hudson r., 87 m. S. Albany. Pop. 1,585. 

Beekman's Mills, p. o., Somerset co., K. Jer. : 22 m. N. 
by E. Trenton. 

Beekmantown, t. and p. o., Clinton co., A 7 ! Y. : on Lake 
Champlain, 140 m. N. Albany. In the W. part of the town 
are the lakes Chazy and Chateaugua, the sources of the r. 
of the same name. Pop 3,384. 

Beeler*s Station, p. o., Marshall co., Vira. : 240 m. N. 
W. Richmond. 

Bee Line, p. o., Allegan co., Mich. : 60 m. W. Lansing. 

Beemeeville, p. v., Sussex co., W. Jer. : 73 m. N. Tren- 
ton. 

Bee Ridge, p. o,, Knox co., Mo. : 112 m. N. Jefferson 
City. 

Beesley's PorNT, p. o., Cape Miy co., K. Jer. : 92 m. S. 
Trenton. 

Beetown, p. v., Grant co., Wise. : 69 m. W. by 9. Mad- 
ison. 

Beeteee, p. o., Kershaw dist., S. Car. : 38 m. N. E. Co- 
lumbia. 

Begley's, p. o., Perry co., Ky. : 122 m. S. E. Frankfort. 

Belair, p. o., Richmond co., Ga. : on the line of the 
Georgia R. R., 11 m. "W. Augusta, and 6S m. E. N. E. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Bel-Air, p. v., and cap. Harford co., Md. : between 
Winter's and Bynham's Runs, 89 m. N. Annapolis. A 
newspaper, the " Gazette," is issued weekly. The country 



in the vicinity comprises one of the finest agricultural dis- 
tricts of the State. 

Belair, p. o., Lancaster dist., 8. Car. : 68 m. N. by E. Co- 
lumbia. 

Belcher, p. o., Washington co., If. Y. : 42 m. N. by E. 
Albany. 

Belchertown, t. and p. v., Hampshire oo., Mass. : 68 m. 
W. by S. Boston. 

Belden, p. v., M'Henry oo., III. : 189 m. N. E. Spring- 
field. 

Belew's Creek, p. o., Stokes co., 2T. Car. : 108 m. W. N. 
W. Raleigh. 

Belfast, t, p. c, seaport, and cap. "Waldo eo., Me. : at 
the head of Belfast Bay, on the W. side of Penobscot r., 30 
m. from the ocean, and 37 m. E. Augusta. The harbor is 
spacious, and sufficiently deep for the largest vessels. The 
principal exports are lumber and fish. Ship-building is ex- 
tensively engaged in : in 1S50, 32 vessels, and 6,215 tons, 
were built. The shipping belonging to the district amounts 
to 45,595 tons, chiefly employed in the coasting trade, and 
the cod and mackerel fisheries. There are two newspapers 
published here, the " State Signal," and the " Republican 
Journal," both democratic, and issued weekly. It has reg- 
ular communication by steamboat with the ports north and 
south. Pop. 5,062. 

Belfast, t. and p. v., Alleghany co., K. Y. : on Genesee 
r., 233 m. W. by S. Albany. The Genesee Valley Canal 
here leaves the river, and passes S. W. up the valley of 
Black cr, 

Belfast, p. v., Clermont co., Ohio : 92 m. S. W. Colum- 
bus. 

Belfast, p. v., Northampton co., Penn. : 39 m. E. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Belfast, p. o., Marshall co., Tenn. : 56 m. S. Nashville. 

Belford, p. o., Nash co., JK Car. : on Swift cr., 46 m. E. 
by N. Raleigh. 

Belgrade, t. and p. v., Kennebec co., Me. : 10 m. N. Au- 
gusta. The town is almost surrounded by beautiful lakes, 
the outlets of which, in their course to the Kennebec, fur- 
nish extensive mill-power. The Androscoggin and Ken- 
nebec R. E. traverses the eastern edge of the town ; 67 m. 
N.E. Portland, and 15 S. W. Waterville. 

Belgrade Mills, p. v., Kennebec co., Me. : at the outlet 
of one of the lakes on the edge of the town of Belgrade 16 
m. N. Augusta. 

Bulknap county, K. Hamp. Situate N. E., and contains 
434 sq. m. Drained by Suncook and Winnipiseogee rivers, 
the Merrimac, and several creeks of Winnipiseogee Lake 
and Great Bay. Surface various, and soils moderately fer- 
tile. Farms 2,43S ; manuf. 163 ; dwell. 3,436, and pop.— 
wh. 17,693, fr. col. 28- total 17,721. Capital : Gilford. Pub- 
lie Works: Boston. Concord, and Montreal R. R., and 
Cocheco Valley R. B. 

Bell county, Tern. Situate centrally on Little r., of the 
Brazos, and contains about 900 sq. m. Surface well drain- 
ed, and soils fertile. Erected since 1850. 

Bell, p. v., Highland co., Ohio : 59 m. S. W. Columbus. 

Bell, p. v., and cap. Bell co., Tex. : on Little r. of the 
Bio Brazos, 64 m. N. N. E. Austin City. 

Bell Air, p. v., Crawford co., III. : on N. fork of Em- 
bams r., 104 m. E. S. E. Springfield. 

Bell Air, p. o., Cooper co., Mo. : 84 m. W. by N. Jeffer- 
son City. 

Bell Air, p. o., Belmont co., Ohio : 114 m. E. Columbus. 

Bell Brook, p. o., Greene co., Ohio : 5S m. W. by S. Co- 
lumbus. 

Belle Centre, p. o., Logan co., Ohio : 54 m. N. W. Co ■ 
lumbus. 

Bellefontatne, p. v., Choctaw co., Miss. : 112 m. N. N. 
E. Jackson. 

Bellefontaine, p. v., and cap. Logan co., Ohio : 52 m. 
N. W. Columbus. It is an important centre, and has a 
flourishing business. Railroads pass through the village, 

61 



BEL 



BEL 



N. and S., and E. and W. A newspaper, the " L. Gazette," 
is published weekly. 

Bellefonte, p. v., and cap. Jackson co., .Ala. : on Paint 
Eock cr. of the Tennessee r., 156 m. N. by E. Montgomery. 
A newspaper, the "Jackson County Democrat," is issued 
■weekly. 

Bellefonte, p. v., Pulaski co., Mo. : on the E. side of 
Gasconade r., 59 m. S. Jefferson City. 

Bellefonte, p. v., and cap. Centre co., Penn. : on Spring 
cr. of Bald Eagle r., 68 m. N. W. Harrisburg. It is exten- 
sively engaged in the iron trade, and has a connection by 
canal with West Branch Canal. Three newspapers, the 
" C. Berichter," and the " C. Democrat" (dem.), and the 
" Democratic Whig," are issued weekly. Pop. 2,913. 

Bellefountaln, p. v., Columbia co., Wise. : 38 m. N. E. 
Madison. 

Bellefountain, p. v., Mahaska co., la. : on the S. side 
of Des Moines r., 70 m. W. S. W. Iowa City. 

Belle Haven, p. o., Accomac co., Yirg. : 112 m. E. by 
N. Richmond. 

Belle Isle, p. o., Onondaga co., If. Y. : 136 m. W. by K. 
Albany. 

Bellemont, p. v., Lancaster co., Penn. : 42 m. E. by S. 
Harrisburg. 

Bellemonte, p. v., St. Louis co., Mo. : 114 m. E. by N. 
Jefferson City. 

Belle Ombre, p. v., Ballard co., Ky. : 240 m. W. by S. 
Frankfort. 

Belle Point, p. o., Boone co., la. : 132 m. W. by N. 
Iowa City. 

Belle Point, p. o., Delaware co., Ohio : 27 m. N. Co- 
lumbus. 

Belle Prairie, p. o., Hamilton co., III. : 148 m. S. S. E. 
Springfield. 

Belle Eivee, p. o., St. Clair co., Mich. : 111 m. E. Lan- 
sing, on the r. so called, which falls into St. Clair r. after a 
course of upward of 50 m. 

Belle Vernon, p. o., Wyandott co., Ohio : 66 m. N. by 
W. Columbus. 

Belle Vernon, p. o., Fayette co., Penn. : 153 m. W. by 
S. Harrisburg. 

Bellevxew, p. o., Talbot co., Ga. : 87 m. W. by S. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Belle-view, p. o., Eusk co., Tex. : 216 m. N. E. Austin 
City. 

Bellevtew, p. v., Calhoun co., IU. : on a beautiful 
prairie on the E. side of Bay cr., 69 rn. W. S. W. Spring- 
field. 

Belle-view, p. v., Christian co., Ky. : 174 m. W. by S. 
Frankfort. 

Bellevtew, p. v., Lebanon co., Penn. : 33 m. E. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Belleview, p. o., and cap. Bossier par., La. : on E. side 
of Lake Bodeau, 210 m. N. W. Baton Eouge. 

Belleville, p. t., Conecuh co., Ala. : at the head of 
Murder cr. of Conecuh r., 78 m. S. W. Montgomery. 

Belleville, p. t., Desha co., Ark. : 118 m. S. E. Little 
Eock. 

Belleville, p. v., Hendricks CO., Ind. : 21 m. W. S. W. 
Indianapolis. 

Belleville, p. v., and cap. St. Clair co., IU. : on Eock- 
land cr., 92 m. S. by W. Springfield. The site is elevated, 
and the surrounding country highly fertile. Three news- 
papers are published here — the " B. Advertiser" (dem.), the 
" Zeitung," a German paper (dem.), and the " Illinois Re- 
publican" (whig). The village is one of the most flourish- 
ing of the interior. 

Bellevllle, p. t., Wayne co., Mich. : 76 m. E. S. E. 
Lansing. 

Belleville, t. and p. v., Essex co., If. Jer. : on W. side 
Passaic r., along which it extends 3 m., 57 m. N. E. Tren- 
ton. It has fine milling faculties and considerable manu- 
factures. Pop. 3,513. 
62 



Belleville, p. v., Jefferson co., If. Y. : 168 m. W. N. W. 
Albany. It is situate on the Sackett's Harbor Branch E. R. 

Belleville, p. o., Eichland co., Ohio : on the S. side of 
Clear fork of Walhonding r., 50 m. N. by E. Columbus, and 
on the line of the Columbus and Lake Erie E. E., 47 m. N. 
Newark. 

Belletllle, p. t., Mifflin co., Penn. : 62 m. N. W. Har- 
risburg. 

Belleville, p. o., Eoane co., Term.: 112 m. E. by S. 
Nashville. 

Belleville, p. v., Wood co., Yirg. : on E. side of Ohio r., 
12 m. S. Parkersburg, and 256 W. N. W. Eichmond. 

Belleville Poet, p. v., Essex co., Mass. : 36 m. N. by E. 
Boston. 

Bellevtje, p. v., Huron co., Ohio : 80 m. N. by E. Co- 
lumbus. 

Bellevtxe, t. and p. v., Eaton co., Mich. : on Battle cr., 32 
m. W. S. W. Lansing. Pop. 769. 

Belleute, p. v., Jackson co., la. : on W. bank of Missis- 
sippi r., 5S m. N. E. Iowa City. It is a place of considerable 
commercial activity. 

Bellefair Mills, p. o., Stafford co., Yirg.: 58 m. N. 
Eichmond. 

Bellingham, t. and p. v., Norfolk co., Mass. : on Charles 
r., 32 m. S. W. Boston. Pop. 1,281. 

Bell Mount, p. o., Somerset co., Md. : 76 m. S. E. An- 
napolis. 

Bellows' Falls, p. v., Windham co., Yerm. : on the W. 
side of the Connecticut r., at the falls so called, 78 m. S. by 
E. Montpelier. There is a canal around the falls, which 
prolongs the navigation of the r. Much picturesque scenery 
surrounds the v. ; it is more celebrated, however, as a rail- 
road centre, than for any peculiar industry. 

Bell Plain, p. o., Marshall co., III.: 86 m. N. by E, 
Springfield. 

Bell Point, p. o., Giles co., Yirg.: 182 m. W. by S. 
Eichmond. 

Bellpoet, p. v., Suffolk co., If. Y.: near Fire Place Bay, 
138 m. S. S. E. Albany. 

Bellsburgh, p. v., Dickson co., Term.: on S. side of 
Harpeth r., a tributary of Cumberland r., 25 m. W. Nash- 
ville. 

Bell's Cross Eoads, p. o., Louisa co., Yirg. : 43, m. N. 
W. Richmond. 

Bell's Landing, p. o., Monroe co., Ala. : on E. side of 
Alabama r., 76 m. S. W. Montgomery. 

Bell's Mines, p. o., Crittenden co., Ky. : 192 m. W. by S. 
Frankfort. 

Bell's Store, p. o., Fairfield dist., S. Car. : 37 m. N. 
Columbia. 

Bell's Vallet, p. o., Eockbridge co., Yirg. : US m. W. 
by N. Eichmond. 

Bell Vale, p. o., Orange co., If. Y. : 85 m. S. by W. 
Albany. 

Bellvtlle, p. v., Hamilton co., Flor. : 78 m. E. Talla- 
hassee. 

Bellville, p. v., and cap. Austin co., Tex. : on Piney 
fork of Brazos r., 7S m. E. by S. Austin City. 

Belmont county, Ohio. Situate E. on the Ohio r., and 
contains 536 sq. m. The interior is drained by Wheeling, 
M'Mahon's, and Captina creeks, and contains the sources 
of several of the tributaries of Muskingum r. Surface ele- 
vated, hilly, and broken, but soils good. Farms 2,552; 
manuf. 185 ; dwell. 5.823, and pop.— wh. 33,766, fr. col. 834 
—total 34,600. Capital: St. Clairsville. Public Works: 
Central Ohio E. E. 

Belmont, p. o., Sumter co., Ala. : 3 m. W. Tombigbee r., 
and 99 W. by N. Montgomery. 

Belmont, p. o., Pike co., III. : 69 m. W. by S. Spring- 
field. 

Belmont, p. o., Crawford co., Ark. : 123 m. W. N. W. 
Little Rock. 

Belmont, p. o., Gonzales co., Tex. : 61 m. S. Austin City. 



BEL 



BEN 



Belmont, t. and p. v., "Waldo co., Me. : 33 m» E. by N. 
Augusta. 

Belmont, p. o., Panola co., Miss.: on N. W. side of 
Tallahatchie r., 119 m. N. by E. Jackson. 

Belmont, p. o., Belmont co., Ohio: 103 m. E. Colum- 
bus. Pop. 105. 

Belmont, p. v., Newberry disk, £. Car. : on N. E. side 
of Little r., 57 m. N. W. Columbia. 

Belmont, p. v., Payette co., Tenn. : on a head cr. of 
Loosahatchie r., 148 m. W. S. W. Nashville. 

Belmont, p. o., Loudon co., Virg. : 111 m. N. Eich- 
mond. 

Beloit, t. and p. v., Rock co., Wise. : on both sides of 
Eock r., at the junction of Turtle or., 42 m. 8. by E. Mad- 
ison. It has several mills, machine-shops, and a prosper- 
ous college, and numbers about 3,000 inhabitants. The 
"Beloit Journal" (whig) is issued weekly. A branch of 
the Galena and Chicago Union R. E. extends to Beloit. 
In the vicinity are many of those mounds which abound in 
the West. Pop. 2,730. 

Belpke, t and p. v., "Washington co., Ohio : on the Ohio 
r., opposite Parkersburg, 87 m. E. S. E. Columbus. The t. 
occupies a beautiful meadow, as its French name implies. 
Blennerhasset Island, the rendezvous of Aaron Burr and 
his co-patriots, lies a little below the v. BelprS, from its 
position, will hereafter become an important railway centre 
— it is the point at which the Cincinnati, Hillsboro', and 
Parkersburg E. E. will meet with the North-western R. E., 
a branch of the Baltimore and Ohio E. R., by which a di- 
rect route from Cincinnati to Baltimore, 547 m. long, will be 
effected. Pop. 1,623. 

Beltsville, p. v., Prince George's co., Md. : on Wash- 
ington branch of Baltimore and Ohio E. E., 27 m. W. S. W. 
Baltimore, and 18 W. by N. Annapolis. 

Belvtdeee, p. v., and cap. Boone co., III. : on N. branch 
of Kishwaukee r., and on the line of the Galena and Chica- 
go Union E. E., 78 m. W. Chicago, and 193 m. N. N. E. 
Springfield. It is a flourishing town of some 2,000 inhab- 
itants. 

Belvtdere, t. and p. v., Lamoelle co., Verm. : on a 
branch of Lamoelle r., at the W. base of the Green mts., 
33 m. N. Montpelier. Pop 256. 

Belvtdere, p. v., and cap. Warren co., JV Jer. : on the 
E. side of Delaware r., 45 m. N. N. W. Trenton, and on the 
Belvidere and Delaware E. E. It is destined to become an 
important entrepot of commerce between Philadelphia and 
N. W. New Jersey. Two newspapers, the " Wairen Jour- 
nal" (dem.), and the " Warren Intelligencer" (whig), are 
issued weekly. 

Bem, p. o., Greene co., Wise. : 26 m. S. by W. Madison. 

Beman's Ckoss Roads, p. o., Sampson co., N~. Car. : 62 
m. S. E. Ealeigh. 

Bemis Creek, p. o., Cambria co., Penn. : 103 m. W. Har- 
risburg. 

Bemtjs' Heights, p. v., Saratoga co., N. Y. : on W. side 
of Hudson r., 22 m. N. Albany. Noted in history as the 
scene of warlike operations in the Revolutionary War. 

Benbkook's Mills, p. o., Izard co., Ark. : 87 m. N. Little 
Eock. 

Bendersvtlle, p. v., Adams co., Penn. : 38 m. S. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Bendy's Landing, p. o., Tyler co., Tex. : 194 m. E. by S. 
Austin City. 

Benedict, p. v., Charles co., Md. : on W. side Patuxent 
r., 32 m. S. by W. Annapolis. 

Benela, p. o., Chickasaw co., Miss. : 133 m. N. E. Jack- 
son. 

Benevola, p. t., Washington co., Md. : 46 m. N. W. 
Annapolis. 

Benevola, p. t., Pickens co., Ala. : 117 m. W. N. W. 
Montgomery. 

Benezette, p. o., Elk co., Perm. : 128 m. W. N. W. Har- 
risburg. 



Bedford's Store, p. o., Somerset co., Penn. : 123 m. W. 
by S. Harrisburg. 

Bengal, t. and p. v., Clinton co.,3Iich. : on Stony cr. of 
Grand r., 18 m. N. W. Lansing. Pop. 143. 

Benhaden, p. o., Wakulla co., Flor. : 26 m. S. W. Talla- 
hassee. 

Benioia, p. v., and cap. Solano co., Calif. : on N. W. side 
of ,Suisun Bay, 4 m. E. Vallejo. 

Bennettsburg, p. v., Tompkins co., 2f. Y. ;172 m. W. by 
S. Albany. 

Bennett's Corners, p. o., Madison co., XT. Y. ; 110 m. W. 
by N. Albany. 

Bennett's Corners, p. o., Jackson co., Mich. : 35 m. 
S. W. Lansing. 

Bennett's Creek, p. o., Steuben co., JV Y. : 209 m. W. 
by S. Albany. 

Bennett's Ferry, p. o., Jackson co., Tenn. : 54 m. E. by 
N. Nashville. 

Bennett's Mills, p. o., Lewis co., Virg. : 187 m. N. W. 
Eichmond. 

Bennett's River, p. o., Fulton co., Ark. : 113 m. N. Lit- 
tle Eock. 

Bennettsville, p. v., St. Clair co., Ala. : 100 m. N. Mont- 
gomery. 

Bennettsvtlle, p. v., Chenango co., JV Y. : 101 m. W. 
Albany. 

Bennettsville, p. v., and cap. Marlborough dist., S. 
Car. : 97 m. N. E. Columbia. 

Bennettsville, p. v., Clark co., Bid. : 91 m. S. by E. 
Indianapolis. 

Bennington county, Verm. Situate S. W. on the State 
line, and contains 612 sq. m. Drained in the W. by Hoosic 
r. and Batten Kill, in the E. by West and Deerfield rivers. 
Surface traversed by mountains. Lead and iron abound, 
and also quarries of beautiful marble. Lands better adapt- 
ed to grazing than tillage, although in the W. there are 
several fertile valleys. Farms 1,397; manuf. 147; dwell. 
3,404, and pop.— wh. 18,512, fr. col. 77— total 18,589. Cap. 
ital : Manchester. Public Works : Western Vermont E. E. ; 
Bennington Branch E. E. ; and the Bennington and New 
York E. E. 

Bennington, p. v., Hillsborough co., K Samp. : 28 m. 
S. W. Concord. 

Bennington, p. v., Marion co., la. : on N. side of Des 
Moines r., 88 m. W. by S. Iowa City. 

Bennington, t. and p. v., Wyoming co., JUT. Y. : on Cay- 
uga and Tonawanda creeks, 253 m. W. Albany. P. 2,406. 

Bbnnington, p. v., Shiawassee co., Mich. : on N. side 
of Looking-glass r., 23 m. N. E. Lansing. 

Bennington, t. and p. v., Morrow co., Ohio : 33 m. N. by 
E. Columbus. Pop. 1,265. 

Bennington, p. v., Switzerland co., Bid. : 90 m. S. E. 
Indianapolis. 

Bennington, t. and p. v., Bennington co., Verm. : on a 
branch of Hoosic r., 98 m. S. by W. Montpelier. It has 
several mills, furnaces, and factories ; and two newspapers, 
the " State Banner" (whig), and the " Vermont Gazette" 
(dem.), published weekly. A branch of the Western Ver- 
mont E. E. comes to the v. from N. Bennington. P. 3,923. 

Bennington Centre, p. o., Bennington co., Verm. : 99 
m. S. by W. Montpelier. 

Benson, p. v., Hamilton co., 2f. Y. : on Sacandaga r., 52 
m. N. W. Albany. 

Benson, t. and p. v., Eutland co., Verm. : on Lake 
Champlain, 54 m. S. W. Montpelier. Pop. 1,305. 

Benson's Landing, p. o., Eutland co., Verm. : 56 m. S. 
W. Montpelier. The lake is here about a mile wide. 

Bent Creek, p. o., Appomattox co., fir. : 72 m. W. by 
S. Richmond. 

Bentivoglio, p. o., Albemarle co., Virg. : 66 m. W. by 
N. Eichmond. 

Bentley's Corners, p. o., Jefferson co., 2f. Y. .'142 m. 
N. W. Albany. 

68 



EEN 



BER 



Bentley Creek, p. o., Bradford co., Perm. : 113 m. N. 
by E. Harrisburg. 

Bentleyyille, p. v., Washington to., Perm. : 28S m. TV. 
by S. Harrisburg. 

Benton county, Ala. Situate N. E., and contains 1,0S0 
Bq. m. Drained by the head waters of Tallapooaa r. and 
several creeks of Coosa r. Surface generally elevated, level, 
or undulating. Well wooded on the streams; and soils 
highly fertile, producing wheat, Indian corn, and cotton. 
Gold is found within this county. Farms 1,227; manuf. 
SI ; dwell. 3,198, and pop— wh. 13,397, fr. col. 3, si. 8,763— 
total 17,163. Capital : Jacksonville. 

Benton county, Ark. Situate N. W. corner, and con- 
tains 1,020 sq. m. Drained by the head streams of "White 
and Illinois rivers, the latter a tributary of Arkansas r. 
Surface hilly and broken. Soils indifferent. Farms 295; 
manuf. 5 ; dwell. 572, and pop— wh. 3,508, fr. col. 1, si. 201 
—total 3,710. Capital: Bentonville. 

Benton county, Flor. Situate W. of E. Florida, on the 
gulf, being bounded E. by Withlacooehee r. Drained by a 
number of streams falling to the sea. Surface flat. Soils 
adapted to rice, cotton, and sugar. Farms S2; dwell. 113, 
and pop.— wh. 604, fr. col. 0, si. 322— total 926. Capital : 
Melendez. 

Benton county, Ind. Situate N. W., and contains 360 sq. 
m. Big and Little Pine creeks, which fall into the Wabash 
and Sugar cr., a tributary of the Illinois, drain the greater 
part of the county. Surface level or undulating, and mostly 
prairie. Wheat, Indian corn, and oats are the staple 
growths . Mt. Nebo and Mt. Gilboa, are noted mounds in 
the N. part of the county. Farms 149 ; dwell. 180, and 
pop.— wh. 1,144, fr. coL 0— total 1,144. Capital: Ox- 
ford. 

Benton county, la. Situate centrally, and contains 720 
sq. m. Drained by Cedar r. and its creeks. Surface level 
or undulating — prairie chiefly, and very productive. Farms 
67; dwell. 121, and pop.— -wh. 672, fr. col. 0— total 672. 
Capital: Vinton. 

Benton county, Minn. Situate E. side of Mississippi, 
and contains about 3,000 sq. m. Drained by numerous 
tributaries of the Mississippi. Surface varied, and many 
lakes. Timber of all kinds plentiful. Farms 20 ; manuf. 
1 ; dwell. 71, and pop.— wh. 416, fr. coL 2— total 418. Cap- 
ital : Sauk Rapids. 

Benton county, Mo. Situate W. centrally, and contains 
5S0 sq. m. Drained by Osage r. and its tributaries. Sur- 
face rolling — in some parts hilly and well timbered ; prairie 
covers three-fourths of the whole. The soils are exceed- 
ingly fertile, and produce abundantly wheat, Indian corn, 
and tobacco, with some cotton. Farms 510; manuf. 10; 
dwell. 7S9, and pop.— wh. 4,546, fr. col. 9, si. 460— total, 5,115. 
Capital: Warsaw. 

Benton county, Oreg. Situate W. between the Pacific 
Ocean and the Willamette r., and drained chiefly by Mary's 
r., and other tributaries of the Willamette. Mt. Snelling, near 
the centre of the co., is the loftiest eminence. Soils along 
the Willamette valley exceedingly fertile, and the water- 
power afforded by that stream of great value. Contains 
16,000 sq. m. Farms 110 ; manuf. 1 ; dwell. 149, and pop. 
— wh. 810, fr. col. ^-total, SI 4. Capital: Marysville. 

Benton county, Tenn. Situate N. W., and contains 3S0 
sq. m. Drained by Big Sandy and other creeks of Tennes- 
see r., which lies on the E. border. Surface level or undu- 
lating, and soils generally fertile, producing abundantly 
grain and tobacco. Farms 706 ; manuf. 2 ; dwell. 9S4, and 
pop.— wh. 5,931, fr. col. 21, si. 363— total, 6,315. Capital : 
Camden. Public Works: several K. E's. are projected, 
centering at Camden ; one from Nashville, one to Holly 
Springs, and one westward, via Dresden, to the Mississippi. 

Benton, p. v., Lowndes co., Ala. : 28 m. S. W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Benton, p. v., and cap. Salino co., Ark. : on N. 6ide of 
Ealine r., 24 m. S. W. Little Eock. 
64 



Benton, p. v., Elkhart co., Ind. : on N. E. side of Elk- 
hart r., 120 m. N. Indianapolis. 

Benton, p. v., and cap. Franklin co., III. : on E. side of 
Big Muddy r., 126 m. S. by E. Springfield. The "B. Stand 
ard" (whig) is issued weekly. 

Benton, p. t., and cap. Marshall co., Ky. : on N. E. side 
Clark's r., 212 m. W. by S. Frankfort. 

Benton, p. v.. and cap. Yazoo co., Miss. : at the head of 
a cr. of Big Black r., 31 m. N. by W. Jackson. 

Benton, p. v., Washtenaw co., Mich. : 51 m. S. E. Lan- 
sing. 

Benton, p. v., and cap. Scott co., Mo. : 6 m. W of Missis- 
sippi r., and 168 m. S. E. Jefferson City. 

Benton, t. and p. v., Grafton co., N. Ramp. : 59 m. N. 
by W. Concord. The Boston, Concord, and Montreal R. R. 
crosses the t. 73 m. from Concord. Pop. 478. 

Benton, t. and p. o., Yates co., N. Y. : 192 m. W. Al- 
bany. The p. o. is located at Bellona. Pop. 3,i56. 

Benton, p. v., Holmes co., Ohio: 76m. N. E. Columbus. 

Benton, p. v., Columbia co., Perm. : 62 m. N. by E. Har- 
risburg. 

Benton, p. v., and cap. Polk co., Tenn. : on the N. E. side 
of Tocco r., a little E. of its junction with the Hiwassae r., 
13S m. E. S. E. Nashville. 

Benton, p. v., Iowa co., Wise. : 37 m. W. Madison. 

Benton Centee, p. o., Yates co., 2T. T. : 194 m. W 
Albany. 

Benton Ridge, p. o., Hancock co., Ohio : 76 m. N. W 
Columbus. 

Benton's Port, p. o., Van Buren co., la. : on the E. 
side Des Moines r., 68 m. S. by W. Iowa City. 

Bentonsyille, p. t., Johnson co., Jf. Car. : 21 m. S. E. 
Raleigh. 

Bentonville, p. v., Fayette co., Ind. : 54 m. E. by S. 
Indianapolis. 

Bentonville, p. v., Adams co., Ohio. : 76 m. S. by W. 
Columbus. 

Bentonville, p. v., Coffee co., Ala. : 73 m. S. Mont- 
gomery. 

Bentonville, p. v., Warren co., Virg. : 102 m. N. by 
W. Richmond. 

Bentonville, p. v., and cap. Benton co., Ark. : at the 
head of Sugar cr. of Neosho r., 156 m. N. W. Little Bock. 

Benyenue, p. o., Dauphin co., Penn. : 18 m. N. Harris- 
burg. 

Benzingee, t. and p. o., Elk co., Penn. : 123 m. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Bekea, p. v., Cuyahoga co., Ohio : at the falls of E. 
branch of Rocky r., IIS m. N. E. Columbus. The Cleve- 
land, Columbus, and Cincinnati R. R. passes through the 
village, 12 m. S. W. Cleveland. 

Beeea, p. v., Granville co., 2f. Car. 

Beegen county, N. Jer. Situate N. E. on Hudson r., and 
contains 356 sq. m. Drained by Hackensaek, Saddle, and 
Ramapo rivers: surface various. The Palisades, facing 
the Hudson, are in Bergen county. Soils moderately fer- 
tile, producing grain and potatoes. Farms 1,128 ; manuf. 
71 ; dwell. 2,606, and pop.— wh. 13,094, fr. col. 1,590, si. 41 
—total, 14,725. Capital : Hackensaek. Public Works : Ra- 
mapo and Paterson R. R. 

Beegen, t, p. v., and cap. Hudson co., If. Jer. : on Ber 
gen Hill, 4S m. N. E. Trenton. The t. was settled by the 
Danes as early as 1616. Po;>. 2,75S. 

Beegen, t and p. v., Genessee co., If. T. : on Black cr., 
217 m. W. Albany. The Buffalo and Rochester R. R. passes 
through the place. 

Beegen Ikon Works, p. o., Ocean co., A 7 ". Jer. 

Bergen Polnt, p. v., Hudson co., N. Jer. : the S. extrem- 
ity of the co., between Newark Bay and the Kills. 

Beeger's Stoee, p. o., Pittsylvania co., Virg.: 122 m. 
W. S. W. Richmond. 

Bergiioltz, p. o., Niagara co., K Y. : 256 m. W. Albany. 

Berkeley county, Yirg. Situate N. E. on Potomac r. 



BER 



BET 



and contains 390 sq. m. Drained by Back cr. and other 
streams. Surface uneven and broken, and soil stubborn. 
"Wheat, corn, and oats are the staple products. Farms 570 ; 
manuf. 81; dwell. 1,66S, and pop.— wh. 9,566, fr.-col. 249, 
si. 1,956 — total, 11,771. Capital : Martinsburgh. Public 
Works : Baltimore and Ohio R. E. 

Berkley, t. and p. v., Bristol co., 3fass. : on Taunton r., 
49 m. S. W. Boston. Pop. 90S. 

Berkley, p. v., Madison co., Ala. : 169 m. N. Mont- 
gomery. 

Berkley, p. v., Washita co., Ark. : 72 m. S. by E. Little 
Rock. 

Berkeley Springs, p. v., and cap. Morgan co., Yirg. 

Berks county, Perm. Situate S. E., and contains 1,020 
sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Schuylkill r., which passes 
through it Surface diversified ; mountains in N. W., and 
the soils generally fertile ; coal and iron abundant. Agri- 
cultural staples, wheat, corn, and rye. Farms 4,7S0 ; 
manuf. 1,286 ; dwell. 12,931, and pop.— wh. 76,576, fr. col. 
558— total, 77,129. Capital : Beading. PuUie Works : 
Philadelphia and Beading E. R. ; Schuylkill Navigation ; 
and Union Canal. 

Berkshire county, Mass. Situate W. on State line, and 
contains 1,400 sq. m. Drained by Housatonic and noosie 
rivers. Surface broken, being traversed by Green mts. : 
soils moderately fertile, and capable of cultivation to the 
hill tops. Farms 2,897 ; manuf. 387 ; dwell. 8,638, and pop. 
— wh. 48,332, fr. col. 1,259— total, 49,591. Capital : Lenox. 
Public Works : Housatonic E. E. ; "Western E. E. ; Pitts- 
field and North Adams E. E. ; Troy and Boston E. E., etc. 

Berkshire, p. v., Kane co., Ill, : 163 m. N. E. Spring- 
field. 

Berkshire, p. v., Tioga co., K Y.: 142 m. "W. N. "W. 
Albany. 

Berkshire, t. and p. v., Delaware co., Ohio : 23 m. N. by 
E. Columbus. Pop. 1,555. 

Berkshire, p. v., Gwinnett co., Ga. : 75 m. N. W. 
Milledgeville. 

Berkshire, t. and p. v., Franklin co., Verm. : on Missis- 
que r., 4S m. N. Montpelier. Pop. 1,955. 

Berkshire Valley, p. v., Morris co., N. Jer. : on Rock- 
away r., 61 m. N. Trenton. 

Berlin, p. v., Sumter co., Ala. : 128 m. W. Montgomery. 

Berlln, p. v., Clinton co., Ind; : 40 m. N. W. Indianapolis. 

Berlin, t. and p. v., Hartford co., Conn. : 12 m. S. W". 
Hartford. The New Haven, Hartford, and Springfield E. E. 
passes through the t, 25 m. N. New Haven. Pop. 1,808. 

Berlin, t. and p. v., Marquette co., Wise. : on Fox r., 78 
m. N. N. E. Madison. Pop. 1,052. 

Berlin, p. v., Sangamon co., III. : on the Sangamon and 
Morgan E. E., 16 m. W. Springfield. 

Berlin, p. v., Worcester co., Mel. : near the head of Trap 
cr., 78 m. S. E. Annapolis. 

Berlin, t. and p. v., "Worcester co., 3Iass. : on a branch 
of Assabet r., 32 m. W. by N. Boston. Pop. 866. 

Berlin, p. v., Coos co., K. Ramp. : on a branch of Am- 
monoosuc r., 84 m. N. Concord. The Atlantic and St. Law- 
rence E. E. passes through the town, 97 m. N. W. Portland. 

Berlin, t. and p. v., Eensselaer co., 1ST. Y.: on Little 
Hoosic r., 22 m. E. Albany. Pop. 205. 

Berlin, t. and p. v., Holmes co., Ohio : 74 m. N. E. 
Columbus. Pop. 1,452. 

Berlin, p. v., Somerset co., Penn. : 117 m. W. S. "W. 
Harrisburg. 

Berlin, p. v., Marshall co., Term. : about 3 m. S. Duck r., 
and 42 S. Nashville. 

Berlin, p. v., Southampton co., Yirg. : 51 m. S. by E. 
Richmond. 

Berlin, t and p. v., Washington co., Term. : on Onion 
r., 4 m. S. by W. Montpelier. The Vermont Central E. R. 
traverses the t. above and below Montpelier. Pop. 1 ,507. 

Berlin Centre, p. v., Mahoning co., Ohio : 129 m. N. E. 
Columbus. 

I 



Berlin Cross Roads, p. o., Jackson co., Ohio: 65 m. 
S. S. E. Columbus. 

Berlin Falls, p. o., Coos co., N. Ramp. : on Andros- 
coggin r., 87 m. N. by E. Concord. 

Berlinville, p. v., Erie co., Ohio : 97 m. N. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Bermudian, p. v., Adams co., Penn. : 21 m. S. by W. 
Harrisburg. 

Bernadotte, p. v., Fulton co., PI. : on Spoon r., 57 m 
N. W. Harrisburg. 

Bernalillo county, M Mex. Situate centrally on the 
Eio Grande, by the tributaries of which it is drained. Farms 
164 ; dwell. 1,634, and pop— wh. 7,749, fr. col. 2— total, 7,751. 
Capital: Bernalillo. 

Bernardstown, t. and p. v., Franklin co., Mass. : on W. 
side of Connecticut r., 76 m. W. by N. Boston. The Brat- 
tleborough Branch of Vermont and Massachusetts E. E., 
and the Connecticut Eiver E. E. form a junction in this 
locality. Pop. 937. 

Berne, t. and p. v., Albany co., V! Y. : 17 m. W. Alba- 
ny, on Fox's cr. of Schoharie cr. Pop. 3,441. 

Berne, p. v., Monroe co., Ohio : 108 m. E. by S. Colum- 
bus. 

Bernhardt Bay, p. v., Oswego co., K. Y. : 41 m. W. N. W. 
Albany. Pop. 3,441. 

Bernville, p. v., Berks co., Penn. : on W. side Schuyl- 
kill r., 51 m. E. by N. Harrisburg. 

Berrien county, Mich. Situate S. W. corner, and con- 
tains 576 sq. m. Drained by Pawpaw, St. Joseph, and Ga- 
lien rivers. Surface various : the valleys have a rich loamy 
soil, and timber grows heavily. Farms 690; manuf. 64; 
dwell. 2,126, and pop.— wh. 11,178, fr. col. 239— total, 11,417. 
Capital : Berrien Spring. Public Works : Central Michi- 
gan E. E. 

Berrien Springs, p. v., and cap. Berrien co., Mich. 

Berry, p. o., Dane co., Wise. 

Bebeysbtteg, p. v., Dauphin co., Penn. : 31 m. N. Har- 
risburg. 

Berry's Ferry, p. o., Livingston co., Ky. : on Ohio r., 
opposite Golconda, 209 m. W. by S. Frankfort. 

Berry's Lick, p. o., Butler co., Ky. : 132 m. S. W. Frank- 
fort. 

Berry's Mill, p. o., Union co., Ky. : 172 m. W. by S. 
Frankfort. 

Beeeysville, p. v., Knox co. Ind. : 97 m. S. W. Indian- 
apolis. 

Beeeyton, p. v., Cass co., III. : on a cr. of Sangamon r., 
29 m. N. W. Springfield. 

Berryville, p. v., and cap. Clarke co., Yirg. : 111 m. N. 
by W. Richmond. 

Beesheba, p. v., Henry co., Ga. : 66 m. W. by N. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Bertie county, N. Car. Situate N. E. on Albemarle 
Sound, and contains 6S0 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of 
Chowan and Eoanoke rivers, the latter of which bounds it S. 
Surface low and marshy, and the soils productive of Indian 
corn and cotton. The pineries are valuable for naval stores. 
Farms 542 ; manuf. 50 ; dwell. 1,070, and pop. — wh. 5,344, 
fr. col. 313, si. 7,194— total, 12,851. Capital: Windsor. 

Beeteand, t. and p. v., Berrien co., Midi. : on St. Joseph 
r., 9S m. S. W. Lansing. 

Berwick, p. v., Warren co., PI. : on W. fork of Spoon 
r., 83 m. N. W. Springfield. ■ 

Berwick, p. v., Seneca co., Ohio : 83 m. N. by W. 
Columbus. 

Berwick, p. v., Columbia co., Penn. ! on Susquehanna 
r., 63 m. N. by E. Harrisburg. Pop. 4S6. 

Berzelia, p. v., Columbia co., Ga. : on the line of the 
Georgia E. R., 21 m. W. Augusta, and 63 m. E. by N. 
Milledgeville. 

Bestland, p. o., Essex co., Yirg. : 51 m. N. E. Rich- 
mond. 

Bethany, t. and p. v., New Haven co., Conn. : on W. 

65 



BET 



BIG 



side of Connecticut r., 27 m. S. S. TV. Hartford. Pop. 
914. 

Bethany, p. v., Panola co., Tex,. : 292 m. N. E. Austin 
City. 

Bethany, t. and p. v., Genesee co., N. Y. : on Little 
Tonawanda and Black creeks, 229 m. TV. Albany. The 
Buffalo and New Tork City B. E. passes through. P .1,904, 

Bethany, p. v., Butler co., Ohio. : 89 m. "W. S. TV. Co- 
lumbus. 

Bethany, p. v., and cap. Wayne co., Perm. : on Dyberry 
cr., 123 m. N. E. Harrisburg. 

Bethany, p. v., Brooke co., Yirg. : 252 m. N. TV. Eich- 
mond. 

Bethany, p. v., and cap. Harrison co., Mo. : on Big cr. 
of the TV. fork of Grand r., 153 m. N, W. Jefferson City. 

Bethany Church, p. o., Iredell co., A 7 ". Car. : 117 m. TV. 
Ealeigh. 

Bethania, p. v., Stokes co., A 7 ! Car. : 100 m. TV. by N. 
Ealeigh. 

Bethania, v., Lancaster co., Perm. : 43 m. E. by S 
Harrisburg. Has a printing and book-binding establish- 
ment and other manufactures, and about 40 dwellings. 

Bethel, p. v., Fairfield co., Conn. : 53 m. S. TV. Hart- 
ford, and on the Danbury and Norwalk E. E., 19 m. N. 
Norwalk. 

Bethel, p. v., Glynn co., Ga. : near the mouth of Alala- 
maha r., 153 m. S. E. Milledgeville. 

Bethel, p. v., Morgan co., III. : on the line of the Sanga- 
mon and Morgan E. B., 45 m. TV. Springfield. 

Bethel, p. v., Bath co., Ey. : 69 m. E. Frankfort. 

Bethel, t and p. v., Oxford co., Me. : on the Androscog- 
gin r., 48 m. W. Augusta, and on the Atlantic and St. 
Lawrence E. E., 70 m. from Portland. Pop. 2,253. 

Bethel, p. v., Shelby co., Mo. : 92 m. N. Jefferson 
City. 

Bethel, p. t., "Wayne co., Ind. : 69 m. E. Indianapolis. 

Bethel, t. and p. v., Sullivan co., 2f. Y. : on branches 
of Delaware r., 113 m. S. TV. Albany. Pop, 2,0S7. 

Bethel, p. v., Clermont co., Ohio : 86 m. S. TV. Indian- 
apolis. 

Bethel, p. v., Berks co., Perm-. : 51 m. E. Harrisburg. 

Bethel, p. v., Tork dist., S. Car. : 79 m. N. Columbia. 

Bethel, t. and p. v., "Windsor co., Yerm. : on "White r., 
29 m. S. by "W. Montpelier. The t. contains a valuable 
soapstone quarry. The Vermont Central B. E. passes 
through the t., 39 m. from "Windsor. Pop. 1,730. 

Bethel, p. v., Mercer co., Yirg. : 208 m. "W. Eichmond. 

Betitesda, p. v., "Williamson co., Tenn. : 24 m. S. Nash- 
ville. 

Bethlehem, t. and p. v., Litchfield co., Conn. : 31 m. "W. 
Hartford. Pop. 815. 

Bethlehem, p. v., Sumter dist, S. Car. : 41 m. E. Co- 
lumbia. 

Bethlehem, p. v., Clarke co., Ind. : 87 m. S. S. E. In- 
dianapolis. 

Bethlehem, t. and p. v., Grafton co., A 7 ! Hamp. : on 
Ammonoosuc r., 72 m. N. by "W. Concord. Pop. 952. 

Bethlehem, p. v., Gilmer co., Yirg. : 213 m. "W. N. "W. 
Eichmond. 

Bethlehem, t. and p. v., Hunterdon co., A 7 ". Jer. : 37 m. 
N. by "W. Trenton. Pop. 2,746. 

Bethlehem, p. v., Marshall co., 3Iiss. : 16S m. N. Jackson. 

Bethlehem, t. and p. v., Albany co., A1 Y. : on Nor- 
manskill, etc., 5 m. S. Albany. Pop. 4,102. 

Bethlehem, p. v., Columbus co., Ala. : 63 m. E. by N. 
Montgomery. 

EETHLEnEM. t. and p. v., Northampton co., Penn. : on 
Lehigh r., at the mouth of Manokicy cr., S3 m. E. by N. 
Harrisburg. Settled by the Moravians in 1741, and still one 
of their principal localities. Pop. 1,516. 

Bethlehem Centre, p. v., Albany co., A£ Y. 

Bethmoxt, p. v., Orange co., A 7 ! Car. : 4S m. N. "W. 
Ealeigh. 



Bettsville, p. v., Seneca co., Ohio : on a branch of 
Sandusky r., 85 m. N. by "W. Columbus. 

Beulah, p. o., Johnson co., A 7 ; Car. : 23 m. E. Ealeigh. 

Bevans, p. v., Sussex co., A 7 ! Jer. : 89 m. N. Trenton. 

Beverly, p. v., Adams co., III. : 73 m. "W. Springfield. 

Beverly, p. v., Burlington co., A 7 ". Jer. 

Beverly, t, p. v., and sea-port, Essex co., Mass. : 16 m. 
N. by E. Boston. It lies on the N. side of the bay, oppo- 
site Salem, with which it is connected by a bridge, 1,500 
feet long, over which the Eastern E. E. passes. A railroad 
also extends hence to Gloucester. Shipping owned in the 
district 3,173 tons, all in the coasting trade. Pop. 5,376. 

Beverly, p. v., Anson co., A! Car. : on Big Brown cr. 
of Yadkin r., 87 m. N. E. Ealeigh. 

Beverly, p. v., Washington co., Ohio: on N. side of 
Muskingum r., 7S m. E. S. E. Columbus. 

Beverly, p. v., and cap. Eandolph co., Yirg. : on the 
E. fork of Monongahela r., 155 m. "W. N. "W. Eichmond. 

Beverly Farms, p. o., Essex co., Mass. : 18 m. N by E. 
Boston. 

Bevts' Tavern, p. o., Hamilton co., Ohio : 106 m. S. TV. 
Columbus. 

Bewleyvtlle, p. v., Breckenridge co., Ky. : 112 m. "W. 
by S. Frankfort. 

Bexar county, Tew. Situate "W., and contains about 
120,000 sq. m. It extends from 28° to 36° 30', and embraces 
all the country from the organized counties to the Pecos r. 
All the great interior rivers of Texas have their sources 
within its territory. Surface in the S. part, undulating or 
rolling prairie, interspersed with oak-openings and groves. 
On the N. ranges of hills run E and "W., forming a water- 
shed between the streams of the E. and S. "W. Lime and 
sandstone abundant, and there are several mineral springs. 
Soil, a dark, sandy, calcareous loam, rich and productive. 
The southern part is only occupied. Farms 117 ; manu£ 
13 ; dwell. 1,204, and pop.— wh. 5,635, fr. col. 28, si. 3S9— 
total, 6,052. Capital : San Antonio. 

Bexar, p. v., Marion co., Ala. : 150 m. N. "W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Bibb county, Ala. Situate centrally, and contains 864 
sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Catawba r., which trav- 
erses the county centrally. Surface moderately undulating, 
and the soils, especially on the rivers, fertile. Products va- 
rious, Indian corn and cotton being the principal. Farms 
654 ; manuf. 13 ; dwell. 1,153, and pop.— wh. 7,097, ft-, col. 
11, si. 2,861— total 9,969. Capital : CentreviUe. 

Bibb county, 67a. Situate centrally, and contains 432 sq- 
m. Drained by Ockmulgee r. and its tributaries. Surface 
uneven. Soils generally sandy, but near the streams highly 
fertile, producing fine cotton. Farms 30S ; manuf. 82 ; 
dwell. 1,234, and pop.— wh. 7,009, fr. col. 53, si. 5,637— total, 
12,699. Capital : Macon. Public Works : Central Georgia 
E. E. ; Macon and Western E. E. ; and South-western E. E. 

Bickley's Mills, p. o., Eussell co., Virg. : 267 m. "W. by 
S. Eichmond. 

Biddefokd, p. v., Tork co., Me. : on S. side of Saco r., at 
its mouth, 67 m. S. "W. Augusta. The " Mercantile Adver- 
tiser" (whig), is issued weekly. The Portland, Saco, and 
Portsmouth E. E. passes through the t, 36 m. from Ports- 
mouth and 15 from Portland. Pop. 6,095. 

Bidwell's Bake, p. o., Butte co., Calif.: on middle 
fork of Feather r., 113 m. N. by E. Vallejo. 

Bienville parish, La. Situate N. "W. of W. dist., having 
Lake Bisteneau for its TV. border, and contains 1,0S0 sq. m. 
Drained by Grand Bayou and the creeks Black Lake, Sa- 
!ine, and others, tributaries of Ecd r. Surface, a plateau 
somewhat elevated: soils fertile, producing excellent cot- 
ton. Farms 2Ti ; manuf. 2 ; dwell. 571, and pop.— wh. 
3,623. fr. col. 21, si. 1,S95 — total, 5,539. Capital: Mount 
Lebanon. 

Big Bar, p. o.,_ Trinity co., Calif. 

Bis Barren, p. o., Claiborne co., Tenn. : on N. side of 
Clinch r., 176 m. E. Nashville. 



BIG 



BIN 



Bis Beaver, p. o., Oakland co., Mich. : 59 m. E. Lan- 
sing. 

Big Bend, p. o., Gilrnore co., Yirg. : 230 m. "W. N. "W. 
Richmond. 

Big Bend. p. o., Venango co., Penn. : 157 m. W. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Big Bend, p. o., Waukesha co., Wise. : 53 m. W. 
Madison. 

Big Bend, p. o., Avoyelles par,, La. ; 78 in. N. W. 
Baton Rouge. 

Big Bend, p. o., Wnitesides co., III. : on a peninsula of 
Rock r., 139 m. N. Springfield. 

Big Brook, p. o., Oneida co., _V. Y.: 97 m. "W. by N. 
Albany. 

Bigbt Fork, p. a, Monroe co., Miss.: 129 m. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Bigbyvtlle, p. v., Maury co., Term. : on a cr. of Duck 
r., 47 m. S. by W. Nashville. 

Big Cane, p. o., St. Landry par., La. : 58 m. "W. Baton 
Rouge. 

' Big Cedar, p. o., Jackson co., Mo. : 123 m. W. by N. 
Jefferson City. 

Big Clifty, p. o., Hardin co., Ky. : 67 m. "W. by S. 
Frankfort, 

Big Creek, p. o., Philips co., Ark. : 82 m. E. S. E. Little 
Rock. 

Big Creek, p. o., Fort Bend, Tea). : 158 m. E. by S. 
Austin City. 

Big Creek, p. o., Forsyth co., Ga. : 83 m. N. W. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Big Creek, p. o., Rapides par., La. : 107 m. N. W. Baton 
Rouge. 

Big Creek, p. o., Johnson co., Mb. : 83 m. W. Jefferson 
City. 

Bis Creek, p. o., Stokes co., Jf. Car. : 102 m, "W. by N. 
Raleigh. 

Big Creek, p. o., Tallabusha co., Miss. : 107 m. N. by 
E. Jackson. 

Big Creek, p. o., Shelby co., Term. : on a cr. so called, 
153 m. W. by S. Nashville. 

Big Creek, p. o., Edgefleld dist., S. Car.: 53 m. W. 
Columbia. 

Bigelow's Mills, p. o-, La Porte co., Ind. : 131 m. N. W. 
Indianapolis. 

Big Fails, p. o., Orange co., N~. Car. : 31 m. W. by N. 
Raleigh. 

Big Flatts, i. and p. o., Chemung co., V. Y. : on Che- 
mung r., 193 m. W. S. "W. Albany. The N. Y. and Erie 
R. R. passes through the t., 293 m. from New York City, and 
176 m. from Dunkirk; also the navigable feeder of the 
Chemung Canal. Pop. 1,709. 
Big Foot Prairie, p. o., "Walworth co., Wise. 
Big Glades, p. o., Russell co., Yirg. : 287 m. W. by S. 
Richmond. 

Big Hill, p. o., Madison co., Ky. : 51 m. S. E. Frank- 
fort. 

Big Hollow, p. o., Greene co., K.Y.: 39 m. S. W. 
Albany. 

Big Island, t. and p. v., Marion co., Ohio. : 48 m. N. by 
W. Columbus. Pop. 604. 

Big Island, p. o., Bedford co., Yirg., 113 m. W. by S. 
Richmond. 

Big Laurel, p. o., Yancey co., A". Car. : on a cr. so call- 
ed, 219 m. W. Raleigh. 

Big Lick, p. o., Roanoke co., Yirg. : 136 m. W. by S. 
Richmond. 

Big Meadow, p. o., Grayson co., Yirg. : 217 m. "W. S. W. 
Richmond. 

Big Mills, p. o., Dorchester co., Md. : on Chicamaco- 
mico cr., 69 m. S. E. Annapolis. 
Big Neck, p. o., Adams co., III. : 89 m. W. Springfield. 
Big Oak, p. o., Kemper co., Miss.: 102 m. E. N. E. 
Jackson. 



Big Plain, p. o., Madison co., Olvio: 26 m. S. W. 
Columbus. 

Big Pond, p. o., Fayette co., Ala. : 133 m. N. "W. Monl>- 
gomery. 

Big Prairie, p. a, "Wayne co., Ohio: 47 m, N. E. 
Columbus. 

Big Ready, p. o., Edmondson co., Ky. : 108 m. S. "W. 
Frankfort. 

Big River Mills, p, o., St. Francois co., Mo.: 98 m. 
E. S. E. Jefferson City. 

Big Rock, p. o., Kane co., III. : on a cr, so called, a trib- 
utary of Rock r., 20S m. N. E. Springfield. 

Big Sandy river : rises in the Alleghany Mountains, near 
the head waters of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, 
and falls into the Ohio between Virginia and Kentucky, 
being the boundary between these States for nearly 200 m. 
It is navigable to the Wascioto Mountains. The E. and "W. 
branches join about 40 m. above its entrance to the Ohio. 

Big Skin Creek, p. o., Lewis co., Yirg. : 187 m. W. N. 
W. Richmond. 

Big Spring, p. o., Marshall co., Ala. : 143 m. N. Mont- 
gomery, 

Big Spring, p. o., Pocahontas co., Yirg. : 147 m. W. by 
N. Richmond. 

Big Spring, p. o., Breckenridge co., Ky, : S5 m. W. S. "W. 
Franklin. 

Big Spring, p. o., Cumberland co., Perm. : 42 m. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Big Spring, p. o., Montgomery co., Mo.: 47 m. N. E. 
Jefferson City. 

Big Spring, p. o., Ottawa co., Mich. : 57 m. "W. by N. 
Lansing. 

Big Spring, p. o., "Wilson co., Term. : 29 m. E. Nashville. 

Big Spring, p. o., Shelby co., III. : 67 m. S. E. Spring- 
field. 

Big Springs, p. o., La Porte co,, Ind. : 128 m. N. "W. 
Indianapolis. 

Big Stream Point, p. o., Yates co., If. Y.: 187 m. "W. 
Albany. 

Big Swamp, p. o., Columbus co., N. Car* : 117 m. S. E. 
Raleigh. 

Big Tree Corners, p. o., Erie co., M Y, : 249 m. W. 
Albany. 

Big Woods, p. o., Calcasieu par., La. : 130 m. "W. Baton 
Eouge. 

Big "Woods, p. o., Du Page co., Ill : 193 m, N. E. 
Springfield. 

Billerica, t. and p. v., Middlesex co., Mass. : on Con- 
cord and Shawsheen r., 18 m. N. W. Boston. The Middle- 
sex Canal and Lowell and Boston R, R, pass through the E. 
part of the town. Its manufactures are large, and its 
facilities for increasing them immense. Pop. 1,646. 

Billing's Grove, p. o., Livingston co., IU. : 87 m. N. E. 
Springfield. 

Billingsyille, p. v., Union co., Ind. : 69 m. E. Indian- 
apolis. 

Biloxi, p. v., Harrison co., Miss. : on Point Caddo, of 
Biloxi Bay, 149 m. S. by E. Jackson. The " Sea-shore 
Sentinel" is issued weekly. 

Biloxi, p. v., Newton co., Tex. : 232 m. E. Austin City. 

Bingba.m, t. and p. o., Somerset co.. Me. : on E. side of 
Kennebec r., 42 m. N. Augusta. Pop. 752. 

Bingham, t. and p. v., Potter co., Penn, : 169 m. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Binghampton, p. v., Lee co., III. : 132 m. N. by E. 
Springfield. 

Binghampton, p. v., and cap. Broome co., N. Y. : at the 
junction of the Chenango and Susquehanna r. It is one 
of the most important inland villages of the State. The 
New York and Erie R. R. passes through it, 225 m. from 
New York City, and it is the S. terminus of the Chenango 
Canal. Railroads will also be built from this point to 
Albany, Utica, and Syracuse. Four papers arc published 

67 



BIrT 



BLA 



in the village— 1 daily and 3 weekly. The v. is handsomely 
laid out, and has several fine buildings and bridges. Its 
trade with the surrounding country is very extensive, and 
is constantly increasing. 

Binkley's Bridge, p. o., Lancaster co., Perm.: 37 m, 
S. E. Harrisburg. 

Birchardville, p. v., Susquehanna co., Perm. : 134 m. 
N. E. Harrisburg. 

Biechetisville, p. v., Cleveland co., N. Car. : 139 ni. S. 
W. Kaleigh. 

Birch Pond, p. o., Crawford co., Mo. ; 53 m. S. E. Jef- 
ferson City. 

Birch BrvHK, p. 0., Nicholas co., Yirg. : 185 m. W. by 
N. Richmond. 

Bird, p. o., Hillsdale co., Mich. : 67 m. S. Lansing. 

Birdsall, t. and p. o,, Alleghany co., N. Y. : on Black 
er., 231 m. W. by S. Albany. Pop. 597. 

Birdsborough, p. v., Berks co., Penn. : 62 m. E. by N. 
Harrisburgh. 

Bird's Era, p. o., Guernsey co., Ohio; 83 m. E. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Bledsville, p. v., Burke co., 6a. : 81 m. E. Milledge- 
ville. 

Birmingham, p. v., Jackson co., Ala. : 1S2 m. N. Mont- 
gomery. 

Birmingham, p. v., Pontotoc co., Miss. : 153 in. N. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Birmingham, p. v., Schuyler co., Ill^ : on the "W. side of 
Crooked cr. of Illinois r., 72 m. N. W. Springfield. 

Birmingham, p. v., Van Buren co., la. : 57 m. S. by W. 
Iowa City. 

Birmingham, p. v., Oakland co., Mich. : 70 m. E. by S. 
Lansing. It lies on the Detroit and Pontiac E. E.,18 m. 
from the former place. 

Birmingham, p. v., Erie co., Ohio : on W. side of Ver- 
million r., 96 m. N. Columbus. 

Birmingham, p. v., Huntingdon co., Penn. : on W. 
branch of Little Juniata r., 96 m. N. W. by W. Harrisburg. 
Lead and iron abound in the vicinity. 

Bishop Hill, p. v., Henry co., III.: 9S m. N. by W. 
Springfield. 

Bisuopville, p. v., Sumter dist., S. Car. : 63 m. N. E. by 
E. Columbia. 

Bissell, p. o., Calhoun co., III. : 70 m. W. S. W . Spring- 
field. 

Bissel's, p. o., Geauga co., Ohio: 133 m. N. E. Co- 
lumbus. 

BrviNGSViLLE, p. v., Spartanburg dist., S. Car. : 89 m. 
N. W. Columbia. 

Blackberry, p. o., Kane co., III. : 201 m. N. E. Spring- 
field. 

Black Bird, p. o., Newcastle co., Del. : 15 m. N. Dover. 

Black Brook, t. and p. o., Clinton co., A r . Y. : on Saranac 
and Au Sable r., and Black Br., 1 25 m. N. Albany. P. 2,525. 

Black Creek, p. o., Scriven co., 6a. : 111 m. E. by S. 
Milledgeville. 

Black Creek, p. 0., Luzerne co., Penn. : 93 m. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Black Creek, p. o., Sullivan co., Ind. : on a cr. of 
Wabash r., so called, S3 m. S. W. Indianapolis. 

Black Creek, p. o., Holmes co., Ohio : 6S m. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Black Creek, p. v., Alleghany co., JY. Y.: on a cr. so 
called, 229 m. W. by S. Albany. 

Black Creek, p. 0., Wayne co., N. Car.: 49 m. S. E. 
Raleigh. 

Black Earth, p. o., Dane co., Wise. : on a river so 
called, 13 m. W. Madison. 

Black Pace, p. 0., Nottoway co., Yirg. : 47 m. S. W. 
Eichmond. 

Blackford county, Ind. Siluate N. E„ and contains 169 
sq. m. Surface level, but in some parts gently undulating, 
and the soils are excellent for farming purposes ; watered 
63 



by the Salamonie and Lick rivers. Timber abundant 
Earms 306; manuf. &; dwell. 514, and pop.— wh. 2,849, fr, 
col. 11— total, 2,860. Capital : Hartford. 

Black Pork, p. o., Hancock eo., Ky. : on a cr. so called, 
114 m. W. Prankfort. 

Black Hawk county, la. Situate N, E. centraUy, and 
contains 756 sq. m. Drained by Cedar r. and its creeks. 
Surface undulating prairie, with some wood land. Farms 
9 ; manuf. 1 ; dwell. 26, and pop.— wh. 135. fr. ool. 0— total, 
135— Capital: Cedar Falls. 

Black Hawk, p. o., Carroll co., Miss. : on Abyaca cr. of 
Tazoo cr., 69 m. N. Jackson. 

Black Hawk, p. o., Beaver 00., Penn. : 197 m. W. Har- 
risburg. 

Blackheth {formerly Coal Mines), p. o., Chesterfield 
co., Yirg. : 12 m. W. Eichmond. 

Black Hill, p. o., Kaufman co., Tex. : 210 m. N. N. E, 
Austin City. 

Black Hole, p. c, Lycoming co., Penn. : 83 m. N. by 
W. Harrisburg. 

Black Horse, p. o., Chester co., Penn.: 64 m. S. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Black Horse, p. 0., Middlesex co., JV. Jer. : 27 m. 
E. N. E. Trenton. 

Black Jack, p. 0., Fayette co., Tex. : at the head waters 
of Navidad r., 62 m. S. E. Austin City. 

Black Jack. p. o., Scott co., Ark. : 100 m. "W. Little 
Eock. 

Black Jack, p. o., De Soto par., La. : 187 xa. N. "W. 
Baton Eouge. 

Black Jack Grove, p. o., Hopkins co., Tex,: 256 m. 
N. N. E. Austin City. 

Black Lake, p. o., St. Lawrence co., If. Y. : on a lake so 
called, 152 m. N. E. Albany. Black Lake is a fine sheet of 
water, lying nearly parallel with the St. Lawrence r. ; at its 
S. end it receives Indian r., and at its N. end empties into 
Osweghatchie r., at the mouth of which is Ogdensburg, the 
W. terminus of the Northern E. E. 

Black Land, p. o., Tishemingo co., Miss. : 193 m. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Black Lick, p. o., Indiana co., Penm. : 126 m. "W. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Black Mingo, p. 0., Williamsburg dist., S. Car. : 77 m. 
E. S. E. Columbia. 

Black Oak, p. 0., Charleston dist., £. Car. : on an island 
so called of Santee r., 61 ru. E. S. E. Columbia. 

Black Oak Grote, p. o., Hardeman co., Tenn. : 139 m. 
S. W. Nashville. 

Black Oak Point, p. o. f Hickory co., Mo. : 68 m. S. W. 
Jefferson City. 

Black river, XT. Y.: the third in size wholly within the 
State. It rises in Herkimer co., has a course of 108 m., and 
empties into Black-river Bay, at the foot of Lake Ontario. 
At Leyden it falls 63 feet, whence to Carthage, 40 m., the r. 
is navigable for boats, but below to its mouth navigation is 
obstructed by rapids. From the falls, at Leyden, the Black 
Eiver Canal extends S. to the Erie Canal at Eome. 

Black Eiver, p. 0., Jefferson co., If. Y. : 138 m. N. AT. 
Albany. 

Black Eiver, t. and p. v., Lorain co., Ohio : on Black r. 
and Lake Erie, 108 m. N. N. E. Columbus, The v. has a 
good harbor and considerable trade. Pop. of t. 659. 

Black Eivee Chapel, p. o., New Hanover co., N. Car. : 
79 m. S. by E. Ealeigh. 

Black Eiver Falls, p. o., La Crosse co., Wise. : 118 m. 
N. W. Madison. 

Black Eock, t. and p. o., Erie co., JVC Y. : on Lake Erie, 
233 m. W. Albany. The city of Buffalo is surrounded on 
three sides by the town. Several islands in the Niagara r. 
belong to Black Eock. Eailroads extend hence to Niagara 
Falls and to Buffalo. Pop..7,508. 

Black Eock, p. o., Bappahannock co., Yirg. : 93 m. 
I N. N. W. Eichmond. 



BLI 



Blacks and "Whites, p. o., Nottoway, co., Virg. : 32 m. 
S. W. Eichmond. 

Black's Bluff, p. v., "Wilcox co., Ala. : on Alabama r., 
73 m. S. W. Montgomery. 

Blacksbuegh, p. v., Montgomery co., Virg. : on a cr. of 
New r., 179 m. "W. by S. Richmond. 

Blackshires, p. o., Marion eo., Virg: 207 m. N. W. 
Eicbmond. 

Blackstocks, p. o., Chester dist, S. Car. : on Charleston 
and South Carolina E. E., 41 m. N. by "W. Columbia. 

Black's Stoee, p. o., Tippah co., Miss. : 171 m. N. by E. 
•Jackson. 

Blackstone (or Pawtucket) river : rises in Mass., and 
disembogues into Providence r., where it furnishes immense 
siydraulic power, and has been much used for manufactur- 
ing purposes. The Blackstone Canal, from "Worcester to 
Providenee, 45 m., follows the valley of this r. : it was 
completed in 1S29, and cost about $700,000. 

Blackstone, p. t, "Worcester co., Mass. : 33 m. S. "W. 
Boston. Pop. 4,422. 

Black Swamp, p. o., Sandusky co., Ohio: 92 m. N. by 
"W. Columbus. 

Blacksvxlle, p. v., Monongalia co., Virg, : near the 
State line, 217 m. N. "W. EichmoncL 

Blacksville, p. v., Barnwell dist., S. Car. : on the line 
of the South Carolina E. E., 90 m. from Charleston, and 
49 m. S. S. W. Columbia. 

Black "Walnut, p. o., Halifax co,, Virg. : 100 m, S. "W. 
Eichmond. 

Black Waeeioe river, Ala. : is formed of two head 
branches, Locust fork, or E. Branch, and Mulberry r., which 
unite in S. "W. part of Jackson co. Below the junction the 
r. has a general S. and S. "W. direction, 80 m. to the Tom- 
bigbee r., which it meets in the S. of Greene co. Steam- 
boats navigate to Tuscaloosa ; and for boats there is suffi- 
cient water much farther. The whole length of the r. is 
about 160 m. 

Black "Watke, p. o., Sussex co., Virg. : 67 m. S. S. E. 
Eichmond. 

Black Watee, p. o., Sussex co., Del. : 51 m. S. Dover. 

Black "Water, p. o., Kemper co., Miss. : 104 m. E. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Black "Watee, p. o., Morgan co., Ky. ; 98 m. E. by S. 
Frankfort. 

Blacewell's Island : in East r., between New York 
and Long Island. The City Penitentiary, Lunatic Asylum, 
etc., are located on the island. 

Black "Wolf, p. o., "Winnebago eo., Wise. : on Winne- 
bago Lake, 73 m. N. N. E. Madison. 

Blackwood Town, p. v., Camden co., N. Jer. : 37 m. 
S. Trenton. 

Bladen county, If. Car. Situate S. E. on Cape Fear r., 
and contains 1,080 sq. m. Surface low and swampy. In- 
dian corn, rice, cotton, and tar are produced. Farms 486 ; 
manuf. 61 ; dwell. 1,005, and pop. — wh. 5,055, fr. col. 354, 
si. 4,358— total, 9,767. Capital: Elizabeth. 

Bladensbueg, p. v., Prince George's eo., Md. : on the 
"Washington Branch E, E., 7 m. from "Washington, 33 from 
Baltimore, and 22 m. W. Annapolis. 

Bladensbueg, p. o., Knox co., Ohio: 43 m. N. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Bladon Spetngs, p. o., Choctaw co., Ala. : 121 m. W. by 
by S. Montgomery. 

Blain, p. o., Perry co., Perm. : 21 m. "W. Harrisburg. 

Blaine, p. v.. Lawrence co., Ky. : on Blaine cr., 153 
m. E. Frankfort 

Blain's Ceoss Eoads, p. o., Grainger co., Term. : 4 m. 
N. Holsten r., and 181 m. E. Nashville. 

Blaie county, Perm. Situate centrally, and contains 634 
sq. m. Drained by head streams of Juniata r. Surface 
mountainous, diversified by extensive valleys : soils ordina- 
rily fertile. Farms 826 ; manuf. 130 ; dwell. 3,718, and pop. 
— wh. 21,517, fr. eoL 260— total, 21,777. Capital: Holli- 



daysburg. Public Works : Pennsylvania Canal and 
E. E. 

Blaie Fuenaoe, p. o., Blair co., Perm: 87 m. "W. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Blaie's Ferry, p. o., Eoane co., Term. : 108 m. E. by S. 
Nashville. • 

Blairstown, p. v., Warren co., N. Jer. : 61 m. N. by W. 
Trenton, Pop. of 1. 1,405- 

Blaiksville, p. v., and cap. Union co., Ga. : on Notley 
cr., 118 m. N. N. "W. MilledgevUle. 

Blaiesville, p. v., Posey co., Inrl. : on Big cr. of Wabash 
r., 117 m. S. "W. Indianapolis. 

Blaiesville, p. v,, Indiana co., Perm. : on Kiskinimitas 
r., and on the line of Pennsylvania E, E., 198 m. from 
Harrisburg, and 58 from Pittsburg. Pop. 1,512. 

Blaiesville, p. v., York dist., 8. Car. : 88 m. N. by E. 
Columbia. 

Blakeley, t. and p. v., Lucerne co., Perm. : on Lacka- 
wannock r., 108 m. N. E. Harrisburg. 

Blakely, p. v., sea-port, and cap. Baldwin co., Ala. : on 
the E. side of Tensaw r., opposite Mobile. The harbor ad- 
mits vessels drawing 11 feet water, and is in many respects 
superior to that of Mobile. 

Blakely, p. v., and cap. Early eo., Ga. : 134 m. S. "W. 
Milledgeville. 

Blakely, p. v., Stokes co., N. Car. : 109 m. "W. by N. 
Ealeigh. 

Blakesbubg, p. v., Wapello co., la.: 62 m. S. "W. Iowa 
City. 

Blano, p. o., Lucas eo., Ohio: 122 m. N. N. "W. Co- 
lumbus. 

Blanche, p. o., Lafayette co., Mo.: 93 m. "W. by N. 
Jefferson City. 

Blanchaed, t. and p. v., Piscataquis co., Me. : on Pis- 
cataquis r., 57 m. N. Augusta, Pop.-492. 

Blanciiard Beidge, p. v., Hancock co., OMo: on Blan- 
chard cr., 87 m. N. by "W. Columbus. 

Blancuester, p. v., Clinton co., Ohio: on Cincinnati 
and Hillsborough E. E., 39 m. from Cincinnati and 66 m. 
S. "W. Columbus. 

Blandensville, p. v., M'Donough co., III. : on Decker's 
cr., 83 m. N. "W. Springfield. 

Blandville, p. v., and cap. Ballard co., Ky. : on N. side 
of Mayfields r., 243 m. "W. Frankfort. 

Blanford, t, and/p. v., Hampden co., Mass. : on branch- 
es of "Westfield r., 96 m. "W. by S. Boston, Pop. 1,418. 

Blanket Hill, p. o., Armstrong co., Perm. : 123 m. "W. 
Harrisburg. 

Blattveltvills, p. v., Eoekland co., K. Y. : on the line 
of the New York and Erie E. E., 4 m. "W. Piermont and 
106 m. 3. Albany. 

Blawenbuegh, p. v., Somerset co., 2F. Jer.: 16 m. 
N. N. E. Trenton. 

Blecker, t. and p. o., Fultoa co., M Y. : on Garoga cr. 
and Stony cr. of Sacondaga r., 46 m. N. "W. Albany. Ga- 
roga and Fish lakes are in this town. Pop. 511. 

Bledsoe county, Tenn, Situate S. E. centrally, and con- 
tains 520 sq. m. Drained by Sequatohy r., its creeks, the 
head waters of Coney fork of Cumberland r., and of Eme- 
ry's r, of the Clinch. Considerable hills bound the valley 
of Sequatehy r., whieh runs through the county in a N. and 
S. direction. The grains, tobacco, and cotton are produced. 
Farms 325 ■ manuf. 2 ; dwell. 854, and pop. — wh. 5,042, fr. 
col. 90, si. 827— total, 5,959. Capital : Pikeville. 

Bledsoe's Landing, p. o., Crittenden eo., Ark. : 131 m. 
E. N. E. Little Bock. 

Blendgn, t. and p. v., Franklin eo., Ohio: on Alum and 
Big "Walnut cr., upper branches of Scioto r., 10 m. N. by E. 
Columbus. Pop. 1,323. 

Blenheim, t. and p. v., Schoharie co., IT. Y. : on Scho- 
harie r., 35 m. S. "W. Albany. Pop. 1,314. 

Blink Bonny, p. o., St. Lawrence co, iV". F. : 133 m. 
N. E. Albany. 



BLI 



BLO 



Bush's Mills, p. o., Franklin co., Mo. : 62 m. E. Jeffer- 
son City. 

Blissfield, t. and p. v., Lenawee co., Mich. : on Baisin 
r., and on the line of the Erie and Kalamazoo B. B., 22 m. 
from Toledo, and 74 m. S. E. Lansing. Pop. 924. 

Blissville, p. v., Marshall co., Ind. : 106 m. N. Indian- 
apolis. 

Blissville, p. v., Jefferson co. Ill,: 108 m, S. by E. 
Springfield. 

Bliven Mills, p. o., M'Henry co., III.: 197 m. N. E. 
Springfield. 

Block House, p. o., Scott co., Yirg. : 257 m. W. by S. 
Eichmond. 

Block Bjland lies in the Atlantic Ocean 14 m. S. S. W. 
Judith Point. It constitutes the t. of New Shoreham, 
Newport co., B. ii, and is 8 m. long and from 2 to 4 broad. 
The surface is uneven and occasionally elevated, and the 
soils sandy and gravelly loam moderately fertile. There 
are several ponds on the island. Formerly it was noted 
for its fine cattle and dairies, but at the present time it is 
chiefly occupied by fishermen. 

Blockvtlle, p. v., Chautauque eo., If. T. : 283 m. W. S. 
W. Albany. 

Bloodget Mills, p. o., Cortland co., If. Y.: 119 m. W. 
Albany. 

Blood's Point, p. o., De Kalb co., III. : 242 m. N. by E. 
Springfield. 

Bloody Em*-, p. o., Bodford co., Penn. : on Eaystown 
cr., S7 m. W. S. W. Harrisburg. 
Bloom, p. o., Cook co., Ill,: 251 m. N. E. Springfield. 
Bloom, p. o., Bush co., Ind. : 33 m. E. by S. Indian- 
apolis. 

Bloomfield, t. and p. v., Hartford co., Conn. : on "Wood 
r., 7 m. N. W. Hartford. Pop. 1,421. 

Bloomfield, p. v., and cap. Greene co., Ind. : on the E. 
side of the W. fork of White r., 65 m. S. W. Indianapolis. 
Bloomfield, p. v., Edgar co., III. : 152 m. E. Springfield. 
Bloomfield, p v., Kemper co., Miss.: 93 m. E. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Bloomfield, p. v., and cap. Da-vis co., la.: 78 m. 
S. "W. Iowa City. 

Bloomfield, p. v., Nelson co., Ey. : S3 m. S. "W. Frank- 
fort. 

Bloomfield, t. and p. o., Somerset co., Me. : on the Ken- 
nebec r., 29 m. N. Augusta. Pop. 1,301. 

Bloomfield, p. v., and cap. Stoddart co., Mo. : 162 m. 
S. E. Jefferson City. 

Bloomfield, t. and p. v., Essex co., If. Jer. : 49 m. N. E. 
Trenton. The v. is one of the most flourishing of the 
State. Pop. oft3,3S5. 

Bloomfield, t. and p. v., Morrow co., Ohio : 51 m. N. by 
E. Columbus. Pop. 1,443. 

Bloomfield, t. and p. v., Crawford co., Penn. : 197 m. 
N. "W. Harrisburg. 

Bloomfield, p. v., Loudon co., Yirg. : on Goose er., 102 
m. N. by W. Eichmond. 

Bloomfield, t. and p. v., Essex co., Verm, : on W. side of 
Connecticut r., and drained by branches of Nulhegan r., 
63 m. N. E. Montpelier. Pop. 244. 

Bloomfield, t. and p. v., Walworth eo., Wise. : in S. E. 
corner of eo., 67 m. S. E. Madison. Pop. S79. 

Bloomingbubgh, p. v., Sullivan co., If. Y. : S2 m. S. S. "W. 
Albany. 

Bloomtngbitegh, p. v., Fayette co., Ohio : on a branch 
of Paint cr., 31 m. S. S. W. Columbus. 

Bloomlngdale, p. v., Passaic co., If. Jer. : 63 m. N. E. 
Trenton. 

Bloomlngdale, p. v., Cabel co., Yirg. : 254 m. "W. by N. 
Eichmond. 

Bloomlngdale, p. v., Du Page co., III. : 247 m. N. E. 
Springfield. 

Bloomingdale, p. v., Jefferson CO., Ohio : 102 m. E. by 
N Columbus. 
70 



Blooming Gkove, p. o., Franklin co., Ind. : 62 m. E. by 
8. Indianapolis. 

Blooming Gkove, t. and p. o., Orange co., If. Y. : on 
Murderer's cr., S6 m. S. Albany. Newburg Branch E. E. 
traverses the N. W. part of the t., and on the S. E. is the 
Scunnecunk nit. Pop. 2,184. 

Blooming Gkove, p. o., Montgomery co., Tenn. ; on a 
cr. so called, 49 m. W. by N. Nashville. 

Bloomingspoet, p. o., Bandolph co., Ind. : 64 m. E. by 
N. Indianapolis. 

Bloomington, t. and p. v., Winnebago co.,. Wise. : 63 m. 
S. E. Madison. Pop. 909. 

Bloomington, p. v., and cap. Monroe co., Ind, : on the 
line of the New Albany and Salem Extension E. E., 106 m-. 
from New Albany, and 46 m. S. W. Indianapolis. The 
Indiana University is located here; and the newspapers, 
published in the v. %re the " Reporter" and the " Herald," 
weekly, and the " Christian Eecord," monthly. 

Bloomington, p. v., Clinton co., Ohio: 57 m. S. W. 
Columbus. 

Bloomington, p. v., and cap. M'Lean co., III. : 83 m. 
N. E. Springfield. The Illinois Central E. E,, and the 
Chicago and Mississippi E. E. will intersect at this point. 

Bloomington, p. v., Morgan co., Ey. : 102 m. E. 
Frankfort. 

Bloomington, p. v., and cap. Macon co., Mo.: on middle 
fork of Chariton r., and on the line of the Hannibal and 
Missouri E. E., S6 m. N. Jefferson City. The " Bloomington 
Gazette" is published weekly. 

Bloomington. p. v., Tipton co., Tenn. : 161 m. W. S. W. 
Nashville. 

Blooming Valley, p. o., Crawford co., Penn. : 197 m. 
N. W. Harrisburg. 

Bloomingville, p. o., Erie co., Ohio : 97 m. N. by E. 
Columbus. 

Bloomsbuegh, p. v., Halifax co., Yirg. : on S. E. side 
of the Dan r., 117 m. S. W. Eichmond. 

BLOOMSBirEGn, p. v., and cap. Columbia co., Penn. : on 
the E. or main branch of Susquehanna r., 69 m. N. by E. 
Harrisburg. It is a thriving village on the North Branch 
Canal, and publishes two newspapers, the " Columbia 
Democrat," and the " Star of the North." Pop. 1,515. 

Bloomsbtjky, p. v., Warren co.,iV; Jer. : on Musconecong 
cr., 32 m. N. by W. Trenton. 

Bloomville, p. v., Delaware co., If. Y. : on the W. side 
of the W. branch of Delaware r., 57 m. S. W. Albany. 

Bloomville, p. v., Will eo., III. : on Eock cr., of Kankakee 
r., 240 m. N. E. Springfield. 

Bloomville, p. v., Seneca co., Ohio : 73 m. N. Colum- 
bus. 

Blossbiteg, p. v., Tioga co., Penn. : 100 m. N. by W. 
Harrisburg. Bituminous coal, of excellent quality, abounds 
in the vicinity, and great facilities have been arranged for 
its transport to market by railroad and canal. 

Blossom Hill, p. o., Caddo parish, La. : 235 m. N. W. 
Baton Eouge. 

Blount county, Ala. Situate N. centrally, and contains 
940 sq. m. Drained by Locust and Mulberry forks of Black 
Warrior r. Surface various — in the S. rolling and uneven, 
and in the N. somewhat hilly : soils of average fertility. 
Wheat, Indian corn, and cotton are the staple growths. 
Farms 753 ; manuf. 9 ; dwell. 1,127, and pop. — wh. 6,941, fr. 
col. 0, si. 426— total, 7,367. Capital: Blountsville. 

Blount county, Tenn. Situate E. on the State line, and 
contains S10 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Tennessee r., 
which lies on the W. border. Surface uneven— broken and 
hilly on the E., and the soils generally fertile. Iron is found 
herein. The products are the grains, with some tobacco 
and cotton. Farms 976 ; manuf. 3S ; dwell. 1,992, and pop. 
— wh. 11,183, fr. col. 115, si. 1,084— total, 12,382. Capital : 
Maysville. 

Blount's Ceeek, p. o., Beaufort co., If. Car. : 92 m, 
E. S. E. Ealeigh. 



BLO 



BOG 



Blount's Ferky, p. o., Columbia co., Flor. : 63 m. E. 
Tallahassee. 

Blount's Spring, p. o., Blount co., Ala. : 119 m. N. 
Montgomery. 

Blountstown, p. v., Calhoun co., Flor. : 66 m. S. W. 
Tallahassee. 

Blountsville, p. v., and cap. Blount oo., Ala. : on a 
cr. of Mulberry fork of Black Warrior r., 117 m. N. Mont- 
gomery. 

Blountsville, p. v., Henry co., Ind. : 52 m. E. by N. 
Indianapolis. 

Blountsville, p. v., and cap. Sullivan co., Tenn. 

Blue Ball, p. o., Cecil co., Md. : 54 m. N. E. Annapolis. 

Blue Ball, p. o., Butler co., Ohio : 93 m. S. W. Colum- 
bus. 

Blue Ball, p. o., Lancaster co., Penm. : 42 m. S. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Blue Bell, p. o., Montgomery co., Penn. : 91 m. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Blue Ceeek, p. o., Adams co., Ohio : on a er. so called 
of Ohio r., S3 m. S. S. W. Columbus. 

Blue Ceeek, p. o., Habersham co., Oa. : 119 m. N. E. 
Milledgeville. 

Blue Ceeek, p. o., Pike co., Ala. : 37 m. S. Mont- 
gomery. 

Blue Ceeek, p. o., Franklin co., Ind. : 64 m. E. S. E. 
Indianapoiis. 

Blue Eye, p. o., Benton co., Ala.: 96 m. N. N. E. 
Montgomery. 

Blue Geass, p. o., Scott co., la. : 49 m. E. Iowa City. 

Blue G-bass, p. o., Fulton co., Ind. : 87 m. N. Indian- 
apolis. 

Blue Hill, t and p. o., Hancock co., Me. : on a bay 
formed between the mainland and Mt. Desert Island, 29 m. 
S. E. Augusta. From a hill near the v. a most splendid 
view of the surrounding scenery is presented. Pop. 1,939. 

Blue Hill, p. o., Williamson co., Tex. : 31 m. N. Austin 
City. 

Blue House, p. o., Colleton dist., S. Car. : 76 m. S. by W. 
Columbia. 

Blue Lick, p. o., Franklin co., Ala. : 163 m. N. W. 
Montgomery. 

Blue Lick, p. o., Clark co., Ind. : 91 m. 8. S. E. 
Indianapolis. 

Blue Lick Speings, p. o., Nicholas co., Ky. : on S. side 
of Licking r., 61 m. E. Frankfort. 

Blue Mound, t. and p. o., Dane co., Wise. : 21 m. W. S. W. 
Madison. Pop/815. 

Blue Mountain, p. o., Northumberland co., Penn. 

Blue Plum, p. o., Washington co., Tenn. : 193 m. E. 
Nashville. 

Blue's Point, p. o., Crittenden co., Ark. : 129 m. E. N. E. 
Little Eock. 

Blue Pond, p. o., Cherokee co., Ala. : 139 m. N. E. 
Montgomery. 

Blue Hedge, or South Mountain : the eastern ridge of 
the Alleghany Mountains, which branches off from the 
main range in North Carolina, and crosses the States of Vir- 
ginia, Maryland, etc., and extends to the highlands of the 
Hudson r. The Peaks of Otter, in Virginia, the highest 
part of the ridge, have an elevation of nearly 4,000 feet ; 
and there are other peaks of not much less an altitude. 

Blue Btdge, p. o., Botetourt co., Yirg. : 116 m. W. Eich- 
mond. 

Blue Eidge, p. o., Yancey co., N. Car. : 193 m. W. 
Ealeigh. 

Blue Eeoge, p. o., Gilmer co., Ga. : 151 m. N. W. Ma- 
ledge ville. 

Blue Eidge, p. o., Shelby co., Ind. : 29 m. S. E. Indhtn- 
apolig. 

Blue Btyeb, p. o., Iowa co., Wise. : 53 m. W. Madison. 

Blue Eock, t. and p. o., Muskingum co., Ohio : oa 
Muskingum r., 56 m. E. Columbus. Pop. 1,476. 



Blue Eock, p. o., Chester co., Penn. : 63 m. S. E. Har- 
risburg. 

Blue Speing, p. o., Morgan co., Ala. : 147 m. N. Mont- 
gomery. 

Blue Spelng, p. o., Smyth co., Yirg. : 210 m. W. S. W. 
Eichmond. 

Blue Spelng Geove, p. o., Barren co., Ky. : 86 m. 
S. S. W. Frankfort. The Nashville and Lexington E. E. 
will probably pass near this place. 

Blue Springs, p. o., Jackson co., Mo. : 116 m. W. Jeffer- 
son City. The Pacific E. E. from St. Louis will probably 
intersect this point. 

Blue Stone, p. o., Tazewell co., Yirg.: 232 m. W. 
Eichmond. 

Blue Sulphur Speings, p. o., Greenbrier co., Yirg. : 
180 m. W. Eichmond. These springs are much frequented 
by invalids ; they are situate in a mountain valley, and are 
surrounded by grand and picturesque scenery. 

Blue Wing, p. o., Granville co., N. Car. : 71 m. N. by 
W. Ealeigh. 

Bluff, p. o., Mercer co., Ml. : 105 m. N. W. Spring- 
field. 

Bluff, p. o., Sauk co., Wise. : 31 m. N. W. Madison. 

Bluff Dale, p. o., Greene co., III. : 87 m. W. S. W. 
Springfield. 

Bluff Dale, p. o., Des Moines co., la. : 52 m. S. by E. 
Iowa City. 

Bluff Point, p. o., Yates co., N. Y. : 166 m. W. 
Albany. 

Bluff Poet, p. o., Sumpter co., Ala. : on the W. side of 
Tombigbee r., opposite the mouth of Black Warrior r., 92 
m. W. Montgomery. 

Bluff Spring, p. o., Talladega co., Ala. : 74 m. N. 
Montgomery. 

Bluff Spring, p. o., Talbot co., Ga. : 83 m. W. by S. 
Milledgeville. 

Bluff Spelng, p. o., Attala co., Miss. : on E. side of Big 
Black r., 69 m. N. N. E. Jackson. 

Bluff Spring, p. o., Johnson co., Mo. : 94 m. W. Jeffer- 
son City. 

Bluff Springs, p. o., Gibson co., Tenn. : 137 m. W. by S. 
Nashville. 

Bluffton, p. v., and cap. Wells co., Ind. : 82 m. N. E. 
Indianapolis. The " Eepublican Bugle" and the " B. Ban- 
ner" are published weekly. 

Bluffton, p. o., Beaufort dist., S. Car. : 116 m. S. by W. 
Columbia. 

Bluffton, p. v., Marquette co., Wise. : 3 m. N. Green 
Lake, and 5S m. N. by E. Madison. 

Bluffytlle, p. v., Carroll co., III. : on the E, side of 
Mississippi r., 223 m. N. N. W. Springfield. 

Bltthe, p. o., Schuylkill co., Penn. : 34 m. N. E. Har- 
risburg. 

Blythevtlle, p. v., Jasper co., Mo. : 159 m, S. W. Jeffer- 
son City. 

Boalsburg, p. v., Centre co., Penn< : on Spring cr., 69 
m. N. W. Harrisburg. 

Boardman, p. v., Mahoning co., Ohio: 131 m. N. E.. 
Columbus. 

Boardtree, p. o., Cherokee co., 67a.. - 100 m. N. W, 
Milledgeville. 

Bopenhah, p. v., Giles co,, Tenn.: 62 m. S. by W. 
Nashville. 

Bcetia, p. v., Mercer co., Ohio : 97 m. N. W. Columbus. 

Bcbuff Prairie, p. o., Franklin par., La. : on W. side • 
of Cypress Lake, 103 m. N. W. Baton Rouge. 

Bogansyille, p. v., Umon dist,, S. Car. : 69 m. N. by; 
W. Columbia. 

Bogaed, p. o., Daviess co., Ind. : 89 m. S. W. Indian- 
apolis. 

Boggy Dep6t, p. o., Choctaw Nation, Bid. Ter. 

Bogus Eun. p. o., Stark co., Ind, ; 100 m. N.. N. W 
Indianapolis. 

71 



BOI 



BOO 



Boiling Spring, p. o., Fentress co., Term. : on N. side 
of Clear fork of New r., 61 m. E. Nashville. 

Boiling Springs, p. o., Benton co., Ala. : 110 m. N. by E. 
Montgomery. 

Boiling Springs, p. o., Cumberland co., Perm. : 22 m. 
W. Harrisburg. 

Boilston, p. v., Henderson co., iK Cai\ : on a cr. of 
French Broad r. so called, 228 m. W. S. W. Ealeigh. 

Bois Blano Island : in Lake Huron, S. E. Mackinaw. 
It is 10 m. long and 3 m. wide in its greatest breadth. A 
lighthouse has been erected on the E. point. 

Soke's Creek, p. o., Union co., Ohio: 32 m. N. "W. 
Columbus. 

Boland's, p. o., Itawamba co., Miss. : on W. side of Little 
Tombigbee r., 169 m. N. E. Jackson. 

Bolen's Mills, p. o., Vinton co., Ohio: 53 m. S. E. 
Columbus. 

Boligee, p. o., Greene co., Ala.: 105 m. W. by N. 
Montgomery. 

Bolington, p. o., Loudon co.., Virg. : 107 m. N. Eich- 
mond. 

Bolivae county, Mm. Situate W. on Mississippi r., and 
contains 720 sq. m. Drained by Large and William's Bay- 
oux, tributaries of Sunflower r., and has several lakes. Sur- 
face mostly level or undulating, and occasionally swampy ; 
soils rich and productive. Indian com and cotton are the 
principal staples. Farms 57; dwell. 95, and pop.- — wh. 395, 
fr. col. 2, si. 2,1S0— total, 2,577. Capital : Bolivar. 

Bolivae, p. v., Jackson co., Ala. : on N. side of Big 
Eaccoon cr., 3 m. distant, and 172 m. N. Montgomery. 

Bolivar, p. v., and cap. Poinsett co., Ark. : 108 m. N. E. 
Little Rock. 

Bolivar, p. v., and cap. Boliver co., Miss. : on E. side 
of Mississippi r., 108 m. N. N. W. Jackson. 

Bolivar, p. v., and cap. Polk co., Mo. : on a tributary 
of Sac r. of the Osage, S9 m. S. W. Jefferson City. 

Bolivar, t. and p. v., Alleghany co., JW. Y. : on a tribu- 
tary of Oswaye cr., 223 m. W. by S. Albany. Pop 712. 

Bolivar, p. v., Tuscarawas co., Ohio: on W. side of 
Tuscarawas r. and on the Ohio Canal, 92 m. N. E. Columbus. 

Bolivar, p. v., and cap. Hardeman co., Tenn. : on S. W. 
Bide of Big Hatchee r., 143 m. W. S. W. Nashville. 

Bolster's Mills, p. o., Cumberland co., Me.: 54 m. 
S. W. Augusta. 

Bolton, t. and p. v., Tolland co., Conn. : on the line of 
the Providence, Hartford, and Fishkill E. E,, 16 m. E. 
Hartford. Pop. 607. 

Bolton, p. v., "Williamson co., III. : 21S m. S. by E. 
Springfield. 

Bolton, t and p. v., "Worcester co., Mass.: between 
Concord and Nashua r., 29 m. W. by N. Boston. P. 1,263. 

Bolton, t. and p. v., "Warren co., JV. T. : on Lake George, 
57 m. N. Albany. Pop. 1,147. 

Bolton, t. and p. v., Chittenden co., Verm. : on Onion 
r., in the valley of which the Vermont Central R. E. runs, 
17 m. N. "W. Monrpelier. The N. part of the town lies on 
the Green mts. Pop. 602. 

Bolton's Dep6t, p. o., Hinds co., Miss. : on the line of 
Vicksburg, Jackson, and Brandon E. E., 27 m. from Vicks- 
burg. and 19 W. Jackson. 

Boltonvtlle, p. v., Cobb co., Ga. : 103 m. N. W. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Bolt's Fort, p. o., Lawrence co., JTy. .• 114 m. E. Frank- 
fort. 

Bombay, t. and p. o., Franklin co., 2f. T. : on St. Eegis, 
and Racket r. and several tributaries of Salmon r., 126 m. 
N. N. W. Albany. Pop. 1,963. 

Bon Air Springs, p. o., White co., Tenn. : 87 m. E. by S. 
Nashville. 

Bonaparte, p. v., Du Page co., III.: 23S m. N. E. 
Springfield. 

Bonaparte, p. v., Van Buren co.. la. : on the E. side 
Des Moines r. 66 m. S. Iowa City. 



Bon Aqua, p. o., Hickman co., Tenn. : 52 m. S. W. 
Nashville. 

Bond county, III. Situate S. centrally, and contains 360 
sq. m. Drained by E. and W. forks of Shoal cr., Beaver 
cr., and other streams, affluents of the Kaskaskia. Surface 
level or undulating, chiefly prairie, intermixed with timber ; 
soil exceedingly rich and productive. Farms 665 ; nianuf. 
17; dwell. 1,076, and pop.— wh. 6,136, fr. col. 8— total, 6,144. 
Capital : Greenville. Public Works : National Eoad. 

Bond's Village, p. v., Hampden eo., Mass.: 82 m. 
W. by S. Boston. 

Bondville, p. o., Bennington co., Verm. : 76 m. S 
Montpelier. 

Bone Ceeek, p. o., Eitchie co., Virg.: 213 m. W. N. W. 
Eichmond. 

Bone Yard, p. o., Tishemingo co., Miss. : 206 m. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Bonham, p. v , and cap. Fannin co., Tex. : on the "W. side 
of Bois d'Arc r., 267 m. N. by E. Austin City. A news- 
paper, the " B. Advertiser," is published weekly. 

Bonhoume, p. o., St. Louis co., Mo. : 90 m. E. Jefferson 
City. 

Bonn, p. v., Washington co., Ohio : on E. side of Duck 
cr. of Ohie r., 90 m. E. by S. Columbus. 

Bonnet Caere ^Square Bonnet, so called from a remark- 
able bend on the r.), p. v., and cap. St. John Baptist par., 
La. : on E. side Mississippi r., 37 m. S. S. E. Baton 
Eouge. 

Bonny Doon, p. o., Jefferson co., Ga. : 5S m. E. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Bono, p. o., Lawrence co., Ind. : on the S. of the E. fork 
of White r., 63 m. S. Indianapolis. 

Bon Pas, p. o., Eichland co., III. : 165 m. S. S. E. Spring- 
field. 

Bonus Peaiete, p. o., Boone co., III. : on the E. side of 
Piskashaw cr., 2C9 m. N. by E. Springfield. 

Boone county, PI. Situate N. middle, and contains 432 
sq. m. Drained by Eock r. and its tributaries. Surface level, 
with some wet prairies, and soils of exceeding richness; 
timber plentiful. Farms S97; manuf. 17 ; dwell. 1,352, and 
pop.— wh. 7,621, fr. col. 5— total, 7,626. Capital : BeM- 
dere. Public Works : Galena and Chicago Union E. E., 
and branch to Beloit. 

Boone county, Ind. Situate N. W. centrally, and con- 
tains 40S sq. m. The prevailing soil is a black loam sev- 
eral feet deep, resting on a substratum of clay, and in some 
places of sand and gravel ; it is very fertile. No part of the 
State is better timbered. The county is situated on the ridge 
or dividing swamps between White r. and the Wabash, and 
contains the sources of several fine streams, tributaries of 
these rivers. Farms 1,393 ; manuf. 28 ; dweU. 1,914, and 
pop.— wh. 11,611, fr. col. 20, total, 11,631. Capital : Leb- 
anon. Public Works : Indianapolis and Lafayette E. E. 

Boone county, la. Situate centrally, and contains 576 
sq. m. Drained by Des Moines r. and tributaries. Surface 
level or undulating — prairie intermixed with woodland, and 
soils excellent. Dwell. 119, and pop. — wh. 735, fr. col. — 
total 735. Capital : Booneville. 

Boone county, Ky. Situate N. on Ohio r., and contains 
312 sq. m. Drained by creeks flowing to the Ohio. Surface 
uneven, and soils not unproductive. Indian corn, wheat, 
and tobacco are the chief products. Farms 982 ; manuf. 16 ; 
dwell. 1,615, and pop.— wh. 9,044, fr. col. 37, si. 2,104— total 
11,185. Capital : Burlington. 

Boone county, Mb. Situate centrally on Missouri r., and 
contains 6S0 sq. m. Drained by Eock, Femme, Cedar, and 
other creeks. Surface chiefly level prairie intermixed with 
woodland, and the soils fertile. The chief products, besides 
grain, are tobacco and hemp. Farms 1,376 ; manuf. 21 ; 
dwell. 1,924, and pop.— wh. 11,300, fr. col. 13, si. 3,666— total 
14.979. Capital: Columbia. 

Boone county, Virg. Situate W., and contains 390 sq. 
m. Drained by the head waters of Little Coal cr., a tribu- 



BOO 



BOS 



tary of Great Kanawha r. Surface undulating, and soils 
fertile. Coal is abundant. Farms 361; manuf. 3; dwell. 
495, and pop— wh. 3,054, fr. col. 0, si. 183— total 3,237. 
Capital : Boone C. H. 

Boone, p. v., Ashe co., M Car. : 172 m. W. N. W. 
Ealeigh. 

Boone's Mills, p. o., Franklin co., Virg. : 136 m. W. by 
S. Eichmond. 

Boone Valley, p. o., Letcher co., Ky. : 169 m. E. by S. 
Frankfort. 

Booneville, t. and p. v., Oneida co., If. Y. : on Black r., 
93 m. N. W. Albany. The Black Eiver Canal passes 
through the town N. and S. centrally. Pop.. 3,306. 

Booneville, p. v., and cap. Boone co., la. : 9S m. W. 
IST. W Iowa City. 

Booneville, p. v., and cap. Owsley co., Ky. : 75 m. E. 
by S. Frankfort. 

Booneville, p. v., and cap. Brazos co., Tex-. : on Carters 
cr. of Navasota r., 137 m. E. by N. Austin City. 

Boon Grove, p. o., Porter co., Ind.: 123 m. N. W. 
Indianapolis. 

Boonhtll, p. o., Johnson co., N. Car. : on a cr. of Neuse 
r., 37 m. S. E. Ealeigh. 

Boonsborough, p. v., Washington co., Md. : 73 m. W. 
BT. W. Annapolis. The " Odd Fellow," a weekly news- 
paper, is published here. 

Boonsborough, p. v., Washington co., Ark. : 147 m. 
N. TV. Little Eock. 

Boon's Creek, p. o., Washington co., Tenn. : on a cr. so 
called of Watauga r., 247 m. E. Nashville. 

Boon's Hill, p. o., Lincoln co., Tenn. : 73 m. S. Nash- 
Tille. 

Boon's Lick, p. o., Howard co., Mo. : 52 m. N. W. 
Jefferson City. 

Boonton, p. v., Morris co., Jf. Jer. : 41 m. N. Trenton. 

Boonton's Tan Yard, p. a, Madison co., Virg. ; 76 m. 
BT. W. Eichmond. 

Boonville, p. v., and cap. Scott co., Ark. : on Petite 
Jean cr. of Arkansas r., 147 m. W. BT. W. Little Eock. 

Boonville. p. v., and cap. Warrick co., Ind. : 128 m. 
S. S. W. Indianapolis. 

Boonville, p. v., and cap. Cooper co., Mo. : on S. side 
of Missouri r., 52 m. N. W. Jefferson City. It is a place of 
considerable business, and here are published weekly the 
" B. Weekly Democrat," and the " B. Observer" (dem.) — the 
latter is also published semi-weekly. Numerous steamers 
make this a regular landing place. 

Boothbay, t. and p. v., Lincoln co., Me : between Sheeps- 
cot and Damariseotta r., with the ocean on the S. 37 m. 
S. by E. Augusta. It has a good harbor, and the inhab- 
itants are largely engaged in the fisheries. Pop.^2,504. 

Boothsville, p. v., Marion co., Virg. : 187 m. BT. W. 
Eichmond. 

Bordeaux, p. v., Abbeville dist., S. Car. : 78 m. W. 
Columbia. 

Boedentovtn, p. v., Burlington co., If. Jer. : on E. side 
of Delaware r., 8 m. S. by E. Trenton. The site is elevated 
some 60 feet above the river, and is remarkable for its 
beautiful scenery. Here Joseph Bonaparte resided while 
in America. The railroads connecting New York and 
Philadelphia pass through the v., and the Delaware and 
Earitan Canal has- its W. outlet at this place. 

Boedley, p. o., Union co.. Ky. : 161 m. W. by S. Frank- 
fort 

Borland, p. v., Newton co., Ark. : on Buffalo fork of 
White r., 104 m. N. N. W. Little Eock. 

Borodino, p. o. (formerly Moreauville), p. v., Avoy- 
elles par., La. : 82 m. N. W. Baton Eouge. 

Borodino, p. o., Wayne co., Mich.: 82 m. E. S. E. 
Lansing. 

Borodino, p. v., Onondaga co., Jf. Y. : on Skaneateles 
lake, 127 m. W. by N. Albany. 

Boscawen, t and p. v., Merrimac co., If. Ramp. : on W. 

K 



side of Merrimac r. and Northern R. E., 10 m. N. Concord 
Black Water r. passes through the t, and affords fine mil] 
sites. Pop. 2,063. 

Bosserman's Mills, p. v., Perry co., Perm. : 20 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Bossier county, La. Situate N. W. between Eed r. a»d 
Bayou Dorcheat, and contains 1,016 sq. m. Drained by 
Bayou and Lake Bodeau, and streams tributary to the bor- 
der rivers. Surface low and marshy ; soils rich, producing 
corn, cotton, and sugar. Farms 333 ; dwell. 478, and pop. 
— wh. 2,507, fr. col. 0, si. 4,455— total 6,962. Capital : Belle- 
view. The " great raft" of Red r. lies within this county. 

Bossier Point, p. o., Bossier par., La. : 177 m. N. W. 
Baton Eouge. 

Bostick's Mills, p. o., Eichmond co., If. Car. : VIZ m. 
S. W. by W. Ealeigh. 

Boston, p. v., Wayne co., Ind. : 6S m. E. Indianapolis. 

Boston (formerly Kautatinchunk), p. v., Northampton 
co., Penn. : 87 m. E. by N. Harrisburg. 

Boston, p. v., Yolo co., Calif. : on W. side of Sacra 
mento r., at the mouth of American r., 60 m. N. E. Vallejo. 

Boston, p, o., Nelson co., Ky. : 47 m. S. W. Frankfort. 

Boston, t. and p. v., Ionia co., Mich.: on S. side of 
Grand r., 39 m. W. by N. Lansing. Pop. 424 

Boston, p. o., Erie co., If. Y. : 247 m. W. Albany. 

Boston, t. and p. v., Summit co., Ohio : on Cuyahoga r. 
of Lake Erie, and on the line of the Ohio Canal, 122 m. 
N. N. E. Columbus. The v. is a busy place and has con- 
siderable trade. Pop. 1, ISO- 
Boston, p. city, sea-port, and cap. Suffolk co., and capital 
of the State of Massachusetts : at the head of Massachusetts 
Bay, near the confluence of Charles and Mystic rivers. 
These streams are navigable only for a few miles, but 
uniting with Neponset and Weymouth rivers, form one of 
the noblest harbors of the world — land-locked, accessible to 
ships of the line, easily defended, and rarely obstructed by 
ice. It extends 14 m. from Point Alderton to Medford ; 
and from Chelsea to Hingham is at least 8 m. wide, cover- 
ing 75 sq. m., and would hold all the shipping of the Union. 
The entrance for large vessels is very narrow, barely suffi- 
cient for two to sail abreast. It is defended by three 
fortresses, two of which, on George's and Castle islands, 
are on the largest scale, and constructed with all the im- 
provements of modern science. The third, or Citadel, on 
Governor's island, is not yet completed. These will effect- 
ually command the entrance, and, when finished, make it 
impregnable. The harbor is well adapted to commerce. 
The peninsula and island of Boston is literally fringed with 
wharves and docks, w r hile around the harbor and its afflu- 
ents are clustered many cities and villages, into which 
Boston overflows, all of which have piers and landing- 
places, viz. : Hingham, Hull, Quincy, Milton, Dorchester, 
Eoxbury, Brookline, Brighton, Newton, Watertown, Cam- 
bridge, Charlestown, Chelsea, Maiden, Medford, and Som- 
erville. Lat. 42° 21' 23" BT., and long. 71° 04' 09" W.— 432 
m. N. E. Washington City. 

The early settlers chose for their residence, in 1630, a 
peninsula, connected with the main by a narrow isthmus, 
occasionally overflowed, and divided at high tide into two 
islands. The entire tract contained 600 acres. It was 
called Shawmut or Trimountain, and derived its name from 
its springs and three, lofty hills. The spot was undoubtedly 
selected for pure water, facilities for commerce, and security 
from wolves and Indians. Boston soon became an import- 
ant sea-port, and at an early period became distinguished 
for her enterprise and commerce, and was peculiarly noted 
for her ship-building and fisheries. In 1740 the pop. was 
17,000. For more than half a century from this period the 
growth of the city was checked by wars and the restrictive 
policy of England, and hence in 1790 the city contained 
only 1S,038 inhabitants. Before the Revolution she was the 
first commercial city on the coast; her reputation was 
identified with the country, and the colonists were generally 

73 



BUS 



BOS 



known as Bostonians among the French and Canadians. 
But during that eventful struggle her citizens were com- 
pelled to abandon their firesides, and their commerce was 
literally ruined. Her sacrifice for the common cause was 
severe, and her recovery slow. New York and Philadel- 
phia consequently outstripped her. But since 1T90 the city 
has advanced rapidly. She embarked largely in the trade 
to India and China ; in voyages to the North-west Coast, 
and in the fisheries, carrying trade, etc ; and opened an ex- 
tensive business with Russia, the Mediterranean, South 
America, Liverpool, and the British Colonies. When com- 
merce was paralyzed by the embargo and war of 1812, she 
commenced manufactures, which have since expanded 
into every variety of form. More recently her citizens have 
taken a deep interest in railroads, and opened to the city an 
interior to which nature gave her no access. 

A peninsula, less than one mile square, was soon found 
insufficient for Boston, and the State annexed to her Dor- 
chester Point, a peninsula of 600 acres. To this, now ealled 
South Boston, she is united by four bridges. At a later 
period ferries were established to Noddles Island (660 acres), 
and this now forms a ward of the city. Some hundred acres 
have also been reclaimed from the sea ; but these narrow 
limits, about 3 sq. m. in extent, proved inadequate, and 
have long been exceeded, and the population outside the 
chartered limits of Boston already equals the population 
within. As a metropolitan district, Boston, indeed, may be 
said to extend a circuit of nine miles round the Exchange, 
within which limits the population in 1850 was 269,ST4. 

The population of Boston proper, at successive decennial 
periods, has been as follows : in 1790, it was 18,088 ; in 1S00, 
24,937; in 1810, 33,250 ; in 1820, 43,298; in 1S30, 61,391 ; in 
1840, 93,388 ; and in 1850, 188,7SS. 

As Boston grew in population and manufactures, the 
natural spring, which gave it the Indian name of Shawmut, 
gradually failed ; and the water deteriorated, and the citi- 
zens were obliged to deepen the ancient wells from year to 
year. It was at length necessary to resort to a foreign sup- 
ply. In 1795 wooden pipes were laid by a company from 
Jamaica Pond, and as the demand increased, 10 in. iron 
pipes were substituted. This source having proved insuffi- 
cient, a new aqueduct was constructed from Cochituate 
Lake, 20 m. from the Exchange, and was opened in 1849. 
The mean elevation of the lake is 120 feet above the marsh 
level. The water is carried 14-f m. by a brick conduit of an 
elliptical form, 6 feet 4 in. by 5 feet, with a regular descent 
of 3 1-6 inches per mile, to a large reservoir in Brookline. 
Here a pond of 22 acres, and holding 100,000,000 gaUons, 
has been formed by closing the outlet of a valley. The 
reservoir is 123 feet above the sea. The water is carried 
over Charles r. by two parallel pipes 30 in. diameter. From 
Brookline, large iron pipes, carry the water to a granite 
reservoir on the summit of Beacon Hill, holding 2,500,000 
gallons, and to another on Dorchester Heights, holding 
6,000,000 gallons. These are 120 feet above the sea, and 
the water is hence conducted through 70 m. of pipe through 
the streets, and has generally been introduced into dwell- 
ings and stores. The head is sufficient to throw a 3 in. jet 
92 feet high, from the fountain on the Common. The 
aqueduct is competent to supply 14,000,000 gallons daily. 
East Boston is also supplied from this source, pipes being 
conducted over Charles and Mystic rivers. 

The city proper now is, and the suburbs soon will be, 
lighted with gas. 

The principal public buildings in Boston and its vicinity, 
are Quiney Market, a granite structure, 500 by 3S feet ; the 
State House, a large and commodious building ; Faneuil 
Hall, an ancient brick edifice ; the Massachusetts General 
Hospital, a large stone structure, at West Boston ; the old 
State nouse ; the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary ; 
the Institute for the Blind at South Boston ; the Orphan 
Asylum; the Farm School; the City Hall, and Suffolk 
Court House, large granite buildings ; the Registry of Deeds* 
U 



Offices ; the Merchants' Exchange, of granite, also ; the 
Atheneum, of free-stone ; the Custom House ; a Club House, 
of free-stone ; 23 large School-houses, costing $703,000; 41 
Primary School-houses ; 3 Theatres ; a Museum ; and 2 
large buildings of granite, used for concerts and lectures. 
Boston has also erected an extensive Jail, of Quiney granite, 
and a spacious Alms House, at Deer Island. At Itainsford's 
Island she has also the Quarantine Hospital, and the build- 
ings hitherto used for jails and alms houses at West and 
South Boston. The citizens of Boston have rarely been 
wanting in the cause of benevolence, and many of their 
institutions are richly endowed. Previous to 1845, a single 
institution, the General Hospital and M'Lean Asylum, had 
received $640,942 ; and the entire amount of donations to 
such public objects was ascertained to have been, prior to 
1846, $4,992,659. 

Very few of the ancient burial grounds are now used for 
interments ; several have been planted, and contribute 
much to the ornament of the city. In 1831, Mount Auburn, 
in Cambridge, a spot remarkable for its natural beauties, 
was selected as a rural cemetery. It conlains IIS acres, 
and during the last IS years, 1,756 lots have been sold, 
realizing $175,000. Eoads and paths have been opened, a 
granite gateway and chapel built, and iron railing set round 
it ; many tasteful monuments of marble have been erected, 
and it has become a place of frequent resort for the living 
as for the dead. At Forest Hill, Boxbury, is another beau- 
tiful cemetery, and others at Brighton and Wood Lawn. 
The cemetery of Mount Auburn is the first instance in 
America of a large tract having been chosen for its natural 
beauties, and improved by landscape gardening, to prepare 
it for the reception of the dead. 

Boston is the commercial emporium of New England, 
and next to New Tork among the commercial cities of the 
Union. In 1S50, the shipping owned in the district amount- 
ed to 320,687 tons. The foreign arrivals amounted to 2,S77 
vessels, of an aggregate burden of 47S,S59 tons ; and the 
foreign clearances, 2,S39 vessels, of 437,760 tons. The ship- 
pingbmlt in the year 1S49-50, was 28,4S0 tons. The value of 
imports in 1849 was $24,117,175 ; and of exports, $8,S43,974. 
Boston enjoys, also, a large local and coast-wise trade. 
Within the borders of Massachusetts are two cities with 
over 30,000 inhabitants, ten with 10,000 to 20,000, ten towns 
with 6,000 to 10,000, twenty with 4,000 to 6;000. Between 
these and Boston an active commerce exists ; and by her 
iron arms she reaches through this populous interior to the 
north and west, to Canada and the Mississippi. The coast- 
wise importations in 1849 consisted in part of 269,S18 
bales of cotton, 262,632 tons anthracite, 987,9S8 barrels of 
flour, 3,002,593 bushels of corn, 021,513 bushels of oats, rye, 
and shorts, 88,199 barrels turpentine, 663,580 sides of leather, 
156,556 barrels of pork, 200,560 pigs of lead, etc. Large im- 
portations are also made, particularly from New Orleans, 
of beef, hemp, sugar, molasses, tobacco, and other articles. 
Vessels of all sizes, from 50 to 1,000 tons, are engaged in 
the coasting trade. The arrivals in 1S49 were 6,100 ves- 
sels, which number does not include sloops and schooners, 
laden with wood, stone, and sundries, some thousands an- 
nually, that do not report at the custom house. By railroad 
the tonnage transported amounted to 1,167.129 tons. 

The trade of Boston with the West and South is im- 
mense ; her manufactures and imports are sent by railway 
and packets to the farthest limits of the country. Lines 
of packets run to all the seaboard cities, freighted with the 
cottons, boots, shoes, and other domestic goods, the produce 
of the State's industry. With California, also, Boston has 
had large dealings : at least one fifth of the shipping that 
sails from Atlantic ports for "El Dorado," hails from Bos- 
ton. 

In 1S50, there were 29 banks in the city, and the banking 
capital amounted to $21,460,000. The amount deposited in 
Savings' Banks, was $3,977,799 owned by 29,799 depositors. 
The stock capital of Boston insurance companies, was 



BOS 



BOW 



$5,4S8,000. There were also in the city numerous mutual, 
and several foreign insurance companies. 

The assessed value of property in Boston is $179,525,000, 
and the city debt to about $7,000,000, chiefly owing on ac- 
count of the water-works. This debt is small compared 
with the wealth and resources of the city. The property 
of the city consists of the " Common," a beautiful park of 
48 acres, encircled by an iron fence; the Public Garden, 
containing 14 acres, and several public squares and areas, 
embellished by fountains. These are all devoted to the 
health and recreation of the citizens. She owns also val- 
uable property that may be sold ; the whole is valued at 
$5,071,000, and at the present time yields a revenue of 
$300,000 annually. The expenses of the city are chiefly for 
her schools, street improvements, watch, and the support 
of correctional and humane institutions. 

Some of the artificial structures which connect Boston 
with the main deserve notice. The Western Avenue, 7,000 
feet long, leads from the old peninsula to Brookline, Box- 
bury, and Brighton ; it is a solid structure of granite, filled in 
with earth, and cost $700,000. Besides forming a wide 
carriage road, it creates a large water-power, and has re- 
deemed many aeres from the harbor. West Boston Bridge 
and Causeway, 6,190 feet long, connects Boston with Cam- 
bridge ; Canal Bridge is 2.796 feet long ; Warren Bridge, 
1,390 feet ; Long Wharf, 1,S00 feet long and 200 feet wide ; 
Central Wharf, 1,379 feet long and 150 feet wide; India 
Wharf, 930 feet long. Along these wharves are continuous 
blocks of warehouses, 4 or 5 stories high, and from 50 to SO 
feet deep. Granite, Connecticut, and Lewis's wharves are 
of like size, and have ranges of large stone warehouses. 

The sehools of Boston are frequently referred to as mod- 
els of perfection. Their number and excellence, with her 
liberal patronage of education, have given the city the title 
of the Modern Athens, and their merit and importance can- 
not be overrated. In 1S50, her primary schools had 11,376 
scholars, her grammar schools 9,154, and other schools 471 
scholars. Boston has also a Latin and High School, in 
which the higher branches are taught with signal ability. 
All these schools are open free of charge to all. Without 
the chartered limits of the city are Harvard University, 
with its Law and Theological Schools, a Baptist College, 
and many excellent schools and academies. 

There are several public libraries in the city. The Athe- 
neum Library, the Boston and Mercantile libraries, the 
Law Library, the State Library, and several libraries of 
Harvard University. These together contain upward of 
150,000 volumes. 

There are SO periodicals and newspapers published in 
Boston, several of which are worked by steam presses, and 
have large circulations. These refer to almost every de- 
partment of literature, religion, science, agriculture, banks, 
railroads, belles-lettres, statistics, history, medicine, law, edu- 
cation, etc. 

The religions and charitable institutions of the city are 
also numerous. It has nearly 200 churches and places of 
worship. There is also a General Hospital, two Insane 
Hospitals, an Asylum for the Blind, an Eye and Ear In- 
firmary, a Lying-in-Hospital, an Asylum for Orphan Girls, 
and a Earm School for Boys. Most of these are liberally 
endowed. 

The United States have expended large sums in and 
around Boston on their fortresses and arsenal, extensive 
navy yard, dry dock, and rope walks, and stores of cannon, 
arms, and materiel, a Customs House, and hospitals for 
sick and infirm seamen. All these are situated in Boston 
Harbor, and are valued at $8,000,000. The navy yard is 
second only to that of Norfolk. 

Should Boston and her suburbs increase for 25 years at 
its present rate, its population will exceed 1,500,000. If we 
would seek for a solution of the growth of Boston in com- 
merce, wealth, and population, we may have it not only in 
its central position and admirable harbor, but in the enter- 



prise, intelligence, and frugality of her people. Her enter- 
prise descends lineally from those bold ancestors who plant- 
ed an empire in the wilderness. Their spirit and their love 
of letters are inherited. These have guided its enterprise. 
But it is one thing to acquire and another to retain. Th6 
frugality of the people is the great secret of accumulation, 
and hence Boston has risen to its present glorious position, 
which is every day becoming more and more enviable and 
unapproachable. 

Boston, p. v., Andrew co., Mo. : 163 m. N. W. Jefferson 
City. 

Boston, p. v., Williamson co., Term. : 23 m. S. Nash- 
ville. 

Boston Corner, p. o., Berkshire co., Mass. : 126 m. W. 
Boston. 

Boston, p. v., and cap. Bowie co., Tex. : 297 m. N. E. 
Austin City. 

Boston, p. v., Culpepper co., Yirg. : 76 m. N. N. W. 
Richmond. 

Boston, p. v., Thomas co., Ga. : 157 m. S. Milledgeville. 

Bost's Mills, p. o., Cabanas co., N. Car. : 103 m. W. by 
S. Ealeigh. 

Botanic Hill, p. o., Nash co., N. Car. : 39 m. E. N. E. 
Ealeigh, 

Botanick Garden, p. o., Perry co., Tenn. : 73 m. S. W. 
Nashville. 

Botetourt county, Yirg. Situate S. middle, W. of the 
Blue Kidge, and contains 9S0 sq. m. Drained by James r. 
and tributaries. Surface hilly — with extensive valleys, and 
soil good, producing wheat, corn, and tobacco. Farms 712 ; 
manuf. 38 ; dwell. 1,S03, and pop.— wh. 10,749, fr. col. 423, 
si. 8,736— total 14,908. Capital : Eincastle. 

Botetourt Springs, p. o., Eoanoke co., Yirg. : 137 m. 
W. by S. Eichmond. 

Botiieli.e, p. v., Fond du Lac co., Wise. : 63 m.N. by E. 
Madison. 

Bouckyille, p. o., Madison co., If. Y. : on the line of the 
Chenango Canal, 90 m. W. Albany. 

Bound Brook, p. v., Somerset co., JV. Jer. : 24 m. N. by 
E. Trenton. 

Bounty Land, p. o., Pickins dist., 8. Car. : 113 m. N. W. 
Columbia. 

Bourbon county, Ky. Situate N. E., centrally, and con- 
tains 230 sq. m. Drained by numerous creeks, tributaries 
of S. fork of Licking r. Surface rolling, rising toward the 
sea; and the soils highly productive. Wheat, rye, corn, 
and oats are the principal products. Farms 734; manuf. 
34 ; dwell. 1,348, and pop.— wh. 7,15S, fr. col. 242, si. 7,026— 
total 14,426. Capital: Paris. Public Works: Lexington 
and Maysville E. E. 

Bourbon, p. v., Marshall co., Ind. : 102 m. N. by W. 
Indianapolis. 

Bourbonton, p. v., Boone co., Mo. : 3S m. N. W. Jefferson 
City. 

Bottrneville, p. v., Boss co., Ohio : on the N. W. side 
of Paint cr., 49 m. S. Columbus. 

Bovina, p. v., Warren co., Miss. : on the line of the 
Vicksburg, Jackson, and Brandon E. E., 36 m. W. Jackson. 

Bovina, t. and p. v., Delaware co., JF. Y. : S6 m. W. S.W 
Albany. 

Bow, t. and p. v., Merrimac co., JK Hamp. : on Merri- 
mac r., 7 m. S. Concord. Bow Falls, of the Merrimac, are 
here overcome by a short canal. 

Bowdark, p. o., Greene co., Mo. : 107 m. S. W. Jefferson 
City. 

Bowdotn, t. and p. v., Lincoln co., Me. : 23 m. S. by W 
Augusta. Pop.-:l,857. 

Bowdoin Centre, p. o., Lincoln co., Me. : 25 m. S. by W 
Augusta. 

Bowdoinham, t. and p. v., Lincoln co., Me. : on Kenne- 
bec r., 23 m. S. Augusta. The lumber trade and ship- 
building are the principal occupations. Pop. 2,381. 

Bowdon, p. v., Carroll co., 67a. : 113 m. W. MiUedgevilia 

75 



BOW 



BRA 



Bowdon, p. t., Talladega co., Ala.: 62 m. N. Mont- 
gomery. 

Boutin's Peaikie, p. o., Jones co., la. : 41 m. N. Iowa 
City. 

Bowenytlle, p. v., Carroll co., Ga. : 117 m. W. Milledge- 
ville. 

Bower, p. o., Clearfield co., Perm. : 108 m. W. N. W. 
Harrisburg, 

Bowee Bane, t. and p. o., Piscataquis eo., Me. : on Sebec 
Lake, 65 m. N. by E. Augusta. Pop. 1 73. 

Bower Hill, p. o., Washington co., Perm. : 1S7 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Bowee's, p. o., Soutliampton co., Yirg. : 71 m. S. by E. 
Richmond. 

Bower's Mills, p. o., Lawrence co., Mo. : on Spring r., 
a branch of Neosho r., 146 m. S. W. Jefferson City. 

Boweesvtlle, p. v., Franklin co., Ga. : on a cr. of the 
Middle fork of Broad r., 85 m. N. Milledgeville. 

Boweesville, p. v., Greene co., Oliio : 52 m. W. S. W. 
Columbus. 

Bowie county, Tex. Situate in the N. E. corner, between 
Bed r. and Sulphur Fork, and contains about 960 sq. m. 
Drained by numerous creeks running N. and S. from a cen- 
tral watershed. Surface elevated, undulating, and well 
timbered, with small and beautiful prairies between the 
streams ; soils deep and fertile, producing excellent cotton 
and sugar. Farms 15S ; manuf. 5 ; dwell. 250, and pop. — 
wh. 1,271, fr. col. 0, si. 1,641— total 2,912. Capital: Bostor. 

Bowlesville, p. v., Fluvanna co.. Yirg. : 49 m. W. by N. 
Eichmond. 

Bowling Geeen, p. v., Oglethorpe co., Ga. : on Athens 
Branch of Georgia E. E., 46 m. N. Milledgeville. 

Bowling Geeen, p. v., and cap. Clay co., Ind. : on Eel 
r. of the W. fork of "White r., 48 m. W. S. W. Indianapolis. 

Bowling Geeen, p. v., Fayette co., III. : on the W. side 
of Beck's cr. of Kaskaskia r., 56 m. S. E. Springfield. 

Bowling Geeen, p. v., and cap. "Warren co., Ky. : on the 
W. side of Big Barren r. of Green r., 122 m. S. "W. Frank- 
fort, and by r. course to the Ohio, 180 m. The v. is acces- 
sible to steamboats of 200 tons, and has considerable trade, 
chiefly in tobacco. The Nashville and Louisville E. E. will 
pass through Bowling Green. 

Bowling Geeen, p. v., and cap. Pike co., Mo. : 74 m. 
N. E. Jefferson City. 

Bowling Geeen, p. o., Wood co., Ohio : 52 m. N. "W. 
Columbus. 

Bowling Geeen, p. v., and cap. Caroline co., Yirg. : a 
few mDes E. of Mattapony r., 37 m. N. Eichmond. 

Bowlingsville, p. v., Union dist., S. Car. : 67 m. N. 
Columbia. 

'• Bowman's Ceeee, p. o., Wyoming co., Penn. : 9S m. 
N. N. E. Harrisburg. 

Bowman's Mills, p. o., Eockingham co., Yirg. : 106 m. 
N. W. Eichmond. 

BowMANSvrjLLE, p. v., Lancaster co., Peivn. 

Bowne, t. and p. o., Kent co., Mich. : 4S m. W. by N. 
Lansing. Pop.- 220. 

Bowsheesviile, p. v., Wyandott co., Ohio: 66 m. N. by 
W. Columbus. 

BosBOEorGn, t. and p. v., Middlesex co., Mass. : between 
Concord and Nashua r., 25 m. N. W. by N. Boston. P. 396. 

Boxeoed, t. and p.v., Essex co., Mass. : 23 m. N. Boston. 

Boxxey, p. v., Hamilton co., Ind. : 31 m. N. Indian- 
apolis. 

Boxyille, p. v., Montgomery co., Ga. : on the W. side 
of Oconee r., near its junction with the Ocmulgee, 84 m. S. 
Milledgeville. 

Boyd's Ceeek, p. o., Sevier co., Tenn. : on a cr. of Henry 
r. of the Tennessee, 1S3 m. E. Nashville. 

Boydston's Mills, p. o., Kosciusko co., Ind. : 93 m. N. 
Indiananolis. 

Boydsville, p. v., Weakiy co., Tenn. : at the head wa- 
ters of Obion r.. 103 m. W. Nashville. 
76 



Boydton, p. v., and cap. Mecklenburgh co., Yirg. : 74 
m. S. S. W. Eichmond. Eandolph Macon College, founded 
1832, is located about a mile to the west. 

Boyee's Settlement, p. o., Buchanan co., Mo. : on E. 
fork of Platte r., 149 m. W. N. W. Jefferson City. 

Boyeestown, p. v., Berks co., Perm. : 63 m. E. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Boyein's Dep5t, p. o., Kershaw dist., S. Car. : on Cam- 
den Branch of the South Carolina E. E., 26 m. E. by N. 
Columbia. 

Boyle county, Ky. Situate centrally, and contains 226 
sq. m. Drained by creeks of Salt and Kentucky rivers. 
Surface rolling, and soils very fertile, producing the grains 
and tobacco. Farms 443 ; manuf. 53 ; dwell. 927, and pop. 
— wh. 5,389, fr. col. 313, si. 3,424— total 9,126. Capital: 
Danville. Public Works : Nashville and Lexington E. E. 

Boylston, t. and p. v., Worcester co., Mass. : on Nashua 
r., 39 m. W. Boston. Pop. 91S. 

Boylston Centee, p. o., Worcester co., Mass. : 37 m. W. 
Boston. 

Bozeah, t. and p. o., New London co., Conn. : 32 m. 
E. by S. Hartford. Pop. 867. 

Bozeahyillb, p. v., New London co., Conn. : 30 m. E. by 
S. Hartford. 

Beaceville, t. and p. v., Trumbull co., Ohio : on Ma- 
honing r., 133 m. N. E. Columbus. Pop. 956. 

Beaceen county, Ky. Situate N. E. on the Ohio r., and 
contains 21S sq. m. Drained by N. fork of Licking and 
several creeks of the Ohio. Surface hilly and broken ; soils 
moderately productive. Farms 728 ; manuf. 21 ; dwell. 1,437, 
and pop.— wh. 7,948, fr. col. 115, si. 840— total 8,903. Carpi- 
ted : Brookville. 

Beaceney, p. v., Susquehannah co., Penn. : 122 m. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Beadenville, p. v., Westmoreland co., Penn. : 162 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Beadfoed county, Penn. Situate N. E. on State line, 
and contains 1,1S0 sq. m. Drained by the Chemung and 
Susquehanna rivers and then - tributaries, the Towanda, 
Wyalusing, and Sugar. Surface generally mountainous, 
with exceptions along the rivers, and the soils highly pro- 
ductive. Bituminous coal is found on the Towanda. 
Farms, 5,096 ; manuf. 562 ; dwell. 7,491, and pop.— wh. 
42,634, fr. col. 197— total 42,S31. Capital : Towanda. Pub- 
lic Works : North Branch of Pennsylvania Canals ; Will- 
iamsport and Elmira E. E. 

Beadfoed, p. v., Harrison co., Ind. : 104 m. S. Indian- 
apolis. 

Beadford, t. and p v., Steuben eo., K. Y. : 165 m. W. by 
S. Albany. Pop. 2.010. 

Beadfoed, t. and p. v., Penobscot co., Me. : 68 m. N. E. 
Augusta. 

Beadfoed, t. and p. v., Essex co., Mass. : on Merrimac r., 
2S m. N. Boston. It is connected with Haverhill by a 
bridge, over which the Boston and Maine E. E. is carried, 
32 m. from Boston. The t. is noted for its boot and shoe 
factories. Pop. 1,32S. 

Beadfoed, t. and p. v., Merrimac co., K. Kamp. : on the 
Concord and Claremont E. E., 25 m. from Concord. P 1,341 

Beadfoed, p. v., Orange co., Yerni. : on Connecticut r., 
29 m. E. by S. Montpelier. Two literary periodicals are 
published here, the " Vermont Family Gazette," weekly, 
and the " Green Mountain Gem," monthly. The Connec- 
ticut and Passumsic Bivers E. E. passes through the t. on 
the edge of the river. 

Beadfoed, p. v., Coosa cc., Ala. : 2S m. N. Mont- 
gomery. 

Beadfoed Centee, p. o., Orange co., Verm. : 27 m. 
E. by S. Montpelier. 

Beadfoed Institute, p. o., Sumter dist., S. Car. : 42 m. 
E. Columbia. 

Beadfoed Spetngs, p. o., Sumter dist, S. Car. : 42 m. 
E. Columbia. 



BRA 



BRA 



Beadfoedville, p. v., Marion co., Ky. : on a cr, of Boil- 
ing fork of Salt r., 47 m. S. W. Frankfort. 

Beadley county, Ark.. Situate S. centrally, and contains 
S60 sq. m. Drained by Wachita and Spline rivers and tlieir 
tributaries. Surface rolling — chiefly prairie, and soils fer- 
tile. Farms 303 ; manuf. 1 ; dwell. 440, and pop. — wh. 
2,601 fr. col. 2, si. 1,226— total 3,829. Capital: Warren. 

Bkadlby county, Term. Situate S. E. on State line, and 
contains 526 sq. m. Drained by creeks of Hiwassee r. Sur- 
face mountainous, rugged, and except on the streams, of in- 
ferior fertility. Indian com is the chief product, and some 
cotton and tobacco is also grown. Farms 8S6 ; manuf. 44 ; 
dwell. 1,955, and pop— wh. 11,47s, fr. col. 3T, si. 744— total 
12,259. Capital: Cleveland. Publie Works: East Ten- 
nessee B. E., etc. 

Beadley, p. o., Jackson co., III. : 128 m. S. Springfield. 

Beadley, p. o., Allegan co., Mich. : 76 m. W. by S. 
Lansing. 

Beadleyyille, p. y., Sumter dist., S. Car. : 57 m. E. by S. 
Columbia. 

Beadshaw, p. o., Giles co., Tenn.: 63 m. S. by W. 
Nashville. 

Beady, t. and p. o., Kalamazoo co., Mich. : on the bead 
waters of Portage r., 68 m. S. "VV. Lansing, Pop. 578.' 

Brady's Bend, p. o., Armstrong co., Penn.: 146 m. 
W. by N. Harrisburg. 

Beadyvtlle, p. v., Adams co., Ohio: S2 in. S. by W. 
Columbus. 

Beadyytlle, p. v., Cannon co., Tenn. : 46 m. S. E. Nash- 
ville. 

Beagg's, p. o., Lowndes co., Ala. : 31 m. S. W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Beaggvtlle, p. v., Middlesex co., Mass. : 26 m. N. W. 
Boston. 

Bbalnaed's Beidge, p. o., Eensselaer co., N. Y. 

Beaikteee, t. and p. v., Norfolk co., Mass. : on the line 
of the Old Colony E. E., 10 m. S. Boston. The South Shore 
E. E. and the Fall Eiver E. E. also diverge from this t. 
It has considerable manufactures, and some shipping en- 
gaged in the coasting trade and the fisheries. Braintree 
was the birth-place of the elder Adams. Pop. 2,969. 

Bealntree, t. and p. y., Orange co., Verm. : at the head 
of "White r., and on the line of the Vermont Central E. E., 
16 m. S. Montpelier. Pop.. 1,228. 

Beaetieem, p. y., "Wyoming co., Penn. : on N. side of 
Susquehanna r., 102 m. N. by E. Harrisburg. 

Brakeleyyille, p. v., Monroe co., Penn. : 105 m. E. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Brake's Eun, p. o., Hardy co., Virg.: 122 m. N. "W. 
Eichmond. 

Beaman's Corners, p. o., Schenectady co., A 7 ! Y.: 18 
m. W. Albany. 

Branch county, Mich. Situate S. middle on State line, 
and contains 576 sq. m. Drained by several creeks of St. 
Joseph r. Surface rolling ; wood and prairie, and the soils 
rich and loamy. Farms 1,442 ; manuf. 53 ; dwell. 2,300, 
and pop— wh. 12,456, fr. col. 16— total 12,472. Capital : 
Branch. Public Worlcs : Michigan Southern E. E. 

Branch, p. v., and cap. Branch co., Mich. : on "W. branch 
of Coldwater r., 63 m. S. by W. Lansing. The Michigan 
Southern E. E. passes a little S. of the v., 95 m. from 
Monroe. 

Branch Dale, p. o., Schuylkill co., Penn. 

Branch Hill, p. o., Clermont co., Ohio : 87 m. S. W. 
Columbus. 

Branch Island, p. o., Pickens dist., S. Car.: 124 m. 
N. W. Columbia. 

Branch Post, p. o., Tates co., N". Y.:&\. the head of the 
"W. arm of Crooked Lake, 167 m. "W. Albany. 

Branchtown, p. v., Cherokee co., Tex. : 196 m. N. E. 
Au3tin City. 

Branchyille, p. o., St. Clair co., Ala. : 78 m. N. Mont- 
gomery. 



Branchyille, p. v., Sussex co., A 7 ". Jor.: on Paulin'a 
Kill, 62 m. N. Trenton. 

Branchyille, p. v., Orangeburg dist., S. Car. : on W. 
side of Edisto r., 46 m. S. by E. Columbia. At this point 
the Columbia Branch E. E. branches from the South Car- 
olina E. E., 62 m. from Charleston. 

Brandenburg, p. v., and cap. Meade co., Ky. 

Brandon, p. v., and cap. Eankin co., Miss. : at the E. 
terminus of the Vicksburg, Jackson, and Brandon E. E., 
14 m. E. Jackson. The " B. Eepublican" (whig) is issued 
weekly. The railroad will be continued eastward to Selma, 
Ala. 

Brandon, p. v., Knox co., Olvio : 39 m. N. E. Columbus. 

Beandon, t. and p. o., Oakland co., Mich. : 63 m. E. 
Lansing. Pop. 893. 

Brandon, t. and p. v., Eutland co., Yerm. : on Otter cr. 
of Lake Champlaln, 42 m. S. by "W. Montpelier. :The Eut- 
land and Burlington E. E. passes through it, 50 m. S. Bur- 
lington. Two newspapers, the "Vermont Tribune" and 
the " Brandon Post," are issued weekly. Pop. 2,835. 

Brandonville, p. v., Preston co., Virg. : 111 m. N. "W. 
Eichmond. 

Bkand'b Iron "Works, p. o., Washington co., B. I. : 23 
m. S. by W. Providence. 

Beandt, p. v., Miami co., Ohio : 72 m. W. Columbus. 

Bkandt, t. and p. v., Erie co., A". Y. : on Lake Eric and 
Cattaraugus cr., 268 m. W. Albany. Pop. 1 02S. 

Beandywine, p. v., Shelby co., Ind. : 23 m. S. E. Indian- 
apolis. 

Beandywine, p. v., Prince George's co., Md. : 36 m. S. W. 
Annapolis. 

Beandywine creek: rises in Pennsylvania, whence it 
flows S. into Delaware, and after uniting with Christina cr. 
it enters the Delaware, forming the harbor of Wilmington. 
It is navigable to Brandywine village, at which point there 
is 6 or 7 feet water at tide; and furnishes excellent mill 
sites, which are occupied by numerous flour mills. 

Beandywine, hund., Newcastle county, Pel. : between 
Brandywine cr. and Delaware r., and contains 22,166 acres. 
It has numerous flour and other mills. Pop. 3.492. 

Beandywine Manor, p. o., Chester co., Penn. 

Brandywine Mills, p. o., Summit co., Ohio. 

Beandywine Springs, p. o., Newcastle, Del. 

Branford, t. and p. v., New Haven co., Conn. : on Bran- 
ford r. of Long Island Sound, 43 m. S. by W. Hartford. 
The New Haven and New London E. E, passes through 
the t. 7 m. E. New Haven. Pop. 1,425. 

Beantlngham, p. v., Lewis co., A 7 ! Y. : 114 m. N. W. 
Albany. 

Beasher's Falls, p. o., St. Lawrence co., N. Y. : on Deer 
r., and near the line of the Northern E. E., 152 m. N. W. 
Albany. The falls and rapids of the r. furnish extensive 
water-power. 

Beasher's Ieon Works, p. o., St. Lawrence co., K. Y. : 
161 m. N. W. Albany. 

Beasheesyille, p. v., Perry co., Ky. : 122 m. S. E. Frank- 
fort 

Beasstown, p. v , Union co., Ga. : 142 m. N. by W. 
Milledgeville. 

Brattleboeotjgh, t. and p. v., Windham co., Verm.: on 
the W. side of Connecticut r., 9S m. S. by E. Montpelier. 
The Vermont and Massachusetts E. E. and the Vermont 
Valley E. E. here form a junction, 69 m. from Fitchburg, 
and 24 from Bellow's Falls. Manufactures are extensive, 
and the t. one of the most flourishing in the State. Three 
newspapers are published here, the " Eagle," semi-weekly, 
and the " Vermont Phoenix," and the " Windham County 
Democrat," weekly. 

Bkattonsyille, p. v., York dist., S. Car.: 54 m. N. 
Columbia. Pop. 3,S16. 

Beaxton county, Virg. Situate N. W., and contains S00 
sq. m. Drained by Elk and Little Kanawha rivers and 
their numerous tributaries. Surface hilly in the S— in oth- 

77 



BRA 



BRI 



er parts, broken and rough. Coal is found in the county. 
Soils moderately fertile, producing wheat, corn, and tobac- 
co. Large quantities of sugar are made. Farms 408 ; 
manuf. 10 ; dwell. 679, and pop.— wh. 4,123, fr. col. 0, si. 
89— total 4,212. Capital: Braxton 0. II. 

Braxton, p. v., and cap. Braxton co., Virg, : on Elk r., 
189 m. W. by N. Richmond. 

Brazil, p. v., Clay co., Ind. : 54 m. W. Indianapolis. 

Brazoria county, Tex. Situate S. E. on the Gulf, and 
contains about 1,200 sq. m. Drained by the San Bernardo, 
Brazos, and innumerable streams flowing into these and the 
Gulf of Mexico. Surface low and level : within 10 m. of the 
coast the country is an open prairie — the residue is beauti- 
fully variegated, with woods of live-oak lining the streams. 
Soil, except near the coast, a deep black mold, and very 
productive. Farms 134; dwell. 296, and pop. — wh. 1,329, 
fr. col. 5, si. 3,507— total 4,S41. Capital : Brazoria. 

Brazoria, p. v., and cap. Brazoria co., Tex. : on W. 
side of Brazos r., 53 m. from the Gulf, and 197 m. S. E. 
Austin City. 

Brazos county, Tex. Situate centrally on the forks of 
Brazos and Navasoto rivers, and contains 320 sq. m. Drain- 
ed by streams falling from a central watershed to the bor- 
der rivers. Surface elevated and undulating ; timber skirt- 
ing the water-courses ; soils exceedingly rich and productive 
of sugar and cotton, with the grains. Farms 47; dwell. SI, 
and pop.— wh. 466, fr. col. 0, si. 14S — total 614. Capital : 
Booneville. 

Brazos river, Tex. : one of the largest rivers of the State, 
emptying directly into the Gulf of Mexico. It rises in a 
vast number of tributaries in the hilly region of the N. W., 
and has a general S. S. E. direction. In its lower course 
it is navigable for ships — higher up, for steamers and boats. 
Its largest confluents are Little r., Tegua r., and the Nava- 
soto r. : the two first from the W., and the latter from the E. 

Brazos Santiago, p. v., Cameron co., Tex. : a few miles 
N. of the mouth of the Bio Grande, and about 300 m. S. 
Austin City. 

Breakajseen, p. o., Schoharie co., N. Y. : 46 m. "W. 
Albany. 

Breakneck, p. v., Butler co., Perm,. : 172 m. W. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Brean's Bridge, p. o., St. Martin's par., La. 

Breathitt county, Ky. Situate E., and contains 680 sq. 
m. Drained by N. and middle forks of Kentucky. Sur- 
face hilly and broken — the N. and N. E. parts mountain- 
ous ; and the soils, except on the rivers, indifferently pro- 
ductive. Bituminous coal is abundant, Farms 433 ; manuf. 
15 ; dwell. 625, and pop.— wh. 3,603, fr. col. 12, si. 170— 
total 3.7S5. Capital: Jackson. 

Breckeneidge county, Ky. Situate N. W. on Ohio r., 
and contains 456 sq. m. Drained by Bough cr. and its trib- 
utaries in the S., and by Sinking and other creeks of the 
Ohio in the N. Surface uneven, but soils productive. 
Sinks occur in this county. Farms SS9 ; manuf. IS; dwell. 
1,452, and pop— wh. S,616, fr. col. 11, si. 1,966— total 10,593. 
Capital : Ilardingsburg. 

Breeding's, p. o., Adair co., Ky. : 73 m. S. W. Frank- 
fort. 

Breese, p. o., Greene co., III. : 46 m. W. by S. Spring- 
field. 

Breinigsvtlle, p. v., Lehigh co., Perm. : 74 m. E. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Bremen, p. v., Cook co., III. : 152 m. N. E. Springfield. 

Bremen, p. o., Marshall co., Ind. : 106 m. N. by "W. In- 
dianapolis. 

Bremen, p. o., Mecklenburg co., Ky. : on the E. side of 
Pond cr. of Green r.. 146 m. W. S. W. Frankfort. 

Bremen, t. and p. v., Lincoln co., Me. : occupies a penin- 
mila jutting into the Atlantic, 37 m. S. by E. Augusta. It 
is almost surrounded by navigable waters. Pop. 891. 

Bremen, p. v., Fairfield co., Ohio: on Bush cr., 37 m. 
S. E. Columbus. 
7S 



Bremen, p. v., St. Louis co., Mo. : 102 m. E. Jefferson 
City. 

Bremer county, la. Situate 1ST. E., and contains 432 sq. 
m. Taken from Pottowattomie in 1851. 

Brenuam, p. v., and cap. Washington co., Tex. : on New 
Tear's cr. of Brazos r., S4 m. E. Austin City. 

Brennersville, p. v., Preble co., Ohio : S9 m. W. Co- 
lumbus. 

Beentsville, p. v., and cap. Prince 'William co., Virg. : 
on a branch of Occoquam r., 7S m. N. Bichmond. 

Brentwood, t, and p. v., Bockingham co., 2f. Ilainp. : 
on Exeter r., 33 m. S. E. Concord. Sulphate of iron ia 
abundant in this locality. Pop. 923. 

Brest, p. o., Monroe co., Mich. : on Lake Erie, at the 
mouth of Stoney cr., 86 m. S. E. Lansing. The harbor 
facilities are very eligible for lake craft. 

Brewer, t. and p. o., Penobscot co., Me. : on the E. side 
of Penobscot r., opposite Bangor, 57 m. N. E. Augusta. 

Brewer Centre, p. o., Penobscot co., Me. : 59 m. N. E. 
Augusta. 

Brewersyille, p. v., Sumter co., Ala. : 105 m. W. by N. 
Montgomery. 

i Brewersville, p. v., Jennings co., Ind. : 67 m. S. W. 
Indianapolis. 

Brewerton, p. v., Onondaga co., K. Y : 112 m. W. by N. 
Albany. 

Brewerton, p. v., Laurens dist., 8. Car. : 61 m. W. by N. 
Columbia. 

Brewer Village, p. v., Penobscot co., Me. : opposite 
Bangor, 57 m. N. E. Augusta. Steamers call here regu- 
larly. 

Brewlncton, p. v., Sumter dist., 8. Car. : 53 m. E. by S. 
Columbia. 

Brewster, t. and p. v., Barnstable co., Mass. : on Cape 
Cod Bay, 67 m. S. E. Boston. It has some manufactures, 
but the inhabitants are chiefly fishermen. Pop. 1,526. 

Brewster's' Station, p. o., Putnam co., K. Y. : 82 m. S. 
Albany. 

Brickervtlle, p. v., Lancaster co., Perm. : 2S m. E. S. E. 
Ilarrisburg. 

Brickland, p. v., Lunenburgh co., Virg. : 66 m S. W. 
Bichmond. 

Brick Meeting House, p. o., Cecil co., Md. : 59 m. N.N.E. 
Annapolis. 

Brick Store, p. o., Newton co., Ga. : 47 m. N. W. Mil- 
ladgeville. 

Bricksvtlle, p. v., Cuyahoga co., Ohio : on Cuyahoga 
cr., 118 m. N. E. Columbus. 

Brickville, p. v., Lawrence co., Ala. : a little S. of Ten- 
nessee r., at Muscle Shoals, and 193 m. N. by W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Bridesbtxrg, p. v., Philadelphia co., Pewn. : 91 m. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Bridge, p. o., St. Francis co., Ark. 

Brldgeborougd, p. v., Burlington co., N. Jer. 

Bridge Creek, p. o., Geauga co., Ohio : 128 m. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Bridgeforth's, p. o., Limestone co., Ala. : 196 m. N. byW. 
Montgomery. 

Bridgehampton, p. v., Suffolk co., iK Y: on the E. end 
of Long Island, on the Atlantic, 137 m. S. E. Albany. 

Bridgeport, t. and p. city, Fairfield co., Conn. : on an 
arm of Long Island Sound, which receives Pe-quanoek r., a 
fine mill stream, 7S m. S. W. Hartford. The harbor is 
eligible for large steamboats and trading craft, and the city 
has extensive manufactures. The New York and New 
Haven E. B. is here intersected by the Housatonic E. E., 
giving it access to the E. and W., and to the N. The 
" Republican Standard" (whig) is published tri-weekly and 
weekly, and the "Republican Farmer" (dem.) weekly. 
Pop. 7,538. 

Bridgeport, p. v., Huntingdon co., Perm. : 62 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 



BRI 



BRI 



Bridgeport, p. v., Marion co., Ind. : on National Eoad, 
9 m. W. Indianapolis. 

Bridgeport, p. v., Franklin co., Ky. : 5 m. from Frank- 
fort. 

Bridgeport, t. and p. v., Saginaw co., Mich. : on the 
S. side of Cass r. of the Saginaw, 61 m. N. E. Lansing. 

Bridgeport, p. v., Madison co., Jf. Y. : on Chittenango 
er. of Oneida Lake, 105 m. W. by N. Albany. 

Bridgeport, p. v., Gloucester co., JV. Jer. : 34 m. S. by 
W. Trenton. 

Bridgeport, p. v., Belmont co., Ohio: on the Ohio r. 
opposite Wheeling, 114 m. E. Columbus. It will eventually 
be an important E. E. centre, where the lines from Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia will connect with those of Ohio. The 
" Belmont Farmer," an agricultural paper, is issued month- 
ly. Its trade is considerable, and it has some substantial 
warehouses. 

Bridgeport, p. v., Harrison co., Yirg. : 186 m. N. W. 
Eiehniond. 

Bridgeport, p. v., Brown co., Wise. : on E. side of Fox 
r., 123 m. N. E. Madison. 

Bridgeport, p. v., Jackson co., la. : on Makoqueta r., 
57 m. N. E. Iowa City. 

Beidgeton, p. v., port, and cap Cumberland co., A 7 ! Jer. : 
on Cohansey cr., 20 m. up, and 60 m. S. Trenton. Sloops 
come up to the port, and the v. has considerable business. 
Shipping owned in the district 14,472 torts. Two news- 
papers, the "Bridgeton Chronicle" and the "New Jersey 
Pioneer," are issued weekly. On the W. side of the cr. are 
extensive iron works. Pop. of t. 2,446. 
Bridgeton, p. v., Pars co., Ind. : 61 m. "W". Indianapolis. 
Bridgeton, t. and p. v., Cumberland co., Me.: on Long 
Pond, 51 m. S. W. Augusta. From this point there is a 
navigable communication to Portland through the Oxford 
and Cumberland Canal. Pop. 2,710. 

Bridgeton, p. v., St. Louis co., Mo. : 13 m. N. W. St. 
Louis and 101 m. E. Jefferson City. 

Bridgeton, p. v., Shelby co., Ala. : 62 m. N. N. W. 
Montgomery. 

Bridgetown, p. v., Caroline co., Md. : 42 m. E. Anna- 
polis. 
Bridge Yallet, p. o., Bucks co., Penn. 
Beidgeville, p. v., Dorchester co., Md. 
Beidgeville, p. v., Sussex co., Del. : on the S. side of 
Nauticoke r., 38 m. W. by S. Dover. 

Beidgevtlle, p. v., "Warren co., N~. Jer. : on Pequest r., 
43 m. N. by W. Trenton. 

Beidgeville, p. v., Sullivan co., IT. Y. : 92 m, S. W. 
Albany. 

Beidgeville, p. v., Muskingum co., Ohio: 51 m. E. 
Columbus. 

Beidgewatee, p. v., Litchfield co., Conn. : 56 in. W. 
Hartford. 

Bridgewater, p. v., Washtenaw co., Mich. : on N. 
branch of Baisin r., 57 m. S. E. Lansing. 

Bridgewater, t. and p. v., Plymouth co., Mass. : on 
Taunton r., 29 m. S. Boston. Fall Eiver E. E. passes 
through the t., and the Bridgewater Branch E. E. extends 
between South Abington and Bridgewater. It has numer- 
ous manufactures. Pop. 2,790. 

Bridgewater, t. and p. v., Grafton co., JF. Ramp : be- 
tween Pemegewasset r. and Newfound Lake, 36 m. N. by 
W. Concord. Pop. 664. 

Bridgewater, p. t-, Oneida co., A 7 . Y.. on a cr. of Un- 
adilla r., 78 m. W. Albany. Pop. 1,308. 

Beidgewater, t. and p. v., Williams co., Ohio : on the 

St. Josephs of the Maumee, 138 m. N. W. Columbus. P.493 

Bridgewater, t. and p. v., Aroostook co., Me. Pop. 149. 

Beidgewater, p. v., Bucks co., Penn. : 103 in. E. by N. 

Harrisburg. 

Beidgewater, p. v., Eockingham co., Yirg. : 104 m. 
N. W. Eichmond. 
Beidgewater, p. t, Windsor co., Verm. : on Water- 



queechy r., 46 m. S. Montpelier. Soapstone is extensively 
quarried in this t., also iron. Killington Peak lies on the 
W. border. Pop. 1,311. 

Bridle Creek, p. o., Grayson CO., Yirg. : 200 in. W. by 
S. Eichmond. 

Bridpoet, t. and p. o., Addison co., Verm. : on Lake 
Champlain, opposite Crown Point, 41 m. W. S. W. Mont- 
pelier. The waters of the t. are strongly impregnated with 
sulphate of magnesia. Pop. 1,393. 

Briee Ceeek, p. o., Wilkes co., K Car. : 139 m. W. by 
N. Ealeigh. 

Brier Creek, t. and p. o., Columbia co., Penn. : 69 m. 
N. N. E. Harrisburg. 

Briee Hill, p. o., St Lawrence co., A 7 . Y. : 169 m. N. W. 
Albany. 

Beigg's Mills, p. o., Ohio co., Ky. : 122 m. W by S. 
Frankfort. 

Bright, p. o., Dearborn co., Ind. : 78 m. S. E. Indian- 
apolis. 

Brighton, t. and p. o., Essex co., Verm. : on the Green 
Mountains near the Canada border, 52 m. N. E. Montpelier. 
St. Francis r. has its source in this locality. Pop. 193. 

Brighton, p. v., Macoupin co.. III. : 42 m. S. by W. 
Springfield. 

Beighton, p. v., Beaufort dist., S. Car. : 108 m. S. Co- 
lumbia. 

Beighton, t. and p. v., Washington co., la. : on the S. 
side of Skunk r., 35 m. S. by W. Iowa City. 

Beighton, t. and p. v., Somerset co., Me. : 43 m. N. 
Augusta. Pop. 748. 

Beighton, t. and p. v., Livingston co., Mich. : 53 m. E. by 
S. Lansing. Pop. 1,015. 

Brighton, t. and p. v., Middlesex co., Mass. : on Charles 
r., 5 m. W. Boston, with which it communicates by E. E. 
The Boston cattle market is located here, and in 1S49 the 
animals sold counted 46,465 beef cattle, 20,0S5 store cattle, 
14S,965 sheep, and S0,120 swine, valued at $2,976,265. A 
cemetery has been lately established. Assessed valuation 
$1,146,212. Pop. 2,356. 

Brighton, t. and p. v., Monroe co., A 7 ! Y. : on the Erie 
Canal, 259 m. from Albany. Pop. 3,117. 

Beighton, v., Eichmond co., JF. Y. : a beautiful village 
and summer resort on Staten Island, 152 m. S. Albany. 

Beighton, t. and p. v., Loraine co., Ohio : on the W. 
branch of Black r., 86 m. N. N. E. Columbus. Pop. 669. 

Brighton, p. v., Beaver co., Penn. : on W. side Big 
Beaver r., 4 m. from its mouth, and 193 m. W. Harrisburg. 
It is connected with New Brighton by a fine bridge. The 
Ohio and Pennsylvania E. E. passes Brighton, 38 m. from 
Pittsburg. 

Brighton, t. and p. v., Kenosha co.. Wise. : 117 m. 
E. S. E. Madison. Pop. 810. 

Beighton, v., Sacramento co., Calif. : on E. side of Sa- 
cramento r., 53 m. N. W. Vallejo. 

Bright Seat, p. v., Anne Arundel co., Md. 

Beigiitsville, p. v., Marlborough dist., S. Car. : on 
Crooked cr. of Great Pedee r., 94 m. N. E. Columbia. 

Brimfield, p. o., Peoria co., III. : 46 m. 1 N. by W. Spring- 
field. 

BRiMFrELD, t. and p. v., Hampden co., 3Iass. : on Chicc- 
pee and Quinnebaug r., 63 m. W. S. W. Boston. P. 1,421. 

Brimfield, t. and p. v., Portage co., Ohio : 118 m. N. E. 
Columbus. Pop. 1,015. 

Brindletown, p. v., Burke co., N. Car. : on the E. side 
of Silver cr. of Catawba r., 16S m. W. Ealeigh. 

Beingham's Geove, p. o., Tippecanoe co., Ind. : 62 m. 
N. W. Indianapolis. 

Bringiers, p. v., and cap. St. James par., La. : on W. 
side of Mississippi r., 85 m. S. Baton Eouge. 

Brinkletville, p. v., Halifax eo., A 7 . Car. : on Little 
Fishing cr., 54 m. N. E. Ealeigh. 

Brinton, p. v., Champaign co., Ohio: 52 m. W. by N. 
Columbus. 

70 



BRI 



BRO 



Briscoe Ecn, p. o., "Wood co., Yirg. : 240 m. TV. N. "W. 
Eichmond. 

Beisteesbuegh, p. t., Fauquier co., Yirg. : 89 m. N. by 
TV. Eichmond. 

Bristol county, Mass. Situate S. E. on Buzzards' Bay, 
and contains 620 sq. m. Drained by Taunton and other 
rivers. Coasts deeply indented. Surface level ; soils mod- 
erately fertile. Navigation and manufactures employ most 
of the inhabitants. Farms 2, 550 ; manuf. 562 ; dwell. 12,134, 
and pop.— wh. 74,760, fr. col., 1,432— total 76,192. Capi- 
tals: New Bedford and Taunton. Public Works : Boston 
and Providence E. E. ; Fall Eiver E. E. ; Taunton and 
New Bedford E. E,, etc. 

Beistol county, B. I. Situate E. between Mt. Hope and 
Narraganset bays, and contains 96 sq. m. Surface diversi- 
fied : soils, a gravelly loam and fertile. Farms 200 ; manuf. 
87; dwell. 1,167, and pop.— wh. 8,190, fr. col. 324— total 
8,514. Capital: Bristol. 

Bristol, t. and p. v., Hartford co., Conn. : on branches 
of Farmington r., 14 m. W. by S. Hartford. It is distin- 
guished for its manufacturing industry, and especially for 
its clocks, etc. Pop. 2,SS4. 

Bristol, p. v., Kendall co., Til. : on TV. side Fox r.. op- 
posite TorkvUle, 139 m. N. N. E. Springfield. 

Bristol, p. v., Anne Arundel co., Md. : 29 m. N. N. TV. 
Annapolis. 

Bristol, t. and p. o., Lincoln co., Me. : on the E. side of 
Damariscotta r. at its mouth, 30 m. S. by E. Augusta. It 
has a good harbor, and some shipping engaged in the 
coasting trade and fisheries. Pop. 2,910. 

Bristol, t. and p. v., Grafton co., A 7 ! Ramp. : between 
Pemcgawasset r. and Newfound Lake, 31 m. N. by TV. 
Concord. Pop. 1,103. 

Bristol, t. and p. v., Ontario co., N. Y. : on Mudd cr., 
1S2 re. W. Albany. 

Bristol, t. and p. v., Morgan co., Ohio : on Meigs cr. of 
Muskingham r., 66 m. E. by S. Columbus. Pop. 1,725. 

Bristol, t. and p. v., Bucks co., Penn. : on the TV. bank of 
Delaware r., and the E. terminus of the Delaware division 
of the Pennsylvania Canal, 108 m. E. Harrisburg. Im- 
mense amounts of coal are deposited here and shipped to 
the E. A newspaper, the "B. Gazette," is published week- 
ly. The Trenton and Philadelphia E. E. passes through 
Bristol, 19 m. N. Philadelphia. Pop. 2,578. 

Bristol, t., p. v., port, and cap. Bristol co., R. I. : on the 
E. side of Narragansett Bay, 18 m. S. by E. Providence. 
It has a good harbor, and is extensively engaged in coast- 
ing and the fisheries. The shipping owned in the district, 
13,19S tons. The " Bristol Phcenix" is published weekly. 
Mt. Hope lies in this t., 2 m. N. E. of the C. H., which is 
a fine elevation of about 300 feet. Here King Philip, chief 
of the Pequods, held his court ; the view from the summit 
is extensive and highly interesting. Pop. 4,616. 

Bristol, t. and p. v., Addison co., Verm. : on the New 
Haven r., 50 m. S. TV. Montpelier. The Green Mountains 
occupy the E. portions of the t., but in the TV. the surface 
is level and fertile. Pop. 1,344. 

Brktol, t. and p. v., Kenosha co., Wise. : on Des Pkiines 
r., 183 m. E. S. E. Madison. Pop. 1,225. 

Bristol Centre, p. o., Ontario co., A 7 : Y. : 192 m. TV. 
Albany. * 

Bristolvtlle, p. v., Trumbull co., OJdo: on Grand r., 
144 m. N. E. Columbus. 

Bristolvtlle, p. v., Barry co., Mich. 

Briston, p. v., Elkhart co., Ind. : on the line of the In- 
diana Northern E. E., and S. of St. Joseph r., 133 m. N. 
Indianapolis. 

Brittos*s Neck, p. o., Marion dist., S. Car. : 112 m. E. 
Columbia. 

Brixton, p. v., Alexandria co., Yirg. : 93 m. N. Eich- 
mond. 

Broad albtn, t. and p. v., Fulton co., K Y. : 36 m. N. TV. 
Albany. Top. 2.474. 
SO 



Broad Brook, p. o., Hartford co., Conn. 

Broad Creek, hund., Sussex co., Del. : between Broad 
er. and Nanticoke cr., and contains 60,S60 acres. Pop. 2,712. 

Broad Creek, p. o., Queen Anne co., Md. 

Broadford, p. v., Smyth co., Yirg. 

Beoadkiln, hund., Sussex co., Del. : in the N. E. part of 
the co., and contains S,916 acres. Pop. 3,927. 

Broad Mountain, p. o., Schuylkill co., Penn. 

Broad Oaks, p. o., Pope co., III. : 272 m. S. Springfield. 

Broad Bipple, p. o., Marion co., Ind. : on a cr. of Broad 
r., 68 m. N. E. MilledgeviUe. 

Broad river, Qa. : one of the TV. branches of Savannah 
r., which it enters at Petersburg. 

Broad river, S. Car. : an arm of the Atlantic, between 
Port Eoyal Island and the main. Beaufort is situated on 
this river. 

Broad river, S. Car. : rises in North Carolina, and, re- 
ceiving the Pacolet and Tiger rivers, unites with the Saluda, 
above Columbus, forming the Congaree. 

Broad river, p. o., Elbert co., Ga.: on the N. side of 
Broad r., 67 m. N. E. MilledgeviUe. 

Beoad Top, p. o., Huntingdon co., Penn.: 74 m. TV. 
Harrisburg. 

Broadway, p. o., TVarren co., K. Jer. : on the line of the 
Morris Canal, 37 m. N. by TV. Trenton. 

Broadwell, p. o., Harrison co., Ky. : 82 m. N. E. 
Frankfort. 

Beock, p. o., Darke co., Ohio : 84 m. TV. Columbus. 

Brockawatville, p. v., Jefferson oo., Penn. : 154 m. 
TV. N. TV. Harrisburg. 

Beockett's Bridge, p. o., Fulton co., H. Y. : 73 m. 
TV. N. TV. Albany. 

Beockport, p. v., Monroe co., N. Y. : on the Erie Canal, 
217 m. TV. Albany. It has some manufactures, and a 
weekly newspaper, the " B. Watchman." 

Brock's Ceossing, p. o., St. Croix co., Wise. : 212 m. N. TV. 
Madison. 

Beock's Gap, p. o., Eockingham co., Yirg.: 102 m. 
N. TV. Eichmond. 

Beoken Arkow, p. o., St. Cla-ir co., Ala. : 108 m. N 
Montgomery. 

Beoken Swoed, p. o., Crawford co., Ohio: 62 m. N 
Columbus. 

Beonson, p. o., Huron co., Ohio : 78 m. N. Columbus. 

Bronson's Peairie, p. o., Branch co., Mich. : 97 m. S. TV. 
Lansing. 

Brookdale, p. o., M'Henry co., III. : 273 m. N. N. E. 
Springfield. 

Beooke county, Yii'g. Situate N. TV., between the Ohio 
r. and the Pennsylvania State line, and contains 154 sq. m. 
Surface uneven, and soil fertile. Iron ore and bituminous 
coal are abundant. Farms 2S4 ; manuf. 20 ; dwell. S39, and 
pop— wh. 4.923, fr. col. 100, si. 81— total 5,054. Capital: 
TVellsburg. Public Works: Pittsburg and Steubenville 
E. E, 

Beookfteld, t. and p. v., Fairfield co., Conn. : on Still r., 
a branch of Housatonic r., 42 m. S. TV. Hartford. The Hou- 
satonic E. E. passes through it, 29 m. N. Bridgeport 
Pop. 1,860. 

Beookfteld. p. v., Lee co., HI. : 196 m. N. Springfield. 

Beookfeeld, t. and p. v., Worcester co., Mass. : 58 m. TV. 
Boston. 

Beookfteld, t. and p. v., Carroll co., 271 Ramp. : 31 m. 
N. E. Concord. Near the centre of the t. is a pond, the 
source of the TV. branch of Salmon Fall r., and there is a 
stili larger pond on the N. W., which empties into TVinni- 
piseogee Lake. Pop. 552. 

Beookfteld, p. v., Jackson co., la. : 5S m. N. E. Iowa City. 

Brookfield, p. v., Madison co., A 7 ! Y. : on Unadilla r., 
5S m. TV. Albany. The tributaries of the Unadilla furnish 
fine mill sites. 

Bp.ookfxeld, t. and p v., Trumbull co., Ohio : on a 
branch of Shenango cr., 153 m. N. E. Columbus. P. 1,451. 



BRO 



BRO 



Beookfield, t. and p. y., Tioga co., Penn. : on Cowa- 
nesque cr. of Tioga r., 142 m. N. N. W. Harrisburg. 

Beookfield, t. and p. v., Orange co., Verm. : 19 m. S. 
Montpelier. Several ponds in this t. are sources of tributa- 
ries of White r. Marl is abundant. Pop. 1,672. 

Beookfield, t. and p. v., Waukesha co., Wise. : on Fox 
r., 108 m. E. Madison. The Milwaukie and Mississippi 
B. E. passes through the t, 20 m. W. Milwaukie. P. 1,939. 

Beookhaven, p. v., Lawrence co., Miss. : on a head 
stream of Bogue Chitto, 76 m. S. Jackson. 

Beookhaven, t., Suffolk co., N. Y. Pop. 8,597. 

Beookxandville, p. v., Baltimore co., Md. : on the line 
of the Westminster Branch B. B., 17 m. from Baltimore. 

Beooklln, p. t., Hancock co., Me. : 62 m. E. Augusta. 

Beooklln, p. v., Clark co., Mo. : 138 m. N. E. Jefferson 
City. 

Beooklene, p. v., Madison co., Get. : on the W. side of 
the middle fork of Broad r., 71 m. N. N. E. Milledgeville. 

BEOOKLrsE, t. and p. v., Norfolk co., Mass. : 3 m. W. by 
S. Boston. It is chiefly occupied by the aristocracy of Bos- 
ton, who have country seats and viDas in this locality. 
Pop. 2,516. It is reached by the Western Avenue and B.B. 

Beooexdte, p. v., Jackson par., La. : 156 m. N. W. Baton 
Eouge. 

Beookxtnt:, t. and p. o., Hillsborough co., A 7 ! Ramp. : 33 
m. S. by W. Concord. Pop. 718. 

Beooklete, t. and p. v., Windham co., Verm. : 86 m. S. 
Montpelier. Pop. 2S5. 

Beookltk, p. v., Conecuh co., Ala. : on the W. side of 
Conecuh r., 78 m. S. by W. Montgomery. 

Beookltn, p. v., Campbell co., Ky. : 58 m. N. N. E. 
Frankfort. 

Beooextn, t, p. v., and cap. Windham co., Conn. : on 
Quinnebaug r., 38 m. E. by N. Hartford. Pop. 1,515. 

Beookxtn. p. v., Schuyler co., III. : on W. side of Crooked 
cr., 97 m. W. N. W. Springfield. 

Beookxtn, p. v., Noxubee co., Miss. : 112 m. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Beookltn, p. v., Jackson co., Mich. : on Groose cr. of 
the N. branch of Eaisin r., 44 m. S. by E. Lansing. 

Beookltn, p. city, and cap. Kings co., JST. Y.: on the W. 
end of Long Island, opposite New York City, 145 m. S. 
Albany. Pop. in 1810, 4,402 ; in 1820, 7,175 ; in 1830, 15,396 ; 
in 1840, 36,233 ; and in 1850, 96,833. It is now the eighth, 
in regard to population, in the Union, and the second in 
the State. Dwell., in 1S50, 10,197. Value of real estate 
$32,010,711, and of personal property $3,950,5S9. 

Brooklyn was originally built on very uneven ground, 
and still — although the grades have been greatly leveled— 
retains many of the natural beauties for which it was so 
pre-eminent. The Heights of Brooklyn, seen from the 
New York side of the East Eiver, are unrivalled as city 
scenery, and there are also, farther back, eminences which 
afford fine localities for residences. The streets are regu- 
larly laid out, and are from 60 to 100 feet wide ; and on the 
whole, no other city of the Union has so many substantial 
and handsome public buildings. The City Hall is a fine 
marble structure, at the head of Fulton-street, and the bank- 
ing houses, school-houses, and churches are elegant and 
commodious. It is tlie city of churches. The city is divi- 
ded into eleven wards, and governed by a mayor and 
common council, and in its police arrangements is much 
superior to the neighboring city of New York. It is lighted 
throughout with gas, which has also been generally intro- 
duced into the dwellings of the rich ; and there is a project 
on foot for introducing into the city a supply of water from 
the S. side of Long Island. At present, water is supplied 
from the public pumps or cisterns ; and in case of an ex- 
tensive fire, there is not a sufficiency. The charter officers 
of the city are the mayor, comptroller, street commissioner, 
commissioner of repairs and supplies, collector of taxes, and 
chief of police; and for each ward an alderman and assist- 
ant alderman, a supervisor, an assessor, a commissioner 



of excise, and constable. These are elected by the citizens, 
and form respectively boards intrusted with the city gov- 
ernment. The city clerk, the attorney and counselor, the 
health officer, the city treasurer, the sealer of weights and 
measures, the clerk of police and justices courts, the city 
surveyors, etc., are appointed by the common council. For 
police purposes, the city is divided into four districts, each, 
except the first district (which has 48), having 32 police- 
men, under a captain and two assistant captains. 

The commerce of Brooklyn Is relatively large ; but as the 
city is within the collection district of New York, no separate 
returns are made in the published accounts. The river front 
of the city is literally fringed with wharves, and backed by 
extensive warehouses, while the Atlantic Dock and its im- 
mense stores enhance the importance of its shipping facili- 
ties. The dock contains 42i- aores, and the pier front, facing 
on Buttermilk Channel, has a length of 3,000 feet. Ships 
of the largest size enter it, and unload into the adjoining 
stores by means of patent cranes, worked by steam-power. 
Other dock facilities are about to be built beyond Eed 
Hook. There are four banks in the city, two savings' in- 
stitutions, and four fire insurance companies, with numerous 
other associations for commercial and economical purposes. 
Its churches number 63, of which 11 are Episcopal, 7 Bo- 
man Catholic, 6 Baptist, 6 German Eeformed, 5 Congrega- 
tional, 7 Presbyterian, 11 Methodist Episcopal, and each 
one, African Methodist Episcopal, Universalist, Unitarian, 
Friends, Sailors' Bethel, Congregational Methodist, Ameri- 
can Primitive Methodist, Protestant Methodist, Second 
Advent, and Eeformed Presbyterian. The city contains 
thirteen school districts, which are under the superintend- 
ence of the Board of Education. It also constitutes one 
colored school district. The public schools are entirely 
free to children residing within the respective districts in 
which the schools are located. Each district contains a 
valuable district library, the use of the books being free to 
all the inhabitants of the district, both male and female. 
In the larger districts the libraries number between 3,000 
and 4,000 volumes each. Academies and high schools for 
youth of both sexes are also very numerous, and are gen- 
erally well and ably conducted. The Brooklyn Institute, 
Washington-street, is one of its highest institutions, and has 
connected with it a Youths' Free Library, and free lectures 
and concerts are given during the winter. Among the 
benevolent institutions of the city, the most conspicuous 
are the City Hospital, Baymond-street, and the Dispensary 
in Pineapple-street. 

In the east part of Brooklyn is the United States' Navy 
Yard, situate on the Wallabout. It covers some 40 acres, 
and contiguous thereto are mooring grounds, etc. The 
yard is inclosed on the land side by a high brick wall, and 
within are large ship-houses, timber sheds, store-houses, 
workshops, etc. ; and an immense Dry Dock, the greatest 
work of the kind within the United States, has been lately 
completed. The Naval Hospital, half a mile east of the 
yard, occupies a commanding eminence, and is surrounded 
by a fine park and grounds, about S3 acres in extent. 

The Greenwood Cemetery, on Gowanus Heights, in the 
S. part of the city, is one of the most picturesque and beau- 
tiful burial-plots any where to be found. It occupies near- 
ly 800 acres of land, and is laid out in avenues, embellished 
by shade trees and shrubbery. The surface is of every va- 
riety, interspersed with ponds and lakelets, and from its 
higher parts commands an extensive view of the harbor, and 
the scenery of the lower Hudson. Its monuments, erected in 
memory of the dead, some at the expense of the public or 
societies, and others in commemoration of private friendships 
or relations, are of every description, but chiefly of white 
marble, and finely sculptured. Altogether, it is the most 
extensive and most beautiful cemetery within the borders 
of the Union, and is an establishment of which the city 
may well be proud. 

For so large a city, Brooklyn is but poorly represented by 

81 



BRO 



BRO 



its press, a fact accounted for by its proximity to New York 
City, the literary as well as the commercial emporium of 
America. Four papers are published daily, the " B. Star," 
and the " B. Advertiser" (whig), the "Daily Freeman" 
(indep't.), and the " B. Eagle" (dem.) ; and the papers pub- 
lished weekly are the " Long Island Star" (whig), and the 
" Independent" (temperance), and there is also a weekly 
edition of the " Eagle." The New Tork papers are deliv- 
ered here to citizens at the same time as in New York ; 
and as these generally contain more extended accounts of, 
and comments on current affairs, and are conducted with 
more skill and talent, they have a much larger circulation 
than the Brooklyn papers. The nearness of New York, 
indeed, affects every grade and profession in the same 
manner : few of the richer classes purchase their goods or 
provisions in Brooklyn ; and hence no department of life 
has the same vitality as it would have if the wealthy could 
be induced to purchase of their neighbor, instead of giving 
the profit of their custom to the traders of the neighboring 
city. In many respects, however, Brooklyn is only a sub- 
urb of the metropolis — a residence for business men, and 
not a mart of commerce. 

Brooklyn is connected with New York by five ferries : 
Hamilton Avenue Ferry and South Ferry (Atlantic-street), 
run to Whitehall, in New York ; Fulton Ferry, from foot 
of Fulton-street, Brooklyn, to Fulton-street, New York; 
Catharine Ferry, from foot of Maine-street, Brooklyn, to 
Catharine-street, New York ; and Jackson Ferry, from foot 
of Jackson-street, Brooklyn, to foot of Governeur-street, 
New York. The steamboats on these ferries are all of the 
first class, and commodious for carriages and wagons as 
well as passengers. The fare on the three first is one cent 
for each passenger. 

Brooklyn was the scene of stirring events at an early stage 
of the Bevolutionary War. In August, 1776, this part of 
Long Island became the seat of strife, and the fortifications 
then thrown up by the patriots may still be seen, but are 
now undergoing the process of demolition to extend city 
improvements. The principal of these is Fort Green, 
which will hence be known as Washington Park, and 
which will be devoted to recreation and health. Near the 
Navy Yard is the tomb in which are deposited the remains 
of 11,000 Americans who perished in the prison ships 
moored in the bay during the Eevolution. At the conclu- 
sion of peace, in 1783, Brooklyn contained only 56 houses ; 
nor was it until the period between 1S20 and 1S30 that it 
began to receive the overflowing population of New York. 
Since then it has rapidly increased, and in all probability 
the census of 1860 will find it a city of 200,000 souls. The 
only drawback, indeed, to its unlimited settlement, seems to 
be the want of a sufficient supply of water for so large a 
population as circumstances would indicate to be its destiny 
to contain. 

Brooklyn, t. and p. v., Cuyahoga co., Ohio : on a cr. of 
Cuyahoga r., 120 m. N. E. Columbus. The Cleveland and 
Columbus E. E., and Cleveland and Sandusky B. E. pass 
through the t. immediately west of Cleveland. Pop. 6,375. 

Brooklyn, t. and p. v., Susquehannah co., Penn. : 132 
m. N. N. E. Harrisburg. 

Brooklyn, p. v., Halifax co., Yirg. : 97 m. S. W. Eich- 
mond. 

Brookneal, p. v., Campbell co., Yirg. : on the N. side 
of Eoanoke r., 92 m. W. by S. Eichmond. 

Brooks, t and p. o., Waldo co., Me. : 37 m. E. by N. 
Augusta. 

Brook's Grove, p. o., Livingston co., 27. Y. : 212 m. W. 
Albany. 

Brook's, p. o., 'Jasper co., Ind. : 96 m. N. W. Indian- 
apolis. 

Brook's Tan Yard, p. o., Macon co., Tenn.: 49 m. 
E. N. E. Nashville. 

Brooksville, p. v., Blount co., Ala. : on a cr. of Ten- 
nessee r., 123 m. N. by W. Montgomery. 
82 



Brooksville, p. v., Eandolph co., Ga. : 133 m. S. W 
Milledgeville. 

Brooksville, t. and p. v., Hancock co., Me. : on E. side 
of Penobscot Bay, 49 m. E. Augusta. The t. occupies a 
peninsula navigable on three sides. Pop. 1,333. 

' Brooksville, p. o., Albemarle co., Yirg. : on the Virgi- 
nia Central E. E., 81 m. N. W. Eichmond. 

Brookville, p. o., Ogle co., III. : on E. side of Elkhorn 
cr., 226 m. N. Springfield. 

Brookville, t, p. v., and cap. Franklin co., Ind. : be- 
tween the forks of Whitewater r., about 2 m. N. of their 
junction, and 63 m. E. S. E. Indianapolis. It also lies on 
the Whitewater Canal, 31 m. from Lawrenceburg. Its 
manufactures are considerable. Two newspapers, the 
" Franklin Democrat" and the " Indiana American" (whig), 
are published weekly. 

Brookville, p. o., and cap. Bracken co., Ky. : 62 m. N. E. 
Frankfort. 

Brookville, p. v., Montgomery co., Md. : on Eeedy cr. 
of Patuxent r., 37 m. N. W. Annapolis. 

Brookville, p. v., Noxubee co., Miss. : 108 m. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Brookville, p. v., Marion co., Mo. : on S. side of South 
Fabius r., 93 m. N. by E. Jefferson City. 

Brookville, p. v., Granville co., 27~. Car.: 47 m. N. 
Ealeigh. 

Brookville, p. v., Genessee co., 21. Y.: 226 m. W. 
Albany. 

Brookville, p. v., and cap. Jefferson co., Penn. : on N. 
branch of Eed Bank cr. of Alleghany r., 156 m. W. N. W. 
Harrisburg. It is a flourishing village, and has two news- 
papers, the " Jeffersonian" (dem.) and the " Jefferson Star" 
(whig), issued weekly. Pop. 763. 

Brookville, p. v., Jefferson co., la. ; 92 m. S. by W. 
Iowa City. 

Broome county, 2J~. Y. Situate S. W. middle, and con- 
tains 627 sq. m. Drained by Susquehanna r. and its tribu- 
taries, Chenango, Tioughnioga, Nanticoke. Surface bro- 
ken and hilly, with extensive and fertile valleys bordering 
the streams. Timber plentiful; salt and sulphur springs 
occur in several parts. Farms 2,497 ; manuf. 229 ; dwell. 
5,651, and pop.— wh. 30,241, fr. col. 419— total, 30,660. Cap- 
ital : Binghampton. Public Works : Chenango Canal ; 
New York and Erie E. E. ; and several railroads to Alba- 
ny, Utic% and Syracuse (in progress). 

Broojlb Centre, p. o., Schoharie co., 2T. Y. : 2S m. S. W. 
Albany. 

Brotzmanyille, p. v., Warren co., 2T. Jer. : on the E. 
side of Delaware r., 57 m. N. by W. Trenton. 

Brower, p. o., Berks co., Penn. : 54 m. E. N. E. Harris- 
burg. 

Browhr's Mills, p. o., Eandolph co., 27. Car. : 73 m. 
W. Ealeigh. 

Brown county, PI. Situate W. on Illinois r., and con- 
tains 30S sq. m. Drained by Crooked and M'Kee's creeks. 
Surface undulating prairie, with bottoms and bluffs along 
the Illinois. Farms SIS ; manuf. 73 ; dwell. 1,353, and pop. 
— wh. 7,1S4, fr. col. 14— total, 7,19S. Capital : Mount Ster- 
ling. 

Brown county, Ind. Situate S. centrally, and contains 
320 sq. m. Surface hilly, with fertile valleys and rich bot- 
toms. Timber abundant ; com and hemp grow well in the 
bottoms ; wheat, oats, and grass on the hills. Drained by 
Salt cr. and its tributaries, and Bear Blossom cr. Farms 
535 ; manuf. ; 5 ; dwell. 790, and pop.— wh. 4,S27, fr. col. 
19— total 4,846. Capital: Nashville. 

Brown county, Ohio. Situate S. W. on Ohio r., and con- 
tains 468 sq. m. Drained by White Oak, Spaight, Eagle, 
and Eed Oak creeks. Surface generally level — on the Ohio 
somewhat broken; soils fertile, producing fine crops of 
wheat, Indian corn, oats, and tobacco. Farms 1,843 ; manuf. 
92 : dwell. 4.83S, and pop.— wh. 26,52Q> fr. col. 812— total 
27,332. Capital: Georgetown. 



BRO 



BRU 



Brown county, Wise. Situate N. E., at the head of Green 
Bay. and contains 472 sq. m. Surface diversified, with 
woodland and prairie, and soil excellent. Farms 190 ; 
manuf. 27; dwell. 1,003, and pop.— wh. 6,173, fr. col. 42— 
total 6.215. Capital : De Pere. 

Bbownfield, t. and p. v., Oxford co., Me. : on Saco r., 
63 m. W. S. W. Augusta. Pop. 1,320. 

Beownhelsi, t. and p. v., Lorain co., Ohio : on Vermil- 
lion r. of Lake Erie, 104 m. N. by E. Columbus. P. 1,0S2. 

Beowning, p. o., Schuyler co., III. : 89 m. W. N. W. 
Springfield. 

Beowntngton, t. and p. v., Orleans co., Term. : on Wil- 
loughby cr. of Barton r., 39 m. N. N. E. Montpelier. The 
Connecticut and Passumsic Eivers B. E. passes through 
the t. Pop. 613. 

Beownington, p. v., Butler co., Perm. : 193 m.W. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Beowntngton Centee, p. v., Orleans co., Verm. : 39 m. 
N. N. E. Montpelier. 

Beown's, p. o., Fairfield dist., S. Car.: 29 m. N. Co- 
lumbia. 

Beown's Bluff, p. o., Sumter co., Ala. : on Tombigbee 
r., 108 m. W. by N. Montgomery. 

Beownsboeough, p. v., Oldham co., Ky. : on the line 
of the Louisville and Frankfort E. K., 37 m. N. W. 
Frankfort. 

Brownsbtteg, p. v., Hendricks co., Ind. : 13 m. N. W. 
Indianapolis. 

Beownsbueg, p. v., Bucks co., Penn.: on W. side of 
Delaware r., 123 m. W. Harrisburg. 
... Beownsbueg, p. v., Eockbridge co., Yirg. : 106 m. W. 
by N. Eichmond. 

Beown's Coenek, p. o., Kennebec co., Me. : 6 m. distant 
from Augusta. 

Browk's Cave, p. o., Albemarle co., Yirg. : 71 m. W. by 
N. Eichmond. 

Beown's Grove, p. o., Hamilton co., Ohio : 186 m. S. W. 
Columbus. 

Beown's Mills, p. o., Washington co., Ohio: 99 m. 
E. by S. Columbus. 

Beown's Mills, p. o., Burlington co., JK Jer. 

Beown's Stoee, p. v., Warren co., Ohio : S2 m. S. W. 
Columbus. 

Brownstown, p. v., Sevier co., Ark. : 133 m. W. S. W. 
Little Eock. 

Beownstown, p. v., and cap. Jackson co., Ind. : on the 
E. side of a branch of E. fork of "White r., 61 m. S. Indian- 
apolis. The "Jackson County Advocate" is published 
weekly. 

Bbownstown, t. and p. v., "Wayne co., Mich. : on 
Lake Erie and Detroit r., 82 m. E. S. E. Lansing. The 
v. is located on a cr. of the same name, 2 m. from the 
lake. Pop. 1,047. 

Beown's Vallet, p. o., Montgomery co., Ind. : 42 m. 
W. by N. Indianapolis. 

Brownsville, p. o., Talladega co., Ala. : 6S m. N. Mont- 
gomery. 

Beownsville {formerly Geand Peaieie), p. v., and cap. 
Prairie co., Ark. 

Beownsville, p. v., Union co., Ind. : on E. fork of 
"White r., and on the line of the Junction E. E., 64 m. 
E. by S. Indianapolis. 

Beownsville, p. v., and cap. Edmonson co., Ky. : on 
the S. side of Green r., 102 m. S. W. Frankfort. 

Beownsville, p. v., Cameron co., Tex. : on the N. bank 
of the Eio Grande, somewhat below Matamoras, 326 m. S. 
Austin City. It is a nourishing v., and has considerable 
commerce with the river towns. Fort Brown was located 
here, and gives name to the v. The " Eio Grand Sentinel" 
and " American Flag" are weekly newspapers published 
here. 

Beownsville, p. v., Piscataquis co., Me. : on Pleasant r. 
of the Piscataquis, 73 m. N. E. Augusta. 



Beownsville, p. v., "Washington co., Md. : 73 m. N. "W. 
Annapolis. 

Beownsville, p. v., Hinds co., Mils. 

Beownsville, p. v., Saline co., Mo. : on N. side of Black 
r., 88 m. W. by N. Jefferson City. 

Beownsville, p. v., Granville co., W. Car. : on Grass cr. 
of Eoanoke r., 49 m. N. Baleigh. 

Beownsville, p. v., Johnson co., Ark. : 86 m. "W. N. W. 
Little Eock. 

Beownsville, p. v., Licking co., Ohio: 26 m. E. Co- 
lumbus. Pop. 4S0. 

Beownsville, p. v., Fayette co., Perm. : on the E. bank 
of Monongahela r., at the mouth of Bedstone cr., 189 m. 
W. Harrisburg. The National Eoad here crosses the r. by 
a fine bridge. Three newspapers, the " B. Free Press" and 
the " B. Herald" (both whig), and the " Cumberland Pres- 
byterian," are published weekly. 

Beownsville, p. v., Marlborough dist., S. Car. 

Beownsville, p. v., and cap. Haywood co., Term. : 146 
m. "W. by S. Nashville. The line of the Mobile and Ohio 
E. E. will pass through or near this village. 

Beownsville, p. v. "Windsor co., Term. : 4S m. S. Mont- 
pelier. 

Beowntown, p. v., Bradford co., Perm. : 123 m. N. 
Harrisburg. 

Beownville, t. and p. v., Jefferson co., N. T. : on Lake 
Ontario, N. of Black r., 14S m. N. E. Albany. The Cape 
Vincent Extension of the Watertown and Eome E. E. 
passes through the v., 76 m. from Eome and 21 m. from 
Cape Vincent. The lower falls of Black r. furnish exten- 
sive water-power, and below them the river is navigable 
from the lakes. Pop. 4,2S2. 

Beownville, p. v.,. Ogden co., Utah Ter. 

Beitoetown, p. v., Frederick co., Yirg. : 122 m. N. W. 
Eichmond. 

Beuceville, p. v., Knox co., Ind. : on the E. side Wa- 
bash, 4 m. from the river and 92 m. S. W. Indianapolis. 

Betjceville, p. v., Carroll co., Md. : on Big Pipe cr., 59 
m. N. W. Annapolis. 

BEtrcKviLLE, p. v., Morgan co., PI. : 34 m. W. by S. 
Springfield. 

Bruin, p. o., Carter co., Ky. : 110 m. E. Frankfort. 

Beutn, p. o., Butler co., Penn. : 198"m. W. Harrisburg. 

Beuington, p. v., King and Queen co., Yirg. : 43 m. 
N. N. E. Eichmond. 

Beuin's Ceoss Eoads, p. o., Parke co., Ind. : 69 m. W. 
Indianapolis. 

Beuly Landing, p. o., West Baton Eouge par., La. 

Beumfieldville, p. v., Berks co., Penn. : 56 m. E. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Beotumel's, p. o., Davidson co., N. Car.: 94 m. W. 
Ealeigh. Pop. 169. 

Betjneesbueg, p. v., Defiance co., Ohio : 114 m. N. W. 
Columbus. 

Beuneestown, p. v., Putnam co., Ind. : 44 m. W. by S. 
Indianapolis. 

Beunswiok county, Ai Car. Situate S. E. corner, and 
contains 1,340 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Cape Fear 
r., which forms its E. border, and Waccamaw r. Surface 
fiat and marshy, and soils indifferent. Eiee and pine are 
the staples. Farms 385 ; manuf. 80 ; dwell. 771, and pop. 
—wh. 3,651, fr. col. 319, si. 3,302— total 7,272. Capital: 
Smithville. 

Betjnswick county, Yirg. Situate S. of Nottaway r., and 
contains 6S0 sq. m. Drained by the head waters of Chowan 
r. Surface diversified, and soils of moderate fertility, pro- 
ducing abundantly Indian corn, oats, and tobacco. Farms 
655 ; manuf. 5 ; dwell. 1,051, and pop. — wh. 4,895, fr. col. 
543, si. 8,456— total 13,894. Capital: Lawrenceville. 

Brunswick, p. v., port, and cap. Glynn co., Ga. : on the 
E. side of Turtle r., 168 m. S. E. Milledgeville. Its harbor 
is spacious, safe, and is accounted the best S. of Mason and 
Dixon's line. Ships drawing not more than 13 feet can 



BRU 



BUC 



pass the bar at low tide. The v. is 13^ m. above the bar and 
8 m. above the lighthouse on St. Simon's Island. The ship- 
ping of the district in 1S50 was 533 tons. The Brunswick 
Canal extends to the Alatamaha r. 12 m., and it is proposed 
to build a railroad from Brunswick to Thomasville, with a 
branch to Tallahassee, and other branches from Troupville 
to Albany and from Thomasville to Bainbridge on Flint r. 
These, when completed, will raise Brunswick to a high rank 
as a Southern port. 

Brunswick, p. v., Peoria co., HI. : 93 m. N. by W. 
Springfielcr. 

Brunswick, t. and p. v., Cumberland co., Me. : on An- 
droscoggin r., near its mouth, 29 m. S. by W. Augusta. 
Lat. 43° 53' N. and 69° 55' 01" W. The r. furnishes a navi- 
gation for steamers and extensive mill-power. Large 
quantities of lumber are brought to this port from the bord- 
ers of the Androscoggin, and a great deal is sawed at this 
point. A bridge connects it with Topsham, over which 
the Kennebec and Portland B. E. passes, 27 m. from Port- 
land, a branch of which E. E. also runs to Bath, 9 m. 
Bowdoin College, founded 1794, is located here, and has a 
medical school. Pop. 4,976. 

Brunswick, p. v., Chariton co., Mo. 

Brunswick, t. and p. v., Medina co., Ohio : 104 m. N. E. 
Columbus. Pop. 1,417. 

Brunswick, t. and p. v., Essex co., Verm. : on Nulhe- 
ghan r. and Paul's stream of the Connecticut, 54 m. N. E. 
Montpelier. Two considerable ponds lie in the town, dis- 
charging their waters into the Connecticut. Pop. 119. 

Brush Creek, p. o., Eandolph co., N. Car. : 37 m. N. 
Baleigh. 

Brush Creek, p. o., Perry co., Ala. : 62 m. W. by N. 
Montgomery. 

Brush Creek, p. o., Knox co., III. : 108 m. N. N. W. 
Springfield. 

Brush Hill, p. o., Du Page co., III. : 282 m. N. E. 
Springfield. 

Brushland, p. o., Delaware co., _K Y. : 62 m. S. W. 
Albany. 

Brush Bun, p. o., 'Washington co., Perm. : 203 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Brush Mills, p. o., Franklin co., N. Y. : on the line 
of the Northern (Ogdensburg) E. E., 68 m. from Bouse's 
Point and 49 from Ogdensburg ; and 149 m. 25T. N. W. 
Albany. 

Bp.usn Valley, p. o., Indiana co., Petm. : 142 m. W. by 
N. Harrisburg. 

Brushytlle, p. v., Queen's co., A 7 : Y. : on the line of the 
Long Island E. E., 14 m. from Brooklyn, and 14S S by E. 
Albany. 

BRUsnv Creek, p. o., Anderson dist., S. Car. : 10S m. 
N. W. Columbia. 

Brushy Flat, p. o., "Watauga co., A r . Car. 

Brushy Fork, p. o., Coles co., III. : on Brushy fork of 
Embarras r., 107 m. E. Springfield. 

Brushy Prairie, p. o., La Grange co., Ind. : 128 m. 
N. by E. Indianapolis. 

Bruynswick, p. v., Ulster co., K Y. : 74 m. S. by W. 
Albany. 

Bryan county, Ga. Situate S. E. on the Atlantic, and 
contains 472 sq. m. Drained by Cannouchee and Ogeechee 
rivers. Surface low and fiat, with much swamp ; soils 
light and sandy. Farms 209, dwell. 212, and pop. — wh. 
1,164, fr. col. 15, si. 2,245— total 3,424. Capital : Eden. 

Bryan, p. v., Saline co., Mo. : on a cr. of Salt fork of 
Black r., 76 m. W. by N. Jefferson City. 

Bryan, p. v., and cap. Williams co., Ohio : on Lick cr. of 
Tiffin r., 132 m. N. W. Columbus. The " Family Yisitor" 
(dem.) is published weekly. 

Bryansburgh, p. v., Jefferson co., Ind. : on the E. of 
Big cr., 91 m. S. E. Indianapolis. 

Bryantown, p. v., Charles co., Md. : 36 m. S. W. Anna- 
polis. 

84 



Bryansville, p. v., Tork co., Penn. : 22 m. S. Harris- 
burg. 

Bryant's Creek, p. o., Monroe co., Ind.: 48 m. S. W. 
Indianapolis. 

Bryantsvtlle, p. v., Lawrence co., Ind.: 63 m.S. by W. 
Indianapolis. 

Bryantsvtlle, p. r., Garrard co., Ky. : 42 m. S. S. E. 
Frankfort. 

Buchanan county, la. Situate E. centrally, and contains 
576 sq. m. Drained by Cedar and Wabesipinicon rivers. 
Surface rolling — chiefly prairie, and soils rich. Farms 45 ; 
manuf. 1 ; dwell. 74, and pop.— wh. 517, fr. col. 0— total 517. 
Capital : Independence. 

Buchanan county, Mo. Situate N. W., on Missouri r., 
and contains 320 sq. m. Drained by Little Platte r. and its 
affluents. Surface generally prairie, with some woodland. 
Soils excellent. Farms 1,258 ; manuf. 89 ; dwell. 2,030, and 
pop.— wh. 12,072, fr. col. 11, si. 902— total 12,975. Capital : 
Sparta. 

Buchanan, p. v., Alleghany co., Perm. : 183 m. W. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Buchanan, t. and p. v., Berrien co., Mich. : on the W. 
side of St. Joseph's r., 86 m. W. S. W. Lansing. 

Buck, p. o., Lancaster co., Penn. : 42 m. S. E. Harris- 
burg. 

Buckatoney, p. o., Clark co., Miss. : on Buckatoney r., 
106 m. E. by S. Jackson. 

Buck Branch, p. o., De Kalb co., III. : on Somonauk 
cr., 212 m. N. E. Springfield. 

Buck Bridge, p. o., St. Lawrence co., M Y. : on Grasse 
r., 153 m. N. N. W. Albany. 

Buck Creek, p. o., Tuscaloosa co., Ala.: 104 m. N. W. 
Montgomery. 

Buck Creek, p. o., Scriven co., Ga. : on a cr. so called 
of Savannah r., 114 m. E. by S. Milledgeville. 

Buck Creek, p. o., Greene co., Ind. : 69 m. S. S. W. 
Indianapolis. 

Buck Eye, p. o., Laurens co., Ga. : on a cr. so called, 33 
m. S. E. Milledgeville. 

Buck Eye, p. o., Garrard co., Ky. : 44 m. S. S. E. Frank- 
fort. 

Buck Eye, p. o., Putnam co., Ohio : 102 m. N. W. Co- 
lumbus. 

Buck Eye Cottage, p. o., Perry co., Ohio : 38 m. E. by 
S. Columbus. 

Buck Eye Furnace, p. o., Jackson co., Ohio : 66 m. 
S. S. E. Columbus. 

Buck Eye Town, p. o., Frederick co., Md. : 63 m. N. W. 
Annapolis. 

BucKFrELD, t. and p. v., Oxford co., Me. : on a branch of 
the Androscoggin r., 31 m. W. by S. Augusta. A branch 
of the Atlantic and St. Lawrence E. E., 13 m. long, reaches 
this place from Mechanic's Falls, 36 m. Portland. P. 1,659. 

Buck Grove, p. o., Eush co., Ind. : 38 m. E. S. E. 
Indianapolis. 

Buckhannon, p. o., Lewis co., Virg. : 194 m. W. N. W. 
Eichmond. 

Buck Head, p. o., Morgan co., Ga. : on Oconee r., 27 m. 
N. Milledgeville. 

Buck Head, p. o., Fairfield dist., S. Car. : 39 m. N. by W. 
Columbia. 

Buck Head Causey, p. o., Colleton dist., 8. Car. : 106 
m. S. by E. Columbia. 

Buck Hollow, p. o., Franklin co., Verm. : 42 m. N.N.W. 
Montpelier. 

Buckhorn, p. o., Winston co., Miss. : 82 m. N. E. Jack- 
son. 

Buckhorn, p. o., Brown co., HI. : SS m.W. by 1ST. Spring- 
field. 

Buckhorn, p. o., Carroll co., 67a. : 117 N. W. Milledge- 
ville. 

Buckhorn, p. o., Bienville par., la. : 187 m. N. W. 
Baton Eouge. 



BUG 



BUF 



Buckhorn, p. o., Columbia co., Penn. : 73 m. N. by E. 
Harrisburg. 

Buckingham county, Yirg. Situate centrally, S. of James 
r., and contains 520 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of James 
r. Surface undulating and various, and the soils ordinarily- 
fertile. The productions are wheat, Indian corn, oats, and 
tobacco, with some cotton. Farms 616 ; manuf. 5 ; dwell. 
1,062, and pop.— wh. 5,426, fr. col. 250, si. 8,161— total 13,837. 
Capital: Maysville. Public Works: Richmond and Lynch- 
burg E. E. 

Buckingham, t. and p. v., Bucks co., Penn. : 112 m. E. 
Harrisburg. The inhabitants are chiefly Quakers. 

Buckingham, p. v., and cap. Buckingham co., Vircj. : 62 
in. W. Eichmond. 

Buckland, t. and p. o., Franklin co., Mass. : on S. side 
of Deerfield r., 91 m. W. Boston. Pop. 1,056. 

Buckland, p. o., Prince "William co., Yirg. : on the 
N. side of Occoquan r., S4 m. N. by W. Eichmond. 

Buckland, p. v., Hartford co., Conn. 

Bucklin, p. v., Winnebago co., III. : 267 m. N. Springfield. 

Buck Point, p. o., Jackson co., Term. : 67 m. E. N. E. 
Nashville. 

Buck Praieie, p. o., Lawrence co., Mo. : on N. side 
of Honey cr., 138 m. S. W. Jefferson City. 

Buckeam, p. v., Queens co., M Y. ; on Beaver Dam cr., 
122 m. S. by E. Albany. 

Bucks county, Penn. Situate S. E. on Delaware r., and 
contains 546 sq. m. Drained by Neshaminy and Tohickon 
creeks, and the head waters of Perkiomen cr. Surface 
hilly, or rather rolling, but beautifully diversified, and soils 
of average fertility. Wheat and other grains are heavy 
crops. The county is noted for its pottery. Farms 4,707 ; 
manuf. 636 ; dwell. 9,757, and pop.— wh. 54,366, fr. col. 1,725 
— total 56,091. Capital: Doylestown. Public 'Works : Nor- 
ristown, Doylestown, and New Hope E. E. ; Trenton and 
Philadelphia B. E. ; and Delaware Division of Pennsylva- 
nia Canals. 

Bucks, p. v., Columbiana co., OMo : 123 m. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Buckskin, p. o., Gibson co., Ind. : 112 m. S. W. Indiana- 
polis. 

Buckspoet, t. and p. v., Hancock co., Me. : on E. side 
of the Penobscot r., 56 m. E. by N. Augusta. It has a fine 
harbor and considerable trade, especially in lumber. A 
ferry is established on the river. Pop. 3,3S1. 

Buckspoet Centre, p. o., Hancock co., Me. : 59 m. E. by 
N. Augusta. 

Buckstown, p. v., Somerset co., Penn. : 10S m. W. by S. 
Harrisburg. 

Bucksville, p. v., Bucks eo., Penn.: 112 m. E. Harris- 
burg. 

Bucksvtlle, p. v., Horry dist, S. Car. : 113 m. E. 
Columbia. 

Buck Tooth, p. o., Cattaraugus co., VI K ; 256 m. W.S. W. 
Albany. 

Bucrp.us, t., p.v., and cap. Crawford co., Ohio : on the S. 
side of Sandusky r., 56 m. N. Columbus. It is one of the 
most flourishing towns of the State, and has considerable 
trade, being central in a fine agricultural region. The 
"People's Forum" (dem.) is published weekly. The line 
of the Ohio and Indiana E. E. intersects it Pop. 2,315. 

Buel, p. v., Montgomery co., Jf. Y. : 52 m. W. N. W. 
Albany. 

Buena Vista eounty, la. Situate N. "W., and contains 
576 sq. m. Taken from Pottowattomie in 1851. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Carroll eo., Tenn. : 86 m. W. by S. 
13 ashville. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Prince George co., Md. : 32 m. 
S. W. Annapolis. 

Buena Vista, p. v., Atlantic co., K Jer. : 49 m. S. S. E. 
Trenton. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Duplin co., K Car. : 71 m. 8. by E. 
Eaieigk, 



Buena Vista, p. o., Jefferson co., Ind. : 70 m. S. by E. 
Indianapolis. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Washita co., Ark. : S2 in. S. by W. 
Little Eock. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Harrison co., Ky. : 44 m. E. by N. 
Frankfort. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Monroe co., Ala. : 71 m. S. W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Stephenson co., III. : 21Z m. N. 
Springfield. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Platte co., Mo. : 156 m. W. by N. 
Jefferson City. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Chickasaw co., Miss. : 132 m. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Clinton co., la. : on the N. side of 
Wapsipinicon r. of the Mississippi, 42 m. E. by N. Iowa 
City. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Shelby co., Tex. : 237 m. E. N. E. 
Austin City. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Greenville dist, S. Car. : 9S m. 
N. W. Columbia. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Marion eo., Ga. : 78 m. S. W. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Holmes eo., OMo : 68 m. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Buena Vista, p. o., Portage co., Wise. : 148 m. N. 
Madison. 

Buena Vista Furnace, p. o., Eockbridge co., Yirg.: 
113 m. W. by N. Eichmond. * 

Buena Vista Springs, p. o., Logan co., Ey. : 144 m. 
S. W. Frankfort. 

Buffalo, p. v., Washita co., Ark. : S6 m. S. by W. Little 
Eock. 

Buffalo, p. v., White co., Ind. : on the E. side of Tippe- 
canoe r., 83 in. N. W. Indianapolis. 

Buffalo, p. v., and cap. Dallas co., Mo. : S3 m. S. by W 
Jefferson City. 

Buffalo, post city, port of entry, and cap. Erie co., 
N. Y. : at the outlet of Lake Erie, and the head of Niagara 
r., 254 m. W. Albany. The city lies on Buffalo cr., which 
falls into the lake, and constitutes its harbor. The distance 
to Albany by railroad is 82S m., and by canal 364 m. Lat 
42° 53' tf., and long. 7S° 55' W. Pop. in 1S40, 1S,213, and 
in 1850, 42,260. 

Buffalo is the great entrep6t between the north-west and 
the states of the Atlantic sea-board — the gate through which 
the bulk of commercial material must pass for a market. 
Its position is unrivaled on the lakes, and from the advant- 
ages possessed by its port it has become the rendezvous 
for a vast tonnage employed on these western waters. The 
harbor is spacious and safe, the creek having a depth of 13 
or 14 feet for a mile up, and being from 12 to 16 rods wide. 
Its only obstruction is the sand and gravel at its mouth, 
driven in by gales of wind, but this defect has been obvia- 
ted by the extension of a pier 1,500 feet long from the S. side 
of the entrance. This pier, which has a light-houso at its 
end, operates as a breakwater, and, by confining the creek, 
has cleared its channel, so that vessels drawing S feet pass 
in without difficulty. The increasing commerce of the 
port, however, demands greater accommodations, ana 
several valuable improvements are projected in the har- 
bor. 

The land on which the city is built rises by a very gentle 
ascent two miles from the water, and from its higher parts 
affords fine views of the neighboring scenery, the lake, the 
Niagara Biver, and Canada shore being within the view. 
The city is laid out in broad and regular streets, which 
contain numerous elegant stores, large warehouses, dep6ts 
of railroads, etc., and most of the dwellings are substantial 
and neat. There are three public squares, which add much 
to the salubrity and beauty of the city. The public build- 
ings are a court-house, jail, and other county offices, two 
markets, the city offices, churches, banks, etc The Roman 

S5 



BUF 



BUF 



Catholic Cathedral, a new edifice, is one of the finest tem- 
ples in America. 

The city is divided into five wards, and is governed by a 
mayor and common council. The charter officers are a 
comptroller, treasurer, surveyor, etc., and in each ward are 
health inspectors, and other officers. The courts are the 
County Court, the Becorder's Court, and the Police and 
Justices' Courts. In the Fire Department there are nine 
engine companies, two hook and ladder, and a hose com- 
pany. "Water is supplied to the citizens through pipes, and 
the streets are lighted with gas. Among the benevolent 
institutions of the city, the most conspicuous are the Orphan 
Asylum, the City Hospital, the Hospital of the Sisters of 
Charity, the Female Orphan Asylum, and the Association 
for the Belief of the Poor. The city is well supplied with 
common schools, open to all children, and has many highly 
efficient academies and private schools. 

The University of Buffalo was chartered in 1846, and has 
a medical department. The Toung Men's Association, 
established in 1S35, is one of the best literary societies in the 
State, and has a fine library of 6,000 or 7,000 yoluines, and 
a select cabinet of mineral and zoological specimens. 
During the winter, a series of lectures on literary and sci- 
entific subjects are delivered by eminent professors. The 
German Toung Men's Association is a similar institution, 
and has in its library nearly 2,000 volumes, chiefly valuable 
works in the German language. The rooms of both these 
are amply supplied with periodicals and newspapers. 

The press of Buffalo consists of the "B. Commercial Ad- 
vertiser," the oldest daily paper in the city : a tri-weekly edi- 
tion is also issued ; the " Patriot and Journal," weekly ; the 
" "Western Literary Messenger," monthly ; the " B. Medical 
Journal and Monthly Beview ;" the B. Daily Courier," of 
which tri-weekly and weekly editions are also published ; 
the " Morning Express," daily, tri-weekly, and weekly ; 
the " B. Bepublic," daily and weekly ; the " Daily Queen 
City ;" the " Evangelical Christian," semi-monthly ; the " B. 
Christian Advocate ;" the " "Wool-Grower and Magazine 
of Agriculture and Horticulture," monthly ; the " B. Path- 
finder," weekly; and the following, which are German 
publications : " Der "Weltburger," semi-weekly and week- 
ly ; the " B. Telegraph," weekly; and the "B. Democrat," 
daily and weekly. 

There are in the city about 40 churches: 3 are Episco- 
pal, 4 Presbyterian, 1 Associate Keformed Presbyterian 
(Scotch), 1 Eeformed Presbyterian, 1 colored Presbyterian, 
5 Methodist Episcopal, 4 Baptist, 1 Unitarian, 1 Universal- 
ist, 7 Boman Catholic, 1 Lutheran, and 7 or S German 
churches of various denominations. 

The commerce carried on between Buffalo and Canada, 
in 1850, amounted to $527,270, of which $220,196 was the 
value of exports, and $307,074 of imports ; and the ship- 
ping employed in the transit of the merchandise represent- 
ed by these values, was — American vessels cleared, 252 
(29,696 tons), and entered, 246 (26,352 tons) ; and British 
vessels cleared, 466 (73,897 tons), and entered, 473 (75,640 
tons). Total clearances, 748 vessels (103,593 tons), and 
total entrances, 719 vessels (101,992 tons). The value of 
imports from domestic lake ports, was $22,525,781, and of 
exports, $44,501,737. The arrivals, coastwise, numbered 
3,55S vessels (1,255,430 tons), and the clearances, 3,599 ves- 
sels (1,263,907 tons). The value of merchandise delivered 
by the Erie Canal, was $41,S59,270, besides which the rail- 
road from Albany delivered goods to the value of $6,041,456. 
Forming the material of this commerce, we find the sugars 
of Louisiana, the cottons of Tennessee and Mississippi, the 
hemp of Kentucky, the furs of Missouri and the distant 
"West, the copper of Lake Superior, the lead oS 'Wisconsin, 
the agricultural and forest products of all the States border- 
ing on the lakes, the manufactures of New England and 
New York, and a small amount in bond and otherwise of 
Canadian products. The imports into Buffalo, in 1S50, 
from the "Western States, consisted in part of 1.103,039 bar- 
S6 



rels of flour, 3,681,346 bushels of wheat, 2,593,37S bushels 
of Indian corn, 52,124,275 feet boards and scantling, 
19,9S8,962 staves, 4,56S,000 shingles, 161,110 boxes and 
3,15S casks of cheese, 40,135 kegs and 2,203 barrels of but- 
ter, 53,S67 bales of wool,10,lS0 sheep, 46,448 live and 7,420 
slaughtered hogs, etc. The exports consisted of the prop- 
erty landed at Buffalo from the Erie Canal, the Albany and 
Buffalo Bailroad, and the manufactures and productions 
of the city itself; of these, castings, agricultural imple- 
ments, furniture, dry goods, groceries, etc., formed the great 
bulk, but included was almost every thing that is known to 
commerce. (For a full account of the commerce of Buffa- 
lo, consult Andreics' 1 Report of the Trade and Commerce 
of the British North American Colonies with the United, 
States, etc., presented to tlie U. S. Senate {Dec. 23] iral851.) 
The shipping owned in the collection district of Buffalo, 
on the 30th June, 1S50, amounted to 39,679 tons, all of the 
class " permanent enrolled, and licensed," of which 23,083 
tons were propelled by steam, and the whole engaged in 
the coasting trade. The number of vessels built in the 
year ending at the same date, was 7 [1,730 tons] — 1 brig, 2 
schooners, and 4 steamers. 

Buffalo has 10 banks, and one savings' institution ; also, 
including agencies, 44 fire, marine and life insurance com- 
panies. 

The railroads uniting Buffalo with Canada, the Great 
"West, and the States eastward, are magnificent works. 
Those pointing east, are the great line terminating at Alba- 
ny, and. there connecting with the New England and 
Southern New York roads, and the navigation of the Hud- 
son ; and the several lines uniting with the New York and 
Erie E. B., known as the Buffalo and New York City E. P., 
and the Buffalo, Corning, and New York E. E. The "West 
is reached by the Buffalo and State Line B. B., which con- 
nects with the system of roads in Ohio and the other lake 
States, and extends to the Mississippi Biver ; and Canada 
will be reached by the Buffalo and Brandtford E. E., the 
Great "Western E. B., and others now being constructed. 
Bailroads also run to Niagara, Le-wistown, etc. There are 
also several plank roads centering in Buffalo, and reaching 
back to the principal villages in the county. 

Buffalo was founded in 1S01 by the Holland Land Com- 
pany, but for a long period it made little progress, since in 
1S14, when burned by the British, it did not contain more 
than 200 houses ; nor was it until the Erie Canal opened a 
navigable passage from the lake to the Hudson Biver, that 
it exhibited any uncommon rapidity of growth. Since that 
period, however, its prosperity has been unbounded, and its 
rise in the scale of importance as a commercial city has 
been such as its original founders could never have dreamed 
of. It now ranks as the fourth city of the State, and the 
twelfth of the United States, in respect of population, and in 
a commercial point of view is surpassed by only three or 
four of our sea-board ports. 

Buffalo, p. t, Guernsey co., Ohio : on Buffalo fork of 
Seneca cr., 69 m. E. Columbus. Pop. 834. 

Buffalo, t. and p. o., "Washington co., Penn. : 1S9 m. "W. 
Harrisburg. 

Buffalo, p. v., Perry co., Tenn. : on Buffalo r. of the 
Tennessee, 63 m. "W. S. "W. Nashville. 

Buffalo, p. v., Putnam co., Virg. : on the E. side of 
Great Kanawha r., 253 m. "W. by N. Bichmond. 

Buffalo, p. v., Henderson co., Teas. : on the N. bank 
of Trinity r., 216 m. N. by E. Austin City. 

Buffalo Citt, p. v., Marion co., Ark. : 104 m. N. Little 
Bock. 

Buffalo Creek, p. o., Campbell co., Tenn. : on a cr. so 
called of the S. fork of Cumberland r., 132 in. E. by N. 
Nashville. 

Buffalo Cross Eoads, p. o., Union co., Penn. : 53 m. 
N. by W. Harrisburg. 

Buffalo Ford, p. o., "Wythe co., Yirg. : 203 m. "W. by S, 
Bichmond. 



BUF 



BUR 



Buffalo Ford, p. o., Randolph co., AT Car. : 69 m. W. 
Ealeigh. 

Buffalo Forge, p. o., Boekbridge co., Virg. : on Buffalo 
cr., 123 m. W. Eichmond. 

Buffalo Grove, p. o., Ogle co., III. : on Elkhorn cr., 227 
m. N. Springfield. 

Buffalo Heart, Sangamon co., III. : 23 m. N. E. Spring- 
field. 

Buffalo Hill, p. o., Orange co., AT Car. : 42 m. N. W. 
Ealeigh. 

Buffalo Lake, p. o., Marquette co., Wise. : on the lake 
so called, 91 m. N. Madison. 

Buffalo Plains, p. o., Erie co., ST. Y. : 249 m. W. 
Albany. 

Buffalo Prairie, p. v., Bock Island co., HI. : ISO m. 
N. N. W. Springfield. 

Buffalo Bun, p. o., Centre co., Perm. : 67 m. W. N. W 
Harrisburg. 

Buffalo Eun, p. o., Monroe co., Virg. : 168 m. W.' 
Eichmond. 

Buffalo Springs, p. o., Amherst CO., Virg. : 92 m. W. 
Eichmond. 

Buford, p. t., Ohio co., Ky. : 124 m. W. S. W. Frank- 
fort. 

Btjford, p. v., Highland co., Ohio : 73 m. S. W. Co 
lumbus. 

Buford's, p. o., Bedford co., Virg. : 123 m. W. Eich 
mond. 

Buford's Bridge, p. o., Barn-well dist., S. Car. : on Sal- 
kawatchie r., 62 m. S. Columbia. 

Buggabo, p. o., Wilkes co., AT Car. : 136 m. W. by N. 
Ealeigh. 

Bug Hall, p. o., Macon co., Ala. : 84 m. E. S. E. Mont- 
gomery. 

Bulah, p. o., Obion co., Term. : 164 m. W. Nashville. 

Bulger's Mills, p. o., Coosa co., Ala. : 32 m. N. Mont- 
gomery. 

Bullbonus' Grove, p. o., Will co., III. : 213 m. N. E. 
Springfield. 

Bull Creek, p. o., Wood co., Virg. : 243 m. W. N. W. 
Eichmond. 

Bullion, p. o., Waukesha co., Wise. : 86 m. E. Madison. 

Bullitt county, Ky. Situate N, and contains 248 sq. m. 
Drained by Salt r., which traverses it from E. to W. Sur- 
face generally rolling, but in N. E. uneven ; soils moderately 
fertile. Wheat, oats, and corn are the principal products. 
Some salt is made in the county. Farms 562 ; manuf. 14 ; 
dwell. 970, and pop.— wh. 5,392, fr. col. 27, si. 1,355— total 
6,774. Capital: ShepherdsvUle. Public Works: Louis- 
ville and Nashville E. E. (projected). 

Bull Mills, p. o., Taney co., Mo. : on Bull cr., 137 m. 
S. by W. Jefferson City. 

Bullock county, Ga. Situate S. E., and contains S64 
sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Ogeechee r., which 
bounds the county N. E., and Connouchee r., which lies on 
the S. W. Surface low and sandy, and soils indifferent. 
Cotton is the chief product. Farms 412 ; manuf. 3 ; dwell. 
477, and pop.— wh. 2,840, fr. col. 0, si. 1,460— total 4,300. 
Capital: Statesboro'. 

Bullock Creek, p. o., York dist., 8. Car. : on a cr. so 
called of Broad r., 71 m. N. by E. Columbia. 

Bull Eun, p. o., Grainger «o., Tenn. : on Bull Eun cr. of 
Clinch r., 159 m. E. Nashville. 

Buxi's Head, p. o., Duchess co., AT Y. 

Bull Swamp, p. o., Orangeburg dist., S. Car. 

Bulltown, p. v., Braxton co., Virg. : on Little Kana- 
wha r., 188 m. W. N. W. Eichmond. 

Bullville, p. v., Ctange co., A 7 ! Y. : 94 m. S. by W. 
Albany. 

Buncomb, p. o., Pontotoc co., Miss. : 152 m. N. E. Jackson. 

Buncombe county, la. Situate N. W., and contains 720 
sq. m. Taken from Pottowattomie in 1S51. 

Buncombe county, AT Car. Situate W., between Blue 



Eidge and Stony mts., and contains 900 sq. m. Drained by 
French Broad, a tributary of Tennessee r. Surface, an ele- 
vated table-land, with fine valleys, and a soil of good qual- 
ity. Black mtn., 6,476 feet high, the loftiest summit of the 
Alleghanies, lies in the N. part of the county ; and there is 
a warm spring in the S. W. Grazing is the chief occupa- 
tion, but considerable grain is produced. Farms 1,105 ; 
manuf. 19 ; dwell. 1,942, and pop.— wh. 11,601, fr. col. 107, 
si. 1,717— total 13,425. Capital : Asheville. + 

Buncombe, p. v., Walton co., Ga. : 62 m. N. W. Mil- 
ledge vdle. 

Bundtsburgh, p. v., Geauga co., Ohio : 142 m. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Bunger's Mill, p. o., Greenbrier co., Virg. : 163 m. W. 
Eichmond. 

Bunker Hill, p. o., Macoupin co., III. : on the line of 
the Terre Haute and Alton E. E., 33 m. S. Springfield. 

Bunker Hill, t. and p. v., Ingham co., Mich. : 22 m. 
S. by E. Lansing. Pop. 374. 

Bunker Hill, p. o., Bucks co., Perm,. : 102 m. E. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Bunker Hill, p. o., Bedford co., Virg. : 116 m. W. by S. 
Eichmond. 

Bunker's Hill, p. o., Catawba co., AT Car. : 142 m. W. 
Ealeigh. 

Bunker's Hill, p. v., Giles co., Tenn. : 67 m. S. by W. 
Nashville. 

Burbois (Bourbeuse), p. o., Franklin co., Mo. : on a cr. 
so called, 54 m. E. by S. Jefferson City. 

Burbank, p. o., Wayne co., Ohio : 86 m. N. E. Columbus. 

Burohville, t. and p. o., St. Clair co., Mich. : 104 m. 
E. by N. Lansing. Pop.'472. 

Burdett, p. v., Tompkins co., AT Y. : on the E. side of 
Seneca Lake, 157 m. W. by S. Albany. 

Bureau county, III. Situate N. middle, and contains 
S64 sq. m. Drained by several tributaries of the Illinois 
r., which washes its S. E. border. Surface level or undu- 
lating — in some parts wet, and the soil is everywhere fertile. 
Groves of timber and prairies are frequently met with. 
Farms 741 ; manuf. 20 ; dwell. 1,464, and pop.— wh. 8,S31, 
fr. col. 10— total 8,841. Capital : Princeton. Public Works : 
Central E. E. ; Chicago and Eock Island E. E. ; and Aurora 
Extension E. E. 

Burgess' Store, p. o., Northumberland co., Virg. : 58 
m. E. N. E. Eichmond. 

Burgettstown, p. v., Washington co., Perm. : 187 m. 
W. Harrisburg. 

Burke county, Ga. Situate E., between Savannah and 
Ogeechee r., and contains 9S0 sq. m. Drained by Brier 
and Beaver dam creeks of the Savannah and Buckhead cr. 
of the Ogeechee. Surface varied, and soils of average fer- 
tility, producing largely of cotton, Indian corn, etc. Farms 
712; manuf. 41; dwell. 1,017, and pop.— wh. 5,116, fr. col. 
152, si. 10,832— total 16,100. Capital: Waynesboro'. Pub- 
lic Works: Burke County E. E. and Central Georgia E. E. 

Burke county, AT Car. Situate W. centrally, and con- 
tains S40 sq. m. Drained by Catawba r. Surface elevated, 
and in the N. W. mountainous. Wheat, corn, oats, and 
tobacco are largely produced, and much attention is paid to 
live-stock. Farms 373 ; manuf. 22 ; dwell. 9S3, and pop. — 
wh. 5,477, fr. col. 163, si. 2,132— total, 7,772. Capital : Mor- 
gantown. 

Burke, t. and p. o., Franklin co., AT Y. : on Chateauguay 
r., 14S m. N. Albany. The Northern (Ogdensburg) E. E. 
passes through the village, 49 m. from House's Point and 
69 from Ogdensburg. Pop. 2,777.. 

Burke, t. and p. o., Caledonia co., Verm.: on branches 
of Passumsic r., 34 m. N. E. Montpelier. Burke Mountain 
in the S. E. of the town, is 3,500 feet high. Pop. 1,103. 

Eurke's Garden, p. o., Tazewell co., Virg. : 236 m. W. 
Eichmond. 

Burkesville, p. o., and cap. Cumberland co., Ky. : on 
the N. side of Cumberland r., 103 m. S. by W. Frankfort. 

87 



BUR 



BUR 



Burkesville, p. v., Prince Edward co., Virg. : 54 m. 
W. by S. Richmond. 

Buekeyllle, p. v., and cap. Newton co., Tex. : on Little 
Cow cr. of Sabine r., 232 m. E. by N. Austin City. 

Burkittsville, p. v., Frederick co., Md. : 64 m. N. W. 
Annapolis. 

Burkittsville, p. v., Attala co., Miss. : 73 m. N. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Burleson county, Tex. Situate centrally, on W. side of 
Brazos r., and contains about 1,100 sq. m. Drained by 
Cedar cr. of the Brazos, and by Davidson's, First, Second, 
and Third forks of Tegua cr., which forms its S. border. 
Surface undulating, rising to the N, and prairie interspersed 
with woodland. Soils famous for fertility. Farms 115 ; 
dwell. 224, and pop— wh. 1,213, fr. col. 0, si. 500— total 1,713. 
Capital: Caldwell. 

Burleson, p. y., Franklin co., Ala. : 169 m. N. W. 
Montgomery. 

Burlinghaii, p. v., Panola co., Miss. : 153 m. N. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Burlingham, p. v., Sullivan co., J¥. Y. 

Buelingham, p. v., Meigs co., Ohio: 78 m. S. E. Co- 
lumbus. 

Burlington county, IT. Jer. Situate S., extending from 
the Delaware r. to the Atlantic. Drained by Assumpink, 
Crosswick's, Black's, Craft's, Assiscunk, Rancocus, and Pen- 
saukin creeks of the Delaware, and Wading r. of Little Egg 
Harbor r. Surface level ; soils various, from sand to loamy 
gravel and clay. Bog-iron ore and pine wood abundant ; 
also marl. In Springfield there is a petrifying well. Farms 
1,638 ; manuf. 452 ; dwell. 7,356, and pop.— wh. 21,194, fr. 
col. 2,009, si. 0— total 23,203. Capital : Mount Holly. Pub- 
lic. Works : Camden and Amboy E. R. and Mount Holly 
Branch R. E. 

Burlington, t. and p. v., nartford co., Corm.: on Far- 
mington r., 19 m. W. Hartford. Pop. 1,161. 

Burlington, p. v., East Baton Eouge par., La.: on 
Amilie r., 16 m. N. E. Baton Rouge. 

Burlington, p. v., Carroll co., Ind. : on S. side of Wild 
Cat r., 4S m. N. by W. Indianapolis. 

Burlington, p. o., Kane co., III.: 162 m. N. N. E. 
Springfield. 

Burlington, p. city, and cap. Des Moines co., la. : on 
the W. bank of the Mississippi r., 248 m. above St. Louis, 
and 62 m. S. S. E. Iowa City. The land on which the city 
is built rises gradually from the river to hills, which form 
an amphitheatre around it. It has many fine public edi- 
fices, several mechanical and manufacturing establish- 
ments, and a large commerce. Three newspapers are pub- 
lished, the " Telegraph," tri-weekly and weekly ; and the 
" B. Hawk Eye" (whig), and the " State Gazette" (dem.), 
weekly. One of the Pacific lines of railroad will probably 
have its E. terminus at this point. Burlington was former- 
ly the State capital ; it was laid out in 1833, and in 1S50 
contained a population of 5,129, being the largest city of 
the State. 

Burlington, p. v., and cap. Boone co., Ky. : 57 m. N. by 
E. Erankfort. The "B. Advertiser" (whig) is published 
weekly. 

Burlington, t. and p. o., Penobscot co., Me.: 92 m. 
N. E. Augusta. Pop. 481. 

Buellngton, t. and p. v., Calhoun co., Mich. : on St. 
Joseph r., 49 m. S. S. W. Lansing. Pop. Sll. 

Buelington, t. and p. v., Middlesex co., Mass. : on Shaw- 
sheen r., .14 m. N. W. Boston. Pop. 547. 

Buellngton, t., p. city, and port of entry, Burlington co., 
2T. Jer.: on the E. side of the Delaware, opposite Bristol, 
13 m. S. by W. Trenton, and on the Camden and Amboy 
E. E., 16 m. from Camden. The city is encircled S. and 
E., by a small stream, so as to form an island, which is 
connected with the main by bridges and causeways. Bur- 
lington was founded 167S, and incorporated 17S4. The 
shipping of the district in 1S50 amounted to 7,57S tons. It 
88 



has a newspaper, the " B. Gazette," published weekly ; and 
some manufactures and commerce. The official residence 
of the Protestant Episcopal Bishop of New Jersey is at 
Eiverside in this city. Pop. 5,398. 

Buellngton, t. and p. v., Otsego co., N. Y. : 68 m. W. 
Albany. Pop. 1,835. 

Buellngton, p. v., and cap. Lawrence co., Ohio : on the 
N. bank of Ohio r., at the extreme S. point of the State, 
108 m. S. by E. Columbus. It has various manufactures 
and several public buildings ; and enjoys considerable com- 
merce with the river towns. Pop. 2,529. 

Buelington, t. and p. v., Bradford co., Penn. : on Sugar 
cr., 102 m. N. Harrisburg. 

Burlington, t, p. city, port of entry, and cap. Chitten- 
den co., Term. : on Lake Champlain, 31 m. W. N. W. 
Montpelier. Lat 44° 17', and long. 72° 36' W. Tfee village 
is situate on a bay, which, in the form of a regular curve, 
sets up a little on the E. side of the lake ; on the S. the 
level is low, but on the N. rises to a high bluff, which, dur- 
ing the war of 1812, was strongly fortified. The streets cross 
each other E. and W. and N. and S., forming regular 
squares. Near the centre is a fine area on which the C. H. 
is located. Many of the houses are handsome structures, 
generally surrounded by shrubbery, with gardens in the 
rear; and there are commodious stores and warehouses. 
It is the largest and most convenient place in the State, and 
has a constant connection with the railroads leading through 
New England to Canada and the Great West. The lake is 
here 10 m. wide, and the harbor is protected from W. winds 
by a breakwater. The scenery on all sides is magnificent, 
combining lake and mountain views of great beauty and 
sublimity. The public buildings are the University of 
Vermont: it is an efficient and well-endowed institution, 
and has a medical department ; the co. buildings, banks, 
churches, and several academic edifices. In the neigh- 
borhood are several flourishing manufacturing villages, 
chiefly on Winooski or Onion r. Three newspapers are 
published here, the " B. Sentinel" and " B. Free Press," 
daily and weekly, and the "Courier," weekly. The ship- 
ping owned in the district in 1S50 amounted to 4,530 tons, 
of which 3,096 tons was navigated by steam. The clear- 
ances in the foreign trade in 1849-50, amounted to 342 ves- 
sels, measuring S2,S56 tons, and the entrances to 404 vessels, 
measuring 99,435 tons. The collection district of Burling- 
ton comprises the whole lake shore of Vermont. Pop. 
of t. 7,505. 

Burlington, p. 't., Eacine co., Wise. Pop. 1,629. 

Buelington Flatts, p. o., Otsego co., N. Y. : on Whar- 
tons cr. of Unadilla r., 72 m. W. Albany. 

Buenersville, p. v., Barbour co., Virg. : 178 m. N. W. 
Richmond. 

Buenett, t, and p. v., Dodge co., Wise. : 86 m. N. E. 
Madison. Pop. 816. 

Buenett Coenee, p. o., Dodge co., Wise. : 89 m. N. E. 
Madison. 

Burnett's Creek, p. o., White co., Ind. : 92 m. N. W. 
Indianapolis. 

Burnham Village, p. v., Waldo co., Me. 

Buening Spring, p. o., Wirt co., Virg. : 228 m. W. N. W. 
Eichmond. 

Burns, t. and p. v., Alleghany co., & Y. : on Canasera- 
ga cr., 217 m. W. by S. Albany. The Buffalo and New 
York City E. E. passes through the village, 8 m. from Hor- 
nellsviUe. Pop. 961. 

Burns, t. and p. v., Shiawassee co., Midi. : on Shiawas- 
see r., 34 m. E. Lansing. Pop. 717. 

Buens, p. v., Henry co., III. : 182 m. N. by W. Spring- 
field. 

Burn-side, p. o., Clearfield co., Penn. : 128 m. W. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Burns' Level, p. o., Cumberland co., V. Car. 

BuBNSvrLLE, p. v., and cap. Yancey co., K Car. : 208 m. 
W. Raleigh. 



BUR 



BUT 



Burnsville, p. v., M'Donough co., HI. : 107 m. N. W. 
Springfield. 

Burnsyiixe, p. v., Dallas co., Ala. : 59 m. W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Burnt Cabins, p. o., Fulton co., Perm. : 74 m. W. S. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Burnt Corn, p. o., Monroe co., Ala. : 74 m. S. S. W. 
Montgomery. 

Burnt Hills, p. o., Saratoga co., If. Y. : 23 m. N. 
Albany. 

Burnt Ordinary, p. o., James City co., Virg. : 49 m. E. 
by N. Bichmond. 

Burnt Prairie, p. o., "White co., III. : 198 m. S. E. 
Springfield. 

Burnt Quarter, p. o., Dinwiddie co., Virg. : 88 m. 
S. S. W. Eichmond. 

Burnt Shop, p. o., Orange co., If. Car. 

Burnt Stand, p. o., Carroll co., Ga. : 112 m. N. W. Mil- 
ledge ville. 

Burntville, p. v., Brunswick co., Virg. : 62 m. S. S. W. 
Bichmond. 

Bur Oak, p. o., Mercer co., Mo. : 152 m. N. N. W. Jef- 
ferson City. 

Burrillytlle, t. and p. v., Providence co., P. I. : on 
Branch r. of the Blackstone, 17 m. N. W. Providence. It 
has excellent water-power and some manufactures. Pop. 
3,53S. 

Burr Oaks, t. and p. o., St. Joseph co., Mich. : on Prairie 
r., 74 m. S. S. W. Lansing. The Michigan Southern E. E. 
passes through this place, 110 m. from Monroe, and 138 m. 
from Chicago. 

Burr's Ferry, p. o., Sabine par., La. : on the Sabine r., 
216 m. N. W. by W. Baton Eouge. 

Burr's Mills, p. o., Jefferson co., If. Y.: 138 m. N. W. 
Albany. 

Burrsytlle, p. v., Caroline co., Md. : 44 m. E. S. E. 
Annapolis. 

Burrsyille, p. v., Eussell co., Ala. : 73 m. E. Mont- 
gomery. 

Burrville, p. o., Litchfield co., Conn. : on the line of the 
Naugatuck E. E., 57 m. from Bridgeport, and 23 m. W. by 
N. Hartford. 

Bursonyille, p. v., Bucks co., Perm. : 108 m. E. Har- 
risburg. 

Burton, p. v., Adams co., III. : 126 m. W. Springfield. 

Burton, t. and p. v., Cattaraugus co., If. Y. : {see Alle- 
ghany). Pop. 1,037. 

Burton, t. and p. v., Geauga co., Ohio : on Cuyahoga r., 
141 m. N. E. Columbus. Pop. 1,064. 

Burton's, p. o., Tishemingo co., Miss. : 206 m. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Burton's Corners, p. o., Boone co., III. : 292 m. N. by 
E. Springfield. 

Burtons ville, p. v., Montgomery co., If. Y. : 32 in. W. 
by 1ST. Albany. 

Burtonsvtlle, p. v., Darien co., Ky. : 129 m. W. by S. 
Frankfort. 

Burtonton, p. y., Copiah co., Miss. : on Bayou Pierre, 
38 m. S. W. Jackson. 

Burtyille, p. v., M'Kean co., Perm. 

Burwell's bay, p. o., Isle of Wight co., Virg. : on a bay 
of James r. so called, 63 m. S. E. Bichmond. 

Busbayyille, p. v., Houston co., Ga. : 42 m. S. W. Mil- 
ledgeYille. 

Bush Kill, p. o., Pike co., Perm. : 142 m. N. E. Har- 
risburg. 

Bushnell's Basin, p. o., Monroe co., If. Y. : on the Erie 
Canal, 256 m. from Albany, and 108 m. from Buffalo. 

Bushnellsville, p. v., Greene co., If. Y. : 43 m. S. by W. 
Albany. 

Busn's Mills, p. o., Lewis co., Virg. : 194 m. W. N. W. 
Eichmond. 

Bush's Store, p. o., Laurel co., Ky. : at the head of the 

M 



S. fork of Eock Castle cr. of Cumberland r., 92 m. S. S. E, 
Frankfort. 

Bushville, p. v., Franklin co., Ga. : 9S m. N. by E. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Bushwice, t., King's co., K Y. : on Newtown cr., 149 
m. S. by E. Albany. Pop. 3.739. 

Bushy Creek, p. o., Williamson co., Tex. : 22 m. N. 
Austin City. 

Business Corner, p. o., Yan Buren co., la. : 62 m. S. by 
W. Iowa City. 

Buskirk's Bridge, p. o., Washington co., If. Y. : on 
Hoosic r., 24 m. N. E. Albany, and on the Troy and Boston 
E. E., 21 m. from Troy. 

Busti, t. and p. v., Chautauque co., If. Y. : on the S. side 
of Chautauque Lake, 283 m. W. S. W. Albany. P. 1,991. 

Bustleton, p. o., Philadelphia co., Perm. : 93 m. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Butcher's Store, p. o., Eandolph co., Virg. : 162 m. 
W. N. W. Eichmond. 

Bute Creek, p. o., Marion co., Oreg. Ter. : on the creek 
so called, 23 m. N. E. Salem. 

Buteyille, p. v., Marion co., Oreg. Ter. : at the mouth 
of Bute cr., 18 m. N". E. Salem. 

Butler county, Ala. Situate centrally in S. disk, and 
contains 964 sq. m. Drained in the S. and E. by tributa- 
ries of Conecuh r., and in the 1ST. W. by creeks of Alabama 
r. Surface undulating, and soils of average fertility. Corn 
and cotton are the chief products. Farms 553 ; manuf. 14 ; 
dwell. 1,210, and pop.— wh. 7,162, fr. col. 35, si. 3,639— total 
10,836. Capital : Greenville. 

Butler county, la. Situate N. E., and contains 576 
sq. m. Taken from Pottowattomie in 1S51. 

Butler county, Ky. Situate W. centrally, and contains 
560 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Green r., which runs 
through it. Surface irregular, and soils fertile, producing 
wheat, Indian corn, and tobacco. Farms 629 ; manuf. S ; 
dwell. 897, and pop.— wh. 5,056, fr. col. IS, si. 6S1— total 
5,755. Capital: Morgantown. 

Butler county, Mo. Situate S. E. on State line, and con- 
tains 640 sq. m. Drained by St. Francois, Big Black, and 
Little Black rivers. Surface prairie, and there is consider- 
able marsh in the county. Soils very fertile. Farms 143 ; 
dwell, 265, and pop.— wh, 1,563, fr. col. 0, si. 53— total 
1,616. Capital: Butler C. H. 

Butler county, Ohio. Situate S. W. on State line, and 
contains 484 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Miami r., 
which traverses the county from N. E. to S. W. Surface 
uneven. Soils of excellent quality, producing wheat, corn, 
and oats abundantly, and excellent timber. Farms 2,262 ; 
manuf. 269 ; dwell. 5,315, and pop.— wh. 30,429, fr. col. 360 
—total 30,789. Capital : Hamilton. Public Works : Mia- 
mi Canal ; Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Dayton E. E. : Ham- 
ilton, Eaton and Eichmond E. E., etc. 

Butler county, Penn. Situate W. centrally, and eon- 
tains 824 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Alleghany and 
Bear rivers. Surface uneven, but the soils highly fertile. 
Wheat, Indian com, buckwheat, etc., are the chief products. 
Iron is found. Farms 2,945 ; manuf. 148 ; dwell. 5,254, and 
pop.— wh. 30,262, fr. col. 84— total 30,346. Capital : Butler. 
Public Works : Pennsylvania and Ohio E. E. 

Butler, p. v., De Kalb co., Ind. : 122 m. N. E. Indian- 
apolis. 

Butler, p. v., Baltimore co., Md. 

Butler, p. v., Eichland co., Ohio : 52 m. N. by E. 
Columbus. 

Butler, t. and p. v., Wayne co., If. Y. : 159 m. W by 
N. Albany. Pop. 2,272. 

Butler, p. v., and cap. Choctaw co., Ala. : 112 in. W. by 
S. Montgomery. 

Butler, t., p. v., and cap. Butler co., Penn. : on Cone- 
quenessing cr. of Beaver r., 162 m. W. by N. Harrisburg. 
It is a handsome v., with some manufactures, and has three 
newspapers, the " Butler County Whig," the " Democratic 

S9 



BUT 



CAD 



Herald," aud the " Butler Democrat," issued weekly. Pop. 
1,154. 

Butler, p. v., Franklin par., La. : 117 rn. W". Baton 
Rouge. 

Butlee, p. v., Milwaukie co., Wise. : 146 m. E. Madison. 

Butler, p. v., Fulton co., Ky. : 264 m. W. S. W. Frankfort. 

Butlee, p. v., Keokuk co., la. : 52 m. S. "W. Iowa 
City. 

Bitti.ee, p. v., and cap. Dodge co., Mo. : 156 m. N. by W. 
Jefferson City. 

Butler's Landing, p. o., Jackson co., Tenn.: on E. 
side of Cumberland r., 69 m. E. N. E. Nashville. 

Butleesyille, p. t., Anderson dist., S. Car. : IIS m. 
"W. by N. Columbia. 

Butlervtlle, p. v., Butler co., Ala. : 116 m. "W. by N. 
Montgomery. 

Butlervtllle, p. v., "Warren co., Ohio : 73 m. S. "W. 
Columbus. 

Buttahatctty, p. o., Monroe co., Miss. : on r. so called, 
173 m. N. E. Jackson. 

Butte county, Calif. Situate N. E. between Sacramento 
r. and the E. State line. Drained chiefly by Feather r. 
and its branches, and also by numerous streams tributary 
directly to the Sacramento. The whole is included in the 
Gold Region, and has been very productive of that metal. 
Much of the soil, especially of the valleys, is rich and fer- 
tile, and well adapted to agricultural purposes. Pop. in 
1S50, about 4,7S6. 

Butte des Morts lakes, Wise. : these lakes are expan- 
sions of the Neenah or Fox r. Great Butte des Morts lake, 
4J m. above Lake "Winnebago, is 3-J m. long and from 1 to 
2 m. wide, and Little Butte des Morts lake, immediately 
below "Winnebago rapids, is 4^ m. long and about a mile 
wide. 

Butte des Moets, t. and p. o., "Winnebago co., Wise. : 
on Fox r., 152 m. N. N. E. Madison. The town takes its 
name from some mounds within it, which tradition says are 
the resting place {Hills of the Dead) of Indians slain in a 
great battle. These are now grown over with grass, and 
present much the same appearance as the ancient mounds 
so profusely scattered through the West. 

Buttevllle, p. v., Sutter co., Calif. : on the E. side of 
Sacramento r., 76 m. N. by E. Vallejo. 

Butterfly, p. o., Oswego co., N. T. : 141 m. "W. N. "W. 
Albany. 

Buttermilk Channel, .A 7 ". T. : the passage between Long 
Island and Governor's Island, in the harbor of New York. 

Buttermilk Falls, p. o., Orange co., A 7 ! T. : on Hudson 
r., S4 m. S. Albany. The falls from which the p. o. is 
named are 2 m. below "West Point, and consist of a beauti- 
ful and romantic cascade falling into the Hudson r. 

Butternut Eldge, p. o., Sandusky co., Ohio : 9S m. N. 
Columbus. 

Butternuts, t. and p. v., Otsego co., A! T. : on Butter- 
nuts and Unadilla creeks, S3 m. "W. by S. Albany. The 
p. o. was formerly named Gilbertsville. Pop. 1,927. 

Butt's county, Ga. Situate centrally, and contains 3S6 
sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Ockmulgee r. Surface 
level and soils good. Cotton and Indian corn are the prin- 
cipal products. Farms 391 ; manuf. 14 ; dwell. 642, and 
pop.— wh. 3,6S0, fr. col. 3, si. 2,S05— total 6,4S8. Capital : 
Jackson. 

Butztown, p. v., Northampton co., Penn. : 94 m. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Buxton, t and p. v., York co., Me. : on E. side of Saco r, 
62 m. S. "W. Augusta. The r. has here a fall of SO feet, and 
furnishes excellent water-power. Pop. 2,995. 

Buxton Centre, p. o., York co., Ms. : 63 m. S. W. 
Augusta. 

Butcksvtlle, p. v., Coosa co., Ala. : 31 m. N. Mont- 
gomery. 

Buzzard's Boost, p. o., Franklin co., Ala. : IS m. W". 
Tuscumbia. and 207 N. W. Montgomery. 
90 



Bvbeert, t. and p. o., Philadelphia co., Penn. : on Po- 
quessing cr., 9S m. E. by S. Harrisburg. 

Bteesville, p. v., Livingston co., JST. T.: 202 m. W. 
Albany. 

Btesvtlle, p. v., Guernsey co., Ohio : 79 m. E. Columbus. 

Btfield, p. v., Essex co., Mass. : on Parker r., which has 
falls, and furnishes good water-power, 28 m. N. by E. 
Boston. Dummer Academy, founded by the lieutenant- 
governor of that name in 1756, is located here. 

Byhalia, p. v., Marshall co., Miss. : 167 m. N. Jackson. 

Btington, p. o., Pike co., Ohio : 60 m. S. Columbus. 

Btler's Mill, p. o., Morgan co., Mo. : on a cr. of Osage 
r., 54 m. "W. S. "W. Jefferson City. 

Bykneville, p. v., Harrison co., Ind. : 113 m. S. Indian- 
apolis. 

Byron, p. v., La Porte co., Ind. : on the line of the 
Northern Indiana R. E., 128 m. N. by "W. Indianapolis. 

Byron, p. v., Greene co., Ohio : 52 m. S. "W. Columbus. 

Byron, p. v., Ogle co., III. : on the "W. side Rock r., 146 
m. N. by E. Springfield. 

Byron, p. v., Oxford co., Me. : 49 m. W. by N. Augusta. 

Byron, p. o., Shiawassee co., Mich. : on the E. side of 
Shiawassee r., 32 m. E. by N. Lansing. 

Byron, t, and p. v., Genessee co., K. Y. : on Black cr. of 
Genessee r., 217 m. "W. Albany. There are several sulphur 
springs in the town. The Buffalo and Rochester E. R. 
passes through the village, 51 m. from Buffalo. P. 1,566. 

Byron, t. and p. v., Fond du Lac co., Wise. : 106 m. 
N. N. E. Madison, and 6 m. S. of the base of Lake "Winne- 
bago. Pop. SS2. 



c. 



Cabareas county, AT Car. Situate S. "W., and contains 
432 sq. m. Drained by the tributaries of Rocky r. of the 
Yadkin. Surface hilly and somewhat broken; and soils 
of average fertility, producing wheat, Indian corn, and 
cotton largely. Farms S75; manuf. 44; dwell. 1,296, and 
pop.— wh. 6,943, fr. col. 119, si. 2,685— total 9,747 Capital : 
Concord. 

Cabell county, Yirg. Situate "W. on Ohio r., and con- 
tains 6S0 sq. m. Drained chiefly by the tributaries of Guy- 
andotte r., which flows throughout it. Surface hilly and 
broken, and the soils indifferent. "Wheat and Indian corn 
are the chief products. Coal is plentiful. Farms 498 ; 
manuf. 33 ; dwell. 976, and pop.— wh. 5,904, fr. col. 6, si. 3S9 
— total 6,299. Capital: Cabell C. H. Pullia Works: 
Guyandotte R. R. 

Cabell C. H., p. v., and cap. Cabell co., Yirg. : 278 m. 
"W. Richmond. 

Cabin Creek, p. o., Lewis co., Ky. : on a creek so called 
of the Ohio r., 86 m. E. N. E. Frankfort. 

Cabin Hill, p. o., Delaware co., A 7 ". Y. : 63 m. S. "W. 
Albany. 

Cabin Hill, p. o., Elkhart co., Ind. : 12S m. N. Indian- 
apolis. 

Cabin Point, p. v., Surrey co., Yirg. : near Chipoak cr. 
of James r., 38 m. S. E. Richmond. 

Cabotyille (See Chicopee). 

Cabot, t. and p. o., Caledonia co., Yerm. : 17 m. N. E. 
Montpelier. Pop. 1,356. 

Cacapon Dep6t, p. o., Morgan co., Yirg. : on Great 
Cacapon cr. of the Potomac, 146 m. N. by W. Richmond, 
and by the Baltimore and Ohio E. R., 133 m. from Balti- 
more. 

Cacaponvtlle, p. v., Hampshire co., Yirg. : on Little 
Cacapon cr., 142 m. N. by W. Richmond. 

Cachemasso, p. o., Dallas co., Ark. : 53 m. S. Little 
Rock. 

Caddo parish, La. Situate N. W\ between Red r. and 
State line, and contains 1,036 sq. m. Well drained by 
creeks and bayoux of Eed r. Lake Caddo occupies the 



CAD 



CAL 



whole centre of the county. Farms 305 ; dwell. 742, and 
pop— wh. 3,637, fr. col. 89, si. 5,208— total 8,8S4. Capital : 
Shreveport. 

Caddo, p. v., Caddo par., La. : on Caddo Lake, 218 m. 
N. W. Baton Rouge. 

Caddo Cove, p. o., Montgomery co., Ark. : on Fourche 
Caddo, 78 m. "W. S. "W. Little Rock. 

Cade's Cove, p. o., Blount co., Tenn.: on a cr. of Ten- 
nessee r., 173 m. E. S. E. Nashville. 

Cadiz, p. v., Henry co., Ind.': on Duck or., 37 m. 
E. by N. Indianapolis. 

Cadiz, t. and p. v., Greene co., Wise. : 41 m. S. S. W. 
Madison. Pop. 459- 

Cadiz, p. v., and cap. Trigg co., Ky. : on Little r. of the 
Cumberland, 9 m. above its confluence, 172 m. W. S. W. 
Frankfort. 

Cadiz, t, p. v., and cap. Harrison co., Ohio : 102 m. E. by 
N. Columbus. It is a thriving village, has considerable 
trade with the neighborhood, and has two newspapers, the 
" C. Republican" (whig), and the " C. Sentinel" (dem.), is- 
sued weekly. Pop. of v. 1,144, and t. 2,453. 

Cadeon, p. v., Conway co., Ark. : on the N. side of Ar- 
kansas r., where Cadron cr. enters it, 83 m. N. N. W. Little 
Rock. 

Cadwallader, p. o., Tuscarawas co., Ohio: 84 m. 
E. by N. Columbus. 

Cadyvtlle, p. v., Clinton co., K. Y. : on N. side of Sar- 
anac r., 7 m. from its mouth at Plattsburg, and 136 m. N. 
Albany. 

Cagevtlle, p. v., Haywood co., Teim. : 162 m. W. by S. 
Nashville. 

Cahaba, p. v., and cap. Dallas co., Ala. : on the W. bank 
of Alabama r., immediately below the confluence of the 
Cahaba r., 49 m. "W. by S. Montgomery. It has considerable 
river trade, and is the centre of a fine agricultural coun- 
try dependent on it for a market. The " Dallas Gazette" 
(dem.) is issued weekly. 

Cahaba river, Ala. : a large tributary of the Alabama r., 
which it joins at Cahaba v., 195 m. above the confluence of 
the Alabama and Tombigbee. 

Cains, p. o., Gwinnett co., Ga. : 78 m. N. W. Milledge- 
ville. 

Caks, p. v., Lancaster co., Pemi. : 42 m. S. E. Harris- 
burg. 

Cainsville, p. v., "Wilson co., Tenn. : on a cr. of Stone's 
r., 31 m. E. by S. Nashville. 

Caktuok, p. v., New Hanover co., 2T. Oar.: 103 m. 
S. S. E. Raleigh. 

Ca Ira, p. v., Cumberland co., Virg. : on "Willis r., 4S m. 
above its confluence with James r., and 46 m. W. S. W. 
Richmond. 

Cairo, p. v., Decatur co., Ga. : at the head of Little r. of 
the Ocklockony, 150 m. S. S. W. Milledgeville. 

Cairo, p. city, Alexander co., 111. : on the extreme S. 
point of the State, at the confluence of the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi r., 176 m. S. Springfield. It is destined to become 
an important commercial centre. The ground on which it 
is planned is low and liable to inundation, but by building 
levies round the river fronts this may be prevented. The 
city is the property of a company, and great pains have been 
taken to improve its natural facilities. The Central E. E. to 
Galena and Chicago commences here, and on the opposite 
side of the river the Mobile and Ohio R. E. will terminate — 
both these great works are in progress. 
Cairo, p. v., Stark co., Ohio : 103 m. N. E. Columbus. 
Cairo, p. v., Henderson co., Ky. : 163 m. "W. by S. 
Frankfort. 

Cairo, t. and p. v., Greene co., N. Y. : on Catskill cr., 
26 m. S. W. Albany. Pop. 2,831. 

Cairo, p. v., Edgefield dist., S. Car. : 76 m. W. S. W. Co- 
lumbia. 

Calais, t. and p. v., Washington co., Me. : at the head of 
Cavigation of St. Croix r., 133 m. E. N. E. Augusta. It is 



connected with Baring by a railroad, and a bridge is thrown 
over the St. Croix, below tho lower falls of that r., connect- 
ing it with the British territory. Extensive water-power is 
afforded by the river falls. The tide here rises 20 feet, and 
vessels of the largest class ascend to the lower village. Its 
trade is chiefly in lumber. Three newspapers are printed 
in Calais — the " C. Advertiser" (whig), the "Frontier Jour- 
nal" (dem.), and the "Sentinel" (whig) — all published 
weekly. Pop. 4,753. 

Calais, p. t., Washington co., Verm. : on the head 
branches of Onion r., 9 m. N. N. E. Montpelier. P. 1,410. 
Calais, p.v., Monroe co., Ohio : 108 m. E by S. Columbus. 
Calamus, t. and p. o., Dodge co., Wise. : on a cr. of 
Beaver Dam r., 34 m. N. E. Madison. Pop. 413. 

Calapooya, p. v., Linn co., Oreg. Ter. : on a cr. of the 
same name, 39 m. S. Salem. The cr. falls into the Willa- 
mette r. at Albany. 
Calaubria, p. v., Rowan co., N. Car. : 108 m.W. Raleigh. 
Calaveras river, Calif. : a tributary of the San Joaquin 
r. from the Sierra Nevada. The gold washings of this 
stream have been very productive. 

Calaveras county, CaUf. Situate centrally on E. State 
line. Drained by the Mokolumne, Calaveras, and several 
of the branches of Stanislaus r. Surface eastward, moun- 
tainous — in the west, a plain declining to the San Joaquin 
r. Throughout it is rich in gold, and its agricultural ca- 
pacities are ample. Pop. in 1850 about 16,884. 

Calcasieu river, La. : rises in Natchitoches parish, S. W. 
of Red r., and flows in a generally S. course to the Gulf of 
Mexico. Near its mouth it expands into a lake about 20 
m. long and from 1 to 10 m. wide. The tide rises to the 
head of the lake, but both lake and river are too shallow 
for a certain navigation. 

Calcasieu parish, La. Situate S. W., between Sabine r. 
and Bayou Mermenteau, and contains 5,400 sq. m. Drain- 
ed chiefly by Calcasieu r. and its numerous tributaries. 
Surface low, swampy, and containing several large lagoons. 
Cotton and sugar are the principal products. Farms 239 ; 
dwell. 548, and pop— wh. 2,716, fr. col. 241, si. 957— total 
3,914. Capital: Lisbon. 

Calcutta, p. v., Columbiana co., Ohio : 130 m. E. by S. 
Columbus. Pop. 147. 

Caldwell coimty, Ky. Situate "W. on Tennessee r., and 
contains 586 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of the Ten- 
nessee and Cumberland, the latter of which runs through 
it, and by the Treadwater cr. of the Ohio r. Surface level 
or undulating, and soils fertile, producing largely of wheat, 
Indian corn, oats, and tobacco. Iron is found in the county. 
Farms 889 ; manuf. 35 ; dwell. 1,746, and pop.— wh. 9,S09, 
fr. col. 132, si. 3,107— total 13,048. Capital: Eddyville. 

Caldwell parish, La. Situate centrally in W. Dist,, and 
contains 576 sq. m. Drained by Wachita r. and tributaries. 
Surface E. level and alluvial — W. finely varied with hill 
and dale. Farms 185 ; manuf. 1 ; dwell. 300, and pop.— 
wh. 1,5S4, fr. col. 0, si. 1,231— total 2,815. Capital: Co- 
lumbia. 

Caldwell county, Mo. Situate N. W. middle, and eon- 
tains 432 sq. m. Surface level prairie. Drained by Shoal 
cr., the W. fork of Grand River, and other streams. Soil 
everywhere fertile. Farms 232 ; manuf. 7 ; dwell. 85S, and 
pop— wh. 2,176, fr. col. 4, si. 136— total 2,316. Capital: 
Kingston. 

Caldwell county, -K Car. Situate N. W. at the E. base 
of the Blue Ridge, and contains 720 sq. m. Drained by 
tributaries of Catawba r., which bounds it S., and by the 
head waters of Yadkin r. Surface elevated and hilly — in 
the W. mountainous. Soils fertile, and grain crops abun- 
dant. Farms 366; manuf. 8; dwell. 926, and pop. — -wh. 
5,006, fr. col. 108, si. 1,203— total 8,317. Capital: Lenoir. 

Caldwell county, Tex. Situate centrally on N. E. side 
of San Marco of the Guadalupe r., and contains 632 sq. m. 
Drained by Plum and other creeks. Surface elevated and 
rolling — chiefly prairie, but in N.W. somewhat hilly. Farms 

91 



CAL 



CAL 



51 ; dwell. 174, and pop.— wh. 1,054, fr. col. 1, si. 274— total 
1,829. Capital: Lockhart. 

Caldwell, p. v., Orange co., N. Car. : 48 m. N. W. 
Ealeigh. 

Caldwell, t. and p. o., Essex co., N. Jer. : on Deep and 
Green Brooks of the Passaic r., 51 m. N. N. "W". Trenton. 
It has considerable manufactures. Pop. 2,476. 

Caldwell, t, and p. v., "Warren co., J¥. T. : at the head 
of Lake George, 49 m. N. Albany. There is a regular 
steamboat communication between this village and the out- 
let of the lake near Ticonderoga. The ruins of Fort Wil- 
liam Henry and Fort George are near this place, and are 
objects of interest to summer travelers, who resort to this 
neighborhood in great numbers. Pop. 752. 

Caldwell, p. v., and cap. Burleson co., Tex. : on David- 
son's cr. of the Yegua, a tributary of Brazos r., 54 m. E. N. E. 
Austin City. 

Caldwell's, p. o., Washita par., La. : 148 m. N. N. W. 
Baton Rouge. 

Caldwell's Peaieie, p. o., Eacine co., Wise. : 72 m. 
E. S. E. Madison. 

Caledonia county, Verm. Situate N. E. on Connecticut 
r., and contains 718 sq. m. Drained chiefly by Fassumsic 
and Wells rivers, and contains also the head streams of 
Lamoille and Onion rivers. Surface finely varied, and in 
the W. hilly. A great portion of the county has good soils, 
producing wheat and other grain, and affording sustenance 
to numerous cattle and sheep. Limestone and granite- 
abound, and there are several sulphur springs. Farms 
2,754; manuf. 245; dwell. 4,231, and pop.— wh. 23,081, fr. 
col. 5— total 23,086. Capita I: Danville. Public Works: 
Connecticut and Passumsic Eivers E. B., etc. 

Caledonia, p. v., Pulaski co., III. : on the Ohio r., 13 m. 
above its junction with the Mississippi, and 163 S. Spring- 
field. 

Caledonia, t. and p. v., Eacine co., Wise. : on Eoot r., 
87 m. E. S. E. Madison. Pop. 1,098. 

Caledonia, p. v., Eusk co., Tex. : 233 m. N. E. Austin 
City. 

Caledonia, p. v., Lowndes co., Miss. : on the S. side of 
Buttahatchee r. of Little Tombigbee r., 146 m. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Caledonia, t. and p. o., Kent co., Mich. : on Thorn- 
apple r., 44 m. W. by N. Lansing. Pop. 99. 

Caledonia, p. v., Washington co., Mo. : on the S. side of 
Big r. of the Maramec r., 93 m. S. E. Jefferson City. The 
neighborhood abounds in minerals. 

Caledonia, p. v., Moore co., H. Car. : on a cr. of Deep 
r., 61 m. W. S. W. Ealeigh. 

Caledonia, p. v., Marion co., Ohio : on the W. side of 
the W. branch of "Whetstone r., 46 m. N. Columbus. 

Caledonia, p. v., Elk co., Penn. : 132 m. N. W. Harris- 
burg. 

Caledonia, t. and p. v., Livingston co., A T . Y. ; 193 m. 
W. Albany. The town is drained by Genessee r., and has 



a fertile soil. The Buffalo, Corning, and New York E. E. 
passes through it to a junction with the Canandaigua and 
Niagara Falls E. E. Pop. 1,804. 

Caledonia, p. v., Henry co., T&nm. : 98 m. W. Nash- 
ville. 

Calf Island, a small island in Detroit r., near its mouth, 
and near Goose Island. 

Calhoun county, Flor. Situate in W. Florida on the 
Gulf, and contains 1,2S0 sq. m. Drained by Chipola r., and 
the Appalachieola, which forms its E. border. Surface low, 
and in some parts swampy. Soils excellent. Farms 63 ; 
manuf. 1; dwell. 165; and pop.— wh. 836, fr. col. 38, si. 
453— total 1,377. Capital: St. Joseph. Public Works: 
St. Joseph and Iola E. E. 

Calhoun county, III. Situate W. between the Illinois 
and Mississippi rivers, and contains 236 sq. m. Drained by 
Bay and other creeks. Surface elevated in the interior, and 
along the border rivers are high bluffs and extended allu- 
vial bottoms. Farms 205 ; dwell. 600, and pop.— wh. 3,230, 
fr. col. 1— total 3,231. Capital : Hardin. 

Caluotjn county, Mich. Situate S. centrally, and con- 
tains 720 sq. m. Drained by St. Joseph and Kalamazoo 
rivers. Surface undulating and finely lumbered ; soils rich 
and loamy. Sandstone is abundant on the Kalamazoo. 
Farms 1,724 ; manuf. 61 ; dwell. 3,433, and pop.— wh. 18,965> 
fr. col. 197— total 19,162. Capital : Marshall. Public Works: 
Michigan Central E. E. 

Calhoun county, Tex. Situate S. W. on Matagorda and 
Espiritu Santo bays, and contains about 560 sq. m. Mata- 
gorda island is included within this county. Drained by 
rivers and creeks falling into the adjacent bays. Surface 
low, and near the coast sandy ; the soils of the interior are 
rich and productive. Farms 22 ; dwell. 1S2, and pop. — wh. 
S76, fr. col. 0, si. 234— total 1,110. Capital : Port Lavaca. 

Calhoun, p. v., Autauga co., Ala. : 22 m. N. W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Calhoun, p. v., and cap. Gordon co., 6a. : on the line 
of the Western and Atlantic E. E., SO m. from Atlanta, and 
146 N. W. Milledgeville. 

Calhoun, p. v., Lumpkin co., 6a. : 137 m. N. N. W. 
Milledgeville. 

Calhoun, p. v., La Fayette co., Ark. : 118 m. S. by W. 
Little Eock. 

Calhoun, p. v., Henry co., Mo. : at the head of Tebo cr. 
of the Osage r., 79 m. W. by S. Jefferson City. 

Calhoun, p. v., Daviess co., Ey. : 161 m. W. by S. Frank- 
fort. 

Calhoun, p. v., Anderson dist., S. Car. : 103 m. N. W. 
Columbia. 

Calhoun, p. v., M'Minn co., Tenn. : on the N. side of 
Hiwassee r., 126 m. E. S. E. Nashville. 

Calhoun, p. v., Eichland co., III. : 102 m. S. E. Spring- 
field. 

Calhoun's Mills, p. o., Abbeville dist., S. Car. : 92 m. 
W. Columbia. 



THE STATE OF CALIFOENIA. 

California occupies all that portion of California Alta* westward of the following line, to wit — beginning at the 
intersection o f 42° north latitude, and 120° longitude west from Greenwich, or 42° 5S' from Washington ; thence south 
in a direct course to 39° north latitude ; thence south-east to where the Eio Colorado intersects the parallel of 35° north 
latitude and thence down the mid channel of that river to the boundary between the United States and Mexico. Within 
these limits the surface measures 18S,981 square miles, or 120,947,S40 acres. 

This grand division of California (the only part, indeed, to which the name properly applies) is traversed from N. to S. 
by two principal ranges of mountains, called respectively Sierra Xevacla, which divides the region from the great basin, 
and the Coast Range, running almost parallel to and at a short distance from the Pacific coast. The main feature of this 
region is the long, low, broad valley of the San Joaquin and Sacramento rivers — the two valleys forming one — 500 miles 
long and 50 miles broad. Lateral ranges, parallel with the Sierra, make the structure of the country, and break it into a 



* California Alta in its full extent, as acquired of Mexico, lies between 32° and 42' N. lat., and 100" and 124' W long., and is bounded N. by 
Oregon, E. toy tlie crest of the Rocky Mountains, S. by the Rio Gila and California Baja, and \V. by the Pacific Ocean, on which it has a front 
of 9UO m. The area included within those limits is 448,691 sq. m. This extensive territory is now divided into the State of California, Utah 
Territorv. and (in part) the Territory of New Mexico 

" 92 



CALIFORNIA. 



surface of valleys and mountains — the valleys a few hundreds, and the mountains 2,000 to 4,000 feet above the sea. 
These form greater masses and become more elevated in the north, where some peaks, as the Shast6, enter the 
regions of perpetual snows. The great valley is discriminated only by the names of the rivers that traverse it. It is a 
single geographical formation, lying between the two ranges, and stretching across the head of the Bay of San Fran- 
cisco, with which a delta of 25 miles connects it. The two rivers rise at opposite ends of this long valley, receive numerous 
affluents— many of them bold rivers, becoming themselves navigable rivers — flow toward each other, meet half way, 
and enter the bay together in the region of tide water : making a continuous water line from one end to the other. The 
resources of this valley, mineral and agricultural, are immense, and perhaps no part of the world affords greater facil- 
ities for easy development. Gold and quicksilver are the most valuable of its mineral products. The soil and climate, 
though varying much with locality, are generally well suited for agriculture. "Westward of the rivers, the soil is -chiefly 
dry and unproductive ; but on the east side the country is well watered and luxuriantly fertile, being intersected by 
numerous fine streams, forming large and beautiful bottoms of rich land, wooded principally with white oaks. The foot 
hills of the Sierra, which limit the valley, make a woodland country, diversified with undulating grounds and pretty 
vales. Near the Tulare Lakes, and on the margins of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, the surface is composed 
of level plains, gradually changing into undulating, and rolling toward the mountains. The region west of the Coast 
Eange to the Pacific — the only portion inhabited before the discovery of gold — has long been the seat of numerous 
missions ; and around these, generally situated in the most lovely vales, agriculture has converted the country into a 
perfect garden. All the cereals of temperate regions are cultivated, and the olive and grape thrive luxuriantly. "Wheat 
is the first product of the north. The moisture of the coast seems particularly suited to the cultivation of roots, and to 
vegetables used for culinary purposes, which, in fact, grow to an extraordinary size. Few localities, indeed, can produce 
in such perfection so great a variety of grains and fruits. 

The coasts of California are generally precipitous and rugged ; and in relation to their extent present few good harbors. 
The bays of San Diego, Monterey, and San Francisco, are the finest, and their capacities extensive. San Francisco 
Bay is one of the most important in the world, not merely as a harbor, but also and mainly from the accessory advant- 
ages which belong to it — fertile and picturesque dependent country, general mildness of climate, connection with the 
great central valley, etc. When these advantages are taken into account, with its geographical position on the line of 
communication with Asia, its importance rises superior to all contingencies. Its latitudinal position is that of Lisbon ; 
its climate that of Italy ; bold shores and mountains give it grandeur ; the extent and resources of its dependent country 
are the cynosure of the world. The bay is separated from the sea by low mountain ranges, and only a narrow gate, 
about a mile wide, affords an entrance. It is land-locked in every sense of the word, and protected on all sides from 
the weather. Passing through this narrow entrance, the bay opens to the right and left, extending in each direction 
about 35 miles, having a total length of TO and a coast of 275 miles. It is divided by projecting points and straits into 
three separate compartments, of which the northern two are called San Pablo and Suisson bays. The surface is much 
broken by numerous islands — some mere rocks, and others grass-covered, rising to the height of 300 to 800 feet. Directly 
fronting the entrance, mountains, a few miles from the shore, rise about 2,000 feet above the water, crowned by forests 
of lofty cypress, which are visible from the sea, and make a conspicuous landmark for vessels entering the bay. Behind, 
the rugged peak of Mt. Diavolo, 3,770 feet high, overlooks the surrounding country of the bay and the San Joaquin. 

The shore presents a varied character of rugged and broken hills, rolling and undulating land, and rich alluvial tracts, 
backed by fertile and wooded ranges, suitable for towns, villages, and farms, with which it is beginning to be over- 
spread. Such is the bay and proximate country and shore of San Francisco. It is not a mere indentation of the coast, 
but a little sea to itself, connected with the ocean by a defensible gate. The head of the bay is about 40 miles distant 
from the sea, and there commences its connection with the noble valley of the San Joaquin and Sacramento. 

The climate of California is so remarkable in its periodical changes, and for the long continuance of the wet and dry 
seasons, dividing as they do the year into about two equal parts, which have a most peculiar influence on the labor applied 
to agriculture and the products of the soil, and, in fact, connect themselves so inseparably with all the interests of the 
country, that it is deemed proper briefly to mention the causes which produce these changes, and which, it will be seen, 
must exercise an important and controlling influence on the commercial prosperity and resources of the country. 
It is a well-established theory, that the currents of the air under which the earth passes in its diurnal revolutions, follow 
the line of the sun's greatest attraction. These currents of air are drawn toward this line from great distances on each 
side of it, and, as the earth revolves from west to east, they blow from north-east and south-east, meeting, and, of course, 
causing a calm on the line. Thus, when the sun is directly, in common parlance, over the equator, in the month 
of March, these currents of air blow from some distance north of the Tropic of Cancer and south of the Tropic of 
Capricorn in an oblique direction toward this line of the sun's greatest attraction, and form what are known as the north- 
east and south-east trade- winds. As the earth in its path round the sun gradually brings the line of attraction north in 
summer, these currents of air are carried with it ; so that about the middle of May the current from the north-east has 
extended as far the 38th or 39th degree of north latitude, and by the 20th of June, the period of the sun's greatest 
northern inclination, to the northern portions of California and the southern section of Oregon. These north-east winds, 
in their progress across the continent toward the Pacific Ocean, pass over the snow-capped ridges of the Eocky Mount- 
ains and the Sierra Nevada, and are, of course, deprived of all the moisture which can be extracted from them by the 
low temperature of those regions of eternal snow ; and consequently no moisture can be precipitated from them, in 
the form of dew or rain, in a higher temperature than that to which they have been subjected. They therefore pass 
over the hills and plains of California, where the temperature is very high in summer, in a very dry state ; and, so 
far from being charged with moisture, they absorb, like a sponge, all that the atmosphere and surface of the earth can 
yield, until both become apparently perfectly dry. This process commences when the line of the sun's greatest attrac- 
tion comes north in summer, bringing with it these vast atmospheric movements, which on their approach produce the 
dry season in California, which, governed by these laws, continues until some time after the sun repasses the equator in 
September ; when, about the middle of November, the climate being relieved from these north-east currents of air, the 
south-west winds set in from the ocean, charged with moisture, the rains commence, and continue to fall— not constantly, 
as some persons have represented, but with sufficient frequency to designate the period of their continuance— from about 
the middle of November until the middle of May, in the latitude of San Francisco— as the wet season. It follows, as a 
matter of course, that the dry season commences first and continues longest in the southern portions of the State, and 
that the climate of the northern part is influenced in a much less degree by the causes heretofore mentioned than 
any other section of the country. Consequently, we find, that as low down as latitude 39°, rains are sufficiently frequent 

93 



CALIFORNIA. 



in summer to render irrigation quite unnecessary to the perfect maturity of any crop which is suited to the soil and 
climate. There is an extensive ocean-cm-rent of cold water which comes from the northern regions of the Pacific, or, 
perhaps, from the Arctic, and flows along the coast of California. It comes charged with, and emits in its progress, cold 
air, which appears in the form of fog when it comes in contact with a higher temperature on the American coast— as the 
gulf stream of the Atlantic exhales vapor when it meets in any part of its progress a lower temperature. This current 
has not been surveyed, and, therefore, its source, temperature, velocity, width, and course, have not been accurately 
ascertained. It is believed by Lieutenant Maury, on what he considers sufficient evidence — and no higher authority can 
be cited— that this current comes from the coasts of China and Japan, flows northwardly to the peninsula of Kamts- 
chatka, and, making a circuit to the eastward, strikes the American coast in about latitude 41° or 42°, it passes thence 
southwardly, and finally loses itself in the tropics. Below latitude 39°, and west of the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, 
the forests of California are limited to some scattering groves of oak in the valleys and along the borders of the streams, 
and of red-wood on the ridges and on the gorges of the hills — sometimes extending into the plains. Some of the hills 
are covered with dwarf shrubs, which may be used as fuel. "With these exceptions, the whole State presents a surface 
without trees or shrubbery. It is covered, however, with various species of grass, and, for many miles from the coast, 
with wild oats, which in the valleys grow most luxuriantly. These grasses and oats mature and ripen early in the dry 
season, and soon cease to protect the soil from the scorching rays of the sun. As the summer advances, the moisture in 
the atmosphere and the earth, to a considerable depth, soon becomes exhausted, and the radiation of heat from the 
extensive naked plains and hill-sides is very great. The cold, dry currents of air from the north-east, after passing the 
Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, descend to the Pacific, and absorb the moisture of the atmosphere to a great 
distance from the land. The cold air from the mountains and that which accompanies the great ocean-current from 
the north-west thus become united, and vast banks of fog are generated, which, when driven by the wind, have a pene- 
trating or cutting effect on the human skin, much more uncomfortable than would be felt in the humid atmosphere of 
the Atlantic at a much lower temperature. As the sun rises from day to day, week after week, and month after month, 
in unclouded brightness during the dry season, and pours down its broken rays on the dry, unprotected surface of the 
country, the heat becomes so much greater inland than it is on the ocean, that an under-current of cold air, bringing the 
fog with it, rushes over the coast range of hills, and through their numerous passes, toward the interior. Every day, as 
the heat inland attains a sufficient temperature, the cold, dry wind from the ocean commences to blow. This is usually 
from 11 to 1 o'clock ; and, as the day advances, the wind increases and continues to blow till late at night. "When the 
vacuum is filled, or the equilibrium of the atmosphere restored, the wind ceases ; a perfect calm prevails until about the 
same hour the following day, when the same process commences and progresses as before. And these phenomena are 
of daily occurrence, with few exceptions, throughout the dry season. These cold winds and fogs render the climate at 
San Francisco, and all along the coast of California, except the extreme southern portion of it, probably more uncom- 
fortable to those not accustomed to it in summer than in winter. A few miles inland, where the heat of the sun modifies 
and softens the wind from the ocean, the climate is moderate and delightful. The heat, in the middle of the day, is 
not so great as to retard labor or render exercise in the open air uncomfortable. The nights are cool and pleasant. 
This description of climate prevails in all the valleys along the coast range, and extends throughout the country, north 
and south, as far eastward as the valley of the Sacramento and San Joaquin. In this vast plain, the sea-breeze loses 
its influence, and the degree of heat in the middle of the day, during the summer months, is much greater than is known 
on the Atlantic coast in the same latitudes. It is dry, however, and probably not more oppressive. On the foot-hills of 
the Sierra Nevada, and especially in the deep ravines of the streams, the thermometer frequently ranges from 110° to 
115° in the shade, during three or four hours of the day, say from 11 to 3 o'clock. In the evening, as the sun declines, 
the radiation of heat eeases. The cool, dry atmosphere from the mountains spreads over the whole country, and renders 
the nights cool and invigorating. 

The valleys which are situated parallel to the coast range, and those which extend eastwardly in all directions among 
the hills toward the great plain of the Sacramento, are of surpassing fertility. They have a deep, black, alluvial soil, which 
has (he appearance of having been deposited when they were covered with water. This idea is strengthened by the 
fact, that the rising grounds on the borders of these valleys, and many hills of moderate elevation, have a soil precisely 
like that of the adjoining plains. This soil is so porous that it remains perfectly unbroken by gullies, notwithstanding 
the great quantity of water which falls in it annually during the wet season. The land in the northern part of the State, 
on the Trinity and other rivers, and on the borders of Clear Lake, as far as it has been examined, is said to be remark- 
ably fertile. The great valley of the Sacramento and San Joaquin has evidently been at some remote period the bed of 
a lake ; and those rivers which drain it present the appearance of having cut their channels through the alluvial deposit 
after it had been formed. In fact, it is not possible that they could have been instrumental in forming the plain through 
which they pass. Their head-waters come from the extreme ends of the valley, north and south ; and were it not for 
the supply of water received from the streams which flow into them from the Sierra Nevada, their beds would be almost, 
if not quite dry in the summer months. The soil is very rich, and, with a proper system of drainage and embankment, 
would undoubtedly be capable of producing any crop, except sugar-cane, now cultivated in the Atlantic States of the 
Union. There are many beautiful valleys and rich hill-sides among the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, which, when 
the profits of labor in mining shall be reduced so as to cause its application to agriculture, will probably support a large 
population. There is said to be a rich belt of well-timbered and watered country extending the whole length of the 
gold region between it and the Sierra Nevada, some twenty miles in width. There is no information sufficiently accu- 
rate respecting the eastern slope of the great snowy range, to enable us to form any opinion of its general character or 
soil. Some of its valleys have been visited by miners, who represent them as equal to any portion of the country to the 
westward of it. The great valley of the Colorado, situated between the Sierra Madre and the Sierra Nevada, is but 
little known. It is inhabited by numerous tribes of savages, who manifest the most decided hostility toward the whites, 
and have hitherto prevented any explorations of their country, and do not permit emigrants to pass through it. There- 
fore, parties from Santa Fe, on their way to California, are compelled to make a circuit of near a thousand miles north- 
ward to the Salt Lake, or about the same distance southward by the route of the Gila. Although this valley is little known, 
there are indications that it is fertile and valuable. The name of the river " Colorado" is descriptive of its waters ; they 
are as deeply colored as those of the Missouri or Led Liver, while those of the Gila, which we know flows through 
barren lands, are clear. It would seem impossible for a large river to collect sediment enough in a sandy, barren soil, 
to color its waters so deeply as to give it a name among those who first discovered and have since visited its shores. 
The probability, therefore, is. that this river flows through an alluvial valley of great fertility, which has never been 
94 



CALIFORNIA. 



explored. This conjecture is strengthened by the fact that the Indians who inhabit it are hostile, and oppose, as far as 
they can, all persons who attempt to enter or explore it. This has been their uniform course of conduct respecting all 
portions of the continent which have been fertile, abounding in game and the spontaneous productions of the earth. As 
this valley is situated in the direct route from Santa Fe to California, its thorough exploration becomes a matter of very 
»reat importance, especially as it is highly probable that the elevated regions to the north of it, covered with snow 
during most of the year, will force the line of the great national railway to the Pacific through some portion of it. The 
soil situated west of the Sierra Nevada, and embracing the plain of the Sacramento and San Joaquin, covers an area, as 
nearly as can be estimated, of between fifty and sixty thousand square miles, and would, under a proper system of cultiva- 
tion, be capable of supporting a population equal to that of Ohio or New York at the present time. 

The climate and soil of California are well suited to the growth of wheat, barley, rye, and oats. The temperature 
along the coast is too cool for the successful culture of maize as a field crop. The fact that oats, the species which is 
cultivated in the Atlantic States, are annually self-sowed and produced on all the plains and hills along the coast, and as 
far inland as the sea-breeze has a marked influence on the climate, is sufficient proof that all the cereal grains may be 
successfully cultivated without the aid of irrigation. It is quite true that this auxiliary was extensively employed at 
the missions, and undoubtedly increased the product of all crops to which it was applied, as it will in any country on 
earth if skillfully used. This does not prove, however, that it was essentially necessary to the production of an ample 
reward to the husbandman. The experience of all the old inhabitants is sufficient evidence of this. If their imperfect 
mode of culture secured satisfactory returns, it is reasonable to presume that a more perfect system would produce 
greater results. There is abundant evidence to prove, that in the rich alluvial valleys, wheat and barley have produced 
from forty to sixty bushels from one bushel of seed, without irrigation. Irish potatoes, turnips, onions, in fact all the 
edible roots known and cultivated in the Atlantic States, are produced in great perfection. In all the valleys east of the 
coast range of hills, the climate is sufficiently warm to mature crops of Indian corn, rice, and probably tobacco. The 
cultivation of the grape has attracted much attention at the missions, among the residents of towns, and the rural popu- 
lation, and been attended with much success, wherever it has been attempted. The dry season secures the fruit from 
those diseases which are so fatal in the Atlantic States, and it attains very great perfection. The wine made from it is 
of excellent quality, very palatable, and can be produced in any quantity. The grapes are delicious, and produced with 
very little labor. When taken from the vines in bunches, and suspended in a dry room by the stems, they become 
partially dry, retain their flavor, and remain several weeks, perhaps months, without decay. Apples, pears, and 
peaches are cultivated with facility ; and there is no reason to doubt that all the fruits of the Atlantic States can be pro- 
duced in great plenty and perfection. The grasses are very luxuriant and nutritious, affording excellent pasture. The 
oats, which spring up the whole length of the sea-coast, and from forty to sixty miles inland, render the cultivation of 
that crop entirely unnecessary, and yield a very great quantitiy of nutritious food for horses, cattle, and sheep. The 
dry season matures, and I may say cures, these grasses and oats, so that they remain in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion during the summer and autumn, and afford an ample supply of forage. While the whole surface of the country 
appears parched and vegetation destroyed, the numerous flocks and herds which roam over it continue in excellent 
condition. Although the mildness of the winter months and the fertility of the soil secure to California very decided 
agricultural advantages, it is admitted that irrigation would be of very great importance, and necessarily increase the 
products of the soil in quantity and variety during the greater part of the dry season. It should therefore be encour- 
aged by government, in the survey and disposition of the public lands, as far as practicable. The farmer derives some 
very important benefits from the dry season. His crops in harvest-time are never injm-ed by rain ; he can with perfect 
confidence permit them to remain in his fields as long after they have been gathered as his convenience may require ; 
he has no fears that they will be injured by wet or unfavorable weather. Hence it is that many who have long been 
accustomed to that climate prefer it to the changeable weather east of the Eocky Mountains. 

As already stated, the forests of California south of latitude 89°, and west of the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada, are limited 
to detatched, scattering groves of oak in the valleys, and of red-wood on the ridges and on the gorges of the hills. It 
can be of no practical use to speculate on the causes which have denuded so large an extent of country, further than to 
ascertain whether the soil is or is not favorable to the growth of forest trees. When the dry season sets in, the entire 
surface is covered with a luxuriant growth of grass and oats, which, as the summer advances, become perfectly dry. 
The remains of all dead trees and shrubs also become dry. These materials, therefore, are very combustible, and 
usually take fire in the latter part of summer and beginning of autumn, which commonly passes over the whole country, 
destroying in its course the young shrubs and trees. In fact, it seems to be the same process which has destroyed or 
prevented the growth of forest trees on the prairies of the Western States, and not any quality in the soil unfriendly 
to their growth. The absence of timber and the continuance of the dry season are apt to be regarded by farmers, on 
first going into the country, as irremediable defects, and as presenting obstacles almost insurmountable to the successful 
progress of agriculture. A little experience will modify these opinions. It is soon ascertained that the soil will produce 
abundantly without manure ; that flocks and herds sustain themselves through the winter without being fed at the farm- 
yard, and consequently no labor is necessary to provide forage for them ; that ditches are easily dug, which present 
very good barriers for the protection of crops until live fences can be planted and have time to grow. Forest trees may 
be planted with little labor, and in very few years attain a sufficient size for building and fencing purposes. Time may 
be usefully employed in sowing various grain and root crops during the wet or winter season. There is no weather cold 
enough to destroy root crops, and therefore it is not necessary to gather them. They can be used or sold from the field 
where they grow. The labor, therefore, required in most of the old States to fell the forests, clear the land of rubbish, and 
prepare it for seed, may here be applied to other objects. All these things, together with the perfect security of all 
crops in harvest-time from injury by wet weather, are probably sufficient to meet any expense which may be incurred 
in irrigation, or caused for a time by a scanty supply of timber. In the northern part of the State, above latitude 39°, 
and on the hills which rise from the great plain of the Sacramento and San Joaquin to the foot of the Sierra Nevada, 
the forests of timber are beautiful and extensive, and would, if brought into use, be sufficiently productive to supply 
the wants of the southern and western portions of the State. 

The extent and value of the public lands suitable for agricultural purposes in California cannot be ascertained with 
any degree of accuracy until some very important preliminary questions shall have been settled. It is not known 
whether the Jesuits who founded the missions, or their successors, the Franciscans, ever did, or do now, hold any title 
from the Spanish crown to the lands which they occupied. Nor has any investigation been made to ascertain how far 
those titles, if they ever existed, have been invalidated by the acts of the priests or the decrees of the Mexican govern- 



CALIFORNIA. 



merit. A superficial view of the matter -would be very apt to lead to the supposition that the Jesuits, so celebrated for 
wisdom and foresight, would not fail to secure that which, at that time, would probably have been obtained by merely 
asking for it — a royal decree, granting to them all the lands they might require in that remote country for ecclesiastical 
purposes. There have been some intimations to that effect, but nothing is distinctly known. These missions embrace 
within their limits some of the most valuable lands in the State, and it is very important that it should be ascertained 
whether they belong to the government or may be justly claimed by individuals. Most of the land fit for cultivation 
south of latitude 39°, and west of the valley of the Sacramento and San Joaquin, is claimed under what purport to be 
grants from the Mexican government. On most of these grants the minerals and metals are reserved to the government ; 
conditions were coupled with many of them which have not been complied with ; in others, the boundaries described 
embrace two or three times as much land as the grant conveys. The Mexican law required all grants made by the 
provincial government, with few exceptions, to be confirmed by the supreme government. The great distance which 
separate them, and the unfrequent or difficult means of communication, made a compliance with the law so expensive 
and tardy that it came to be almost disregarded. There were other causes which led to this neglect. Previous to the 
treaty with Mexico and the immigration of American citizens to that country, land was not regarded as of much value, 
except for grazing purposes. There was room enough for all. Therefore, the claimants or proprietors did not molest 
one another, or inquire into the validity of titles. These extensive grants are described by natural boundaries, such as 
mountains, bays, and promontories, which, in many instances, might allow of a variation of several miles in the 
establishment of a corner with chain and compass. By the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States purchased 
all the rights and interests of Mexico to and in California. This purchase not only embraced all the lands which had 
not been granted by Mexico, but all the reserved minerals and metals, and also reversionary rights which might accrue 
to Mexico from a want of compliance on the part of the grantees with the conditions of their grants, or a xoant ofperfec- 
tion in the grants. The lands in the northern part of the State, above 89°, have not been explored or granted. They 
are supposed to embrace an area of about twenty millions of acres, a large portion of which is doubtless valuable for its 
timber and soil. Comparatively few grants have been obtained in the great valley of the Sacramento and San Joaquin. 
This vast tract, therefore, containing, as is estimated, from twelve to fifteen millions of acres, belongs mostly to the 
government. South of this valley and west of the Colorado, within the limits of California, as indicated in her constitu- 
tion, there are said to be extensive tracts of valuable unappropriated land ; and, on investigation, it will probably appear 
that there are many of them in detached bodies which have not been granted. 

The gold region of California is between 400 and 500 miles long, and from 40 to 50 miles broad, following the line 
of the Sierra Nevada. Further discoveries may, and probably will, increase the area. It embraces within its limits 
those extensive ranges of hills which rise on the eastern border of the plain of the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
and, extending eastwardly from 50 to 60 miles, they attain an elevation of about 4,000 feet, and terminate at the base 
of the main ridge of the Sierra Nevada. There are numerous streams which have their sources in the springs of the 
Sierra, and receive the water from its melting snows, and that which falls in rain during the wet season. These 
streams form rivers, which have cut their channels through the ranges of foot-hills westwardly to the plain, and disem- 
bogue into the Sacramento and San Joaquin. These rivers are from 10 to 15, and probably some of them 20 miles 
apart. The principal formation, or substratum, in these hills, is talcose slate ; the superstratum, sometimes penetrating 
to a great depth, is quartz ; this, however, does not cover the entire face of the country, but extends in large bodies 
in various directions — is found in masses and small fragments on the surface, and seen along the ravines, and in the 
mountains overhanging the rivers, and in the hill-sides in its original beds. It crops out in the valleys and on the 
tops of the hills, and forms a striking feature of the entire country over which it extends. From innumerable evi- 
dences and indications, it has come to be the universally-admitted opinion, among the miners and intelligent men 
who have examined this region, that the gold, whether in detached particles and pieces, or in veins, was created in 
combination with the quartz. Gold is not found on the surface of the country, presenting the appearance of having 
been thrown up and scattered in all directions by volcanic action. It is only found in particular localities, and attended 
by peculiar circumstances and indications. It is found in the bars and shoals of the rivers, in ravines, and in what 
are called the " dry diggings." The rivers, in forming their channels, or breaking their way through the hills, have 
come in contact with the quartz containing the gold veins, and by constant attrition cut the gold into fine flakes and 
dust ; and it is found among the sand and gravel of their beds at those places where the swiftness of the current 
reduces it, in the dry season, to the narrowest possible limits, and where a wide margin is consequently left on each 
side, over which the water rushes, during the wet season, with great force. As the velocity of some streams is greater 
than that of others, so is the gold found in fine or coarse particles, apparently corresponding to the degree of attrition 
to which it has been exposed. The water from the hills and upper valleys, in finding its way to the rivers, has cut 
deep ravines, and, wherever it has come in contact with the quartz, has dissolved or crumbled it in pieces. In the 
dry season, these channels are mostly without water, and gold is found in the beds and margins of many of them in 
large quantities, but in a much coarser state than in the rivers, owing, undoubtedly, to the moderate flow and tempo- 
rary continuance of the current, which has reduced it to smooth shapes, not unlike pebbles, but has not had sufficient 
force to cut it into flakes or dust. The dry diggings are places where quartz containing gold has cropped out, and been 
disintegrated, crumbled to fragments, pebbles, and dust by the action of water and the atmosphere. The gold has been 
left as it was made, in all imaginable shapes — in pieces of all sizes, from one grain to several pounds in weight. The 
evidences that it was created in combination with quartz, are too numerous and striking to admit of doubt or cavil ; tliey 
are found in combination in large quantities. 

A very large proportion of the pieces of gold found in these situations have more or less quartz adhering to them. In 
many specimens, they are so combined they cannot be separated without reducing the whole mass to powder, and sub- 
jecting it to the action of quicksilver. This gold, not having been exposed to the attrition of a strong current of water, 
retains in a great degree its original conformation. These diggings, in some places, spread over valleys of considerable 
extent, which have the appearance of an alluvion, formed by washings from the adjoining hills, of decomposed quartz 
and slate earth and vegetable matter. In addition to these facts, it is beyond doubt true that several vein-mines have 
been discovered in the quartz, from which numerous specimens have been taken, showing the minute connection 
between the gold and the rock, and indicating a value hitherto unknown in gold mining. These veins do not present 
the appearance of places where gold may have been lodged by some violent eruption. It is combined with the quartz 
in all imaginable forms and degrees of richness. The rivers present very striking, and it would seem, conclusive 
evidence respecting the quantity of gold remaining undiscovered in the quartz veins. It is not probable that the gold 
90 



CALIFORNIA. 



in the dry diggings and that in the rivers — the former in lumps, the latter in dust — were created by different processes. 
That which is found in the rivers has undoubtedly been cut or worn from the veins in the rock, with which their currents 
have come in contact. All of them appear to be equally rich. This is shown by the fact that a laboring man may 
collect nearly as much in one river as he can in another. They intersect and cut through the gold region, running 
from east to west, at irregular distances of fifteen to twenty, and perhaps some of them thirty miles apart. Hence it 
appears that the gold veins are equally rich in all parts of that most remarkable section of country. "Were it wanting, 
there are further proofs of this in the ravines and dry diggings, which uniformly confirm what nature so plainly shows 
in the rivers. 

The quicksilver mines of California are believed to be numerous, extensive, and valuable. Hitherto this metal, so 
useful in the arts and mining, has been chiefly derived from Spain and Mexico, and its production been a monopoly. 
The best known mine in California is that near San Jos§, which is claimed by Mr. Forbes, of Tepic, in Mexico. The 
cinnabar ore which produce the mineral lies near the surface, is easily procured, and the mine is believed to have been 
remarkably productive. Discoveries of other like mines are reported in other parts of the State, but little is publicly 
known respecting them, the belief being, however, that quicksilver will be eventually found in sufficient quantities for 
all purposes of extensive mining operations, if not for export. It is, undoubtedly, a fortunate circumstance, that nature, 
in bestowing on this State such vast metallic wealth, has thus provided, almost in its immediate neighborhood, inex- 
haustible stores of the only agent by which gold can be successfully separated from its matrices. It is also believed that 
California is rich in silver, copper, iron, and coal. A silver mine has been discovered a short distance from Monterey, 
which affords a very rich ore, and has been productive in comparison to the labor bestowed in operating it. In the 
neighborhood of San Francisco bituminous coal is abundant, and the indications noted in many other sections leave no 
doubt of the great extent of coal formation in the State. "With regard to other metals, time and circumstances are 
required to develop our knowledge of them ; but there can be but one opinion on the subject, that California is, in one 
part or other of its territory, bounteously supplied with all the more useful as well as the precious metals. 

California offers a very interesting and but partially explored field of research to the botanist. Almost every variety 
of vegetation, from the luxuriant productions of the tropics, to the stinted and scanty growth of the frozen regions, may 
be found in this country. The labors of Douglas and others have made known to the world many of the most valuable 
and remarkable species. Of these it is possible here to mention only a few. Of the pine and oak, there are several noble 
and useful varieties in different parts of the country. One of these, pinua Douglasii, first described by Douglas, is probably 
the grandest of the whole vegetable kingdom. It is found on the mountains about the Bay of San Francisco, and in 
some other sections of California, generally on elevated localities. Specimens of this tree occur of the height of 240 feet, 
the base of whose trunks have a circumference of nearly 60 feet. The trunk is quite destitute of branches, until above 
more than half the altitude, when they grow outward and upward in such a manner as to give the top the form of an 
inverted pyramid. From the ends of the branches hang the cones or seed-vessels, from 12 to 15 inches in length, and 
egg-shaped. The seeds are as large as a good sized bean, and furnish a common article of food to the Indians, who 
collect large quantities of them in the autumn, and pound them into a kind of cake, which is baked on heated stones. 
The wood is very fine-grained, and contains a great quantity of resin. The pinus Sabinii, p. Lambertiana, p. nobilis, 
and p. resinosa, are also fine species, though less in size than their gigantic relative. The former is, however, a large 
tree, being often found 110 feet high, and from 10 to 12 in diameter. Among the elevated plains of Upper California it 
grows quite plentifully, as also on the low hills, near the coast, where it attains a larger size. The natives frequently 
build their fires against these trees to save the trouble of collecting fuel ; by this means, also, a sweet gum is made to 
exude from the trunk, which serves them for sugar. The white oak grows on the low and level parts of the country. It 
is not generally a large tree, being from 40 to 50 feet high, and from 2 to 3 feet in diameter at the base. The top is 
extremely thick and leafy, forming an almost impenetrable mass of boughs. It is in some places very abundant. The 
quercus navalis occupies the prairies, river banks, and lower hills, and is 4 or 5 feet in diameter, with branches of 
corresponding dimensions, extending horizontally from the trunk. The live oak (q. virens) grows only on the highlands. 
It is from 2 to 5 feet in thickness, and from 60 to 70 in height. The maple, the ash, the beech, the chestnut, in several 
varieties, compose large portions of the forests. It is impossible to give a full description of the flowering shrubs and 
plants of California, so great is their variety and beauty. A species of raspberry (ribes speciosimt) is one of the most 
elegant flowering shrubs of the country. It is exceedingly abundant in some localities, and, with its long crimson 
stamens, and its deep green leaves, presents an appearance truly lovely. The flowers bloom early in spring. 
In many places are found several species of mimulus, one of which is from 8 to 4 feet in height, and is a very 
showy plant. This country also has numerous species of phlox and heuciiera, and innumerable quantities of epilo- 
biwm, anoihera, or primrose, pentstemon, papcwer, or poppy, delphinium, and salvia. A species of lily also grows 
here, the roots of which are eaten by the natives. The Scilla eseulenta grows along the whole coast ; this is called by 
the natives " quamash," and the root forms a very common article of food. To prepare this for eating, a hole is made in 
the ground, and a number of stones placed in it, on which a Are is kindled and kept burning until they are made hot, 
when the Are is extinguished, and the roots, wrapped in straw, leaves, and moss, are placed upon them. They are well 
roasted in a few hours, and are then taken off and hung up to dry. This root is also sometimes pounded and made into 
cakes, which are preserved for future use ; the taste is sweet, and rather agreeable, but if eaten too freely they are apt to 
produce diarrhea. This plant is most abundant on the banks of rivers and on lowlands by the margins of forests, in 
which localities are also found several species of pyrola, caprifolium and lupindus, which sometimes cover an immense 
extent of land. The arbutus is also abundant in similar situations. The large species (a-, procera), is a fine shrub 
frequently attaining a growth which entitles it to be called a tree. The a. uva ursi is found in almost every part of the 
colder sections of the country, and its berries are frequently eaten by the natives, and even by travelers. A very useful 
plant to the natives is the helonias tenaee, the fibres of which are stronger than any hemp. Cords made of this are used 
by the Indians for the purpose of snaring deer and other animals, and one the thickness of the little finger is so strong as 
not to be broken by the largest elk. The gooseberry grows in California, and bears plentifully. The sand-hills and 
moors are covered with a great variety of syngenesious plants, and on the more fertile and humid soil grows a gaudy- 
flowered currant-bush, and a pretty species of honeysuckle. Perhaps the most remarkable shrub here is the yedm, a 
poisonous plant, which, however, affects some particular constitutions only. By contact with the skin, it produces 
tumors and violent inflammation. It is a slender shrub, preferring cool and shady places, and bearing a trefoil 
crenated leaf. Two roots — the plants of which are very beautiful — are used by the natives for soap ; these are called 
amole and sarnate. On the rocky coast of Monterey are immense collections of sea-weed, fucus pyrifornis, which 

N 97 



CALIFORNIA. 



are said to have gathered there in such abundance as to have saved several vessels from splitting on the rocks, when 
driven on them by the tempest. 

The animal kingdom in California is made up of most of the zoological varieties found east of the Eocky Mountains, 
and of some few species peculiar to the region itself. The black bear (ursus Americanus) is an inhabitant of many 
districts, and in its habits and appearance differs little from its congener of the north; the barren-ground bear (ursus 
arctm) is of a lighter color, but in every other respect similar to the black bear; the grizzly bear (ursus ferow) is also a 
denizen, and is the most formidable wild animal of the country. The Polar bear (ursus maritimus) is sometimes seen 
on the northern coast, but is evidently a stranger, borne down on floating ice from the higher latitudes. The raccoon 
(prooyon lotor), the American badger (meles salradoira), the glutton or wolverine (gulo luscus), the common weasel 
(mmtela vulgaris), the ermine (m. erminea), the mink, martin, and skunk, are found in various parts, and are valuable 
for their furs. In many parts wolves are very numerous. The species mostly seen are the common wolf (lupus Ameri- 
canus), the gray wolf (I. griseus), the dusky wolf (I. nubilis), the black wolf (I. ater), and the prairie wolf (canis latrans). 
Foxes are common, and of these two species exist, the red fox (canisfulms) and the gray fox (a. cinereo-argentatus). 
Of the cat tribe there are several species, as the cougar or puma (felis concolor), the northern lynx (/. canadensis), the 
banded lynx (f. fasciata), and the red lynx (f. rufa). These inhabit mostly the dense forests and thickly-wooded sides 
of the mountains, preying on deer and other animals. In the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, as well as on many 
parts of the coast, the common hair seal (phoca i>itdlina) is abundant, and follows the track of the salmon. The beaver 
(casta)-- fiber) and the musk rat (fiber zebethicus) are also common, especially at the confluence of the Sacramento with 
the Bay. The quality of the fur of these latter animals, however, is inferior to that obtained more to the north. The 
moose (cervus alces) is found in all the woody and mountain regions, and near the coast, and the elk (cervus canaden- 
sis) roams through the valleys in immense herds. There are many other species of deer found in various parts, as the 
black-tailed deer (c. macrotis), the long-tailed or jumping deer (c. leu&vrus), etc. ; and the prong-horned antelope (a. 
furcifer) is found in considerable numbers. The mountain sheep, or argali (ovis montanaT), inhabits the loftiest and 
coldest mountains ; in its general appearance it resembles the large domestic sheep, but has horns out of all proportion 
to its body, and is covered with a coarse short hair, of a dingy brown color, which can scarcely be called wool. The 
Dison (bos Americanus) is seldom seen, but is not altogether unknown to the hunter. The sea otter (Intra marina) is 
abundant along the coast, and at the mouths of rivers, and the land otter (I. Bra&iliensis) is found in many parts of the 
country. Of rats, mice, marmots, hares, rabbits, and squirrels, there are numerous species in all parts of the country. 

Among the feathered tribes of California, the first worthy of notice is the great vulture (sarcoramphos Cali/oriiianus), 
second only to the huge condor of South America, and closely allied to it in many respects. It is met with along the 
whole coast ; it is solitary in its habits, rapacious, of enormous size, and singular in conformation and appearance, and 
seems to hold the same position in the scenery of this country as its European congener, the lammergeyer, in that of the 
Alps. It builds in the highest trees of the mountain forests, and only approaches the valleys in search of its carrion food. 
When full grown, it measures about 4 feet 8 inches from beak to end of the tail, and from 9 to 10 feet from tip to tip of its 
wings. Its color is brownish black, the bill and legs yellow, and its quills are much esteemed by the hunter for making 
tubes for his pipe. The turkey buzzard (cathartes aura) is also found here, but is not common, but the black vulture 
(cathartes atratus) is found in every part. The golden eagle (aquila chri/sotus), the bald eagle (aquila leucocephala), 
the osprey or fish-hawk (aquila lialioa), the black hawk or peregrine falcon (falco peregrimis), the jer-falcon (falco 
islandious), and several others of kindred species, but of lesser note, are found here, as the sparrow-hawk, the pigeon- 
hawk, and the gos-hawk — the latter identical with the European species so celebrated in the royal sport of falconry. 
Owls of various species are found throughout the country ; and among the birds common to the temperate region of the 
continent may be mentioned the shrike, the robin, the cat-bird, the thrush, the lark, the red-wing, the cross-bill, the raven, 
the magpie, the jay, the wood-pecker in numerous varieties and species. In some parts of the south the humming-bird 
is quite numerous, and swallows of every description — bam, cliff, and bank swallows — are as common as in any other 
section of the Union. There is probably no other country which produces so many varieties of grouse, or in so great 
numbers. The bays, inlets, and rivers are alive with water-fowl, and the low lands near the outlets of some of the streams 
in the Pacific coast actually swarm with geese, ducks, widgeons, teal, cranes, curlews, snipes, and various other waders 
and swimmers. The swan (cygnus buccinator) is the largest swimming bird of the country, and seems to differ nothing 
from the same species elsewhere. The white pelican (p. onocrotalus) is found on the coast, and large numbers frequent 
the bays and harbors. Off the coast, too, may be seen the mighty albatross ; specimens of enormous size are sometimes 
seen, measuring 4 feet in length and 10 or 12 across the wings. 

The waters of California are replete with fish of every size and variety. The seas swarm densely, and the bays and 
rivers are alive with their peculiar denizens. The California Gulf produces great numbers of edible shell-fish. The 
oyster, the pearl-shell, the muscle, several species of haliotis, all afford either food or articles of trade and ornament to 
the inhabitants. In California fish are generally little sought after, the productions of the earth being so numerous 
and plentiful ; but in the colder regions of the north they afford the common, and sometimes the sole subsistence of the 
natives. In the Columbia, as well as in the San Joaquin and Sacramento rivers, and in almost every water-course 
having its outlet in the sea, the number of (salmo) salmon are almost incredible. On some of these rivers from two to 
three thousand are sometimes taken in a single day. The Indians sometimes capture them with a kind of wicker basket 
similar to that used by the fishermen on the Atlantic coast for taking lobsters. This is done in the spring, when the fish 
are on their passage up the stream. They are also taken with the spear, which consists of a sharp piece of bone fastened 
to the end of a shaft of wood 12 or 15 feet in length, and which the Indians use with great dexterity, frequently securing 
salmon of from 20 to SO pounds in weight. The fish are dried or salted, and preserved for future use. They are also 
sometimes taken with only a small scoop net, fastened to the end of a pole. Douglas speaks of an individual measured 
by him which was 3 feet 5 inches long, and 10 inches broad, weighing 35 pounds. This size is not exaggerated, 
specimens nearly or quite as large having often been seen. Some of the streams also abound with very fine 
salmon-trout, and with a small trout nearly resembling the one which affords so much sport to the anglers of the 
older States. The sturgeon (accipenser transmontanus) sometimes attains great size in the large rivers, being 
from S to 10 feet in length, and weighing nearly 500 pounds. In general, however, this fish is of much smaller dimen- 
sions. It is principally found not far from the mouths of the rivers. In the Bay of Monterey is a species of mackerel 
(scomber colias) in great plenty, and easily taken. Here, as well as in most other parts of the coast, also swim schools 
of a small fish resembling, if not identical with, the sardine of Italy, familiar to epicures. These are sometimes seen in 
such immense numbers that the surface of the water for a great distance around resembles a living mass, being kept in 
93 



CALIFOKNIA. 



constant commotion by their fins. Porpoises are very numerous in almost every bay on the whole coast, and in foul 
weather may always be seen playing their pranks on the waves, while far in the offing appears the spouting of the huge 
whale. The halibut, pilchard, skate, turbot, bonito, and many other species, are found in various parts of the sea-coast. 
The shell-fish are numerous and valuable, particularly in the gulf. Of these may be mentioned, oysters, which are often 
of large size and excellent flavor ; muscles, several species of haliotis, patella, cardium, and turbo, besides the pearl 
oyster {mya margaritifera), the product of which, as an article of commerce, is well known. The pearls produced by 
these shell-fish are in this country of very fine water, though rather irregular in figure. 

The estimates and ascertainments by census, of the population, resources, and productions of California have hitherto 
been very incomplete, and in reference to the population returned by the federal census of 1850, it can scarcely be con- 
sidered as an approximation. The estimate made by General Douglass, of the State Senate, in the fall of the year 1850, 
is perhaps more nearly accurate, and is given below for what it is worth. The population by the census of 1S50 is that 
returned to the Legislature by the census agent. The returns of 1852 are those of a census instituted by the State author- 
ities, and those which will be adopted by the IT. S. census department in the official exhibit of the condition of the State. 
The following are the population returns referred to : 



Douglass' 
Estimate. 


Census 
1852. 


500 ... . 


9S4 



Names of Census 

Counties. 1850. 

San Louis Obispo .... 1,336 . 

Santa Barbara 1,185 2,500 2,131 

Santa Clara 3,502 5,000 6,661 

Santa Cruz 674 1,000 1,219 

Shaste" 3T8 . . . (with Trinity) .... 4,050 

Sierra (from Tuba) 4,S55 

Siskiyou (from Trinity, ShastS, & Klamath) 2,240 

Solano 5S0 1,600 2,835 

Sonoma 561 1,600 2,337 

Sutter 3,030 3,000 1,207 

Trinity 659 10,200 1,764 

Tuolumne no returns 20,000 17,657 

Tulare (from Mariposa) 8,575 

Yolo 1,003 1,000 1,307 

Tuba 19,032 22,000 22,005 



Total.... 117.53S 1SO,000 264,435 



Names of Census Doujlass' Census 

Counties. 18SO. Estimate, 1852. 

Butte 4,6S6 14,000 8,572 

Calaveras 16,884 16,000 20,192 

Colusi 115 ...(with Trinity)... 612 

Contra Costa 722 600 2,745 

El Dorado 20,985 22,000 estim. 40,000 

Klamath (from Trinity) 530 

Los Angeles no returns. . . 6,000 ...... 7,831 

Marin 323 500 1,036 

Mariposa 4,400 4,500 8,969 

Mendocino 56 400 ..... . 416 

Monterey 1,872 2,000 2,728 

Napa 414 1,600 2,116 

Nevada (from Tuba) 21,365 

Placer (from El Dorado) 10,784 

Sacramento 11,000 12,000 12,5S9 

San Diego no returns. . . 2,000 2,932 

San Joaquin 4,000 5,000 5,029 

San Francisco 21,000 25,000 36,151 

— Humbolt County, from Trinity, and San Bernardino County, from Los Angeles, are counties erected since 1852. 
The following summary of the census of the State in 1852, is abstracted from the report of W. Van Voorhies, Secretary 

of State, to the governor, and dated 25th January, 1S53: "Immediately after the adjournment of the last Legislature 

active measures were commenced, which have been prosecuted up to the present time, for the purpose of making a 

correct and complete exhibit of the population and resources of the State. This object, however, has been but imper- 
fectly accomplished, in consequence, in some degree, of the intrinsic difficulties of so complicated and extensive an 
undertaking in a new and comparatively unknown country, but mainly owing to the mixed, unsettled, and fluctuating 
character of our population, the difficulty of thoroughly exploring the mountain counties, the hostile tribes of Indians 
infesting some sections, and the mistaken supposition on the part of many that the business of the census agent was in 
some way connected with taxation. Believing that the occasion of taking this census afforded an opportunity which 
might not be again soon enjoyed, of procuring interesting geographical, geological, mineralogical, and other information 
pertaining to the natural curiosities and features of the State, I embraced it, and instructed each of the census agents to 
collect whatever of notable objects might come within their observation. These instructions not having been received 
by some of them until they were far advanced in their labor, were only carried out in a portion of the counties. A 
number of the counties, however, are represented in this particular and much useful and interesting intelligence collected 
on these subjects. Even from the imperfect showing which is thereby made, it will be seen that our State contains 
within her borders almost every variety of minerals and many most inviting fields of investigation to the natural 
philosopher, the antiquary, and the statesman. 

" A large number of the most important counties having failed to furnish any information on these subjects, we are left 
to conclude that much of the most useful and interesting matter in this branch remains yet to be developed. 

"Population. — It will be observed that the county of El Dorado has not been as yet returned, either as respects 
population or productions. This is admitted to be one of the most populous and productive counties of the State. The 
vote cast in this county at the late general election was, as appears from the returns on file in this office, 11,252 ; and 
judging from the relation generally obtaining in this State between the vote and population, it should contain 40,000 
inhabitants. This county cast a vote of 2,844 greater than any other county in the State. The county of San Francisco, 
with a population of 36,151, casts 8.40S votes. The county of Tuba, with a population of 20,005, casts a vote of 4,276. 
The county of Nevada, with a population of 21,865, casts a vote of 5,474. The county of Calaveras, with a population 
of 20,192, casts a vote of 5,132. The county of El Dorado, therefore, which cast a vote of 11,252, 1 set down as containing 
a population of 40,000 ; which is, in fact, an under estimate, preserving the parallel exhibited in other counties between 
the number of votes and inhabitants. Estimating the population of El Dorado at 40,000, makes the entire population 
of the State 264,435. This appears from the actual returns of the census, with the exception of El Dorado County, and 
the data upon which I have based the estimate of that county are given above. There can be no doubt, however, that in 
consequence of the difficulties previously mentioned, not more than five-sixths of the whole population of the State has 
been taken. The reports of all the census agents who have made returns, set forth the fact of their inability to obtain 
the whole population of their respective counties ; adding then one-sixth to the population returned and that estimated 
for El Dorado County, gives the population of the State at 30S,507, which is believed to be about correct Our entire 
popular vote at the late general election was 76,890, according to the election returns on file in this office, estimating the 
population at four times the amount of the popular vote, which is below the ratio usually obtaining throughout this State, 
and far below that obtaining in other States of the Union, places our population at 307,560. This exhibit shows an 



CALIFORNIA. 



increase in the course of two years, taking the actual returns of the census, of 99,435, an annual increase of 49,717, and 
an increase of 30 per cent per annum ; of the increase per cent, per annum, the United States, according to the late- 
census, was 3|, showing a difference of increase between the State of California and the other States of the Union of 
26-J per cent, per annum. Taking, however, the estimated and more probable census of the State, namely, 308,507, and 
it gives an annual positive increase of 71,753, an increase of 43 per cent, per annum, and a difference of increase per 
cent, between California and other States of 39 J. 



" This population is composed as follows : 

"White inhabitants, male 151,115 

» " female 29,741 

Citizens over 21 years of age 93,344 

Negroes, male 1,637 

" female 253 

" over 21 years of age 1,259 

Mulattoes, male 424 

" female 98 

" . over 21 years of age 407 

Indians (domesticated), male 19,675 

" " " female 12,864 



Indians over 21 years of age 15,866 

Foreign residents, male 50,631 

" " female 4,360 

" over 21 years of age 39,444 

TOTAL. 

"Whites 180,S56 

Citizens over 21 years of age 93,344 

Negroes 1,890 

Mulattoes 522 

Indians (domesticated) 32,539 

Foreign residents 54,991 



" In this estimate the county of El Dorado is not included, which will probably add to the whites 30,000 ; to the citizens 
of the United States over 21 years of age 12,000 ; to the negroes 200 ; to the mulattoes 50 ; to the Indians 1,000 ; and to 
the foreign residents 5,000 — making a final total of whites, 210,858 ; citizens over 21 years of age, 105,344 ; negroes, 2,090 ; 
mulattoes, 572 ; Indians (domesticated), 33,539 ; foreign residents, 59,991. 

"The counties of Nevada, Placer, and Yuba have reported 9,809 Chinese. The other counties have embraced them 
without discrimination under the general head of foreign residents, the number is believed to approximate 25,000. 

" Productions and Capital. — Under this head, I regret to state, that not only the county of El Dorado, entire, but that 
of Calaveras, also, in part, two of the most wealthy and productive of the State, have to be omitted, not having as yet 
been returned. 

" A few of the counties have reported on the subjects of horticulture, manufactures, milling, farming, and farming 
utensils, separately, while the others have combined them under the general head of ' capital employed for other purposes.' 

" The following items are not included under the general head above mentioned : 

Capital employed in stock, farming, and gardening $1,857,502 00 

" " fruits and orchards 366,910 00 

" " improvements and real estate 6,34S.346 00 

" " farming utensils 125,940 00 

" " milling 240,850 00 

— making the total capital employed for purposes other than those specified under general heads $49,800,9S1. Estimate 
of El Dorado and Calaveras counties, 10,000,000— making $59,S00,9S1. 

" The articles of sheep, hogs, and poultry, although not specifically required by law, have been reported upon from 
twenty counties, and are as follows : sheep, 82,S67, at $12 each— $994,404 ; hogs, 38,976, at $10 each— 3S9,760 ; poultry, 
96,230, at $2 each— 192,460 ; total value, $1,576,624. 

" For the number of horses, mules, cows, beef cattle, work oxen, bushels of barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, corn, acres 
of land in cultivation, quartz-mills, capital invested in quartz mining, capital invested in Placer mining, capital invested 
in other mining, and capital employed for other purposes, reference is made to the statistics of different counties respectively. 

"The following is the estimated value of the live-stock and agricultural products. These prices are given at an aver- 
age much below the market value : 



Live-stock. 

Horses at $30 $1,943,190 00 

Mules at 50 S28 900 00 

Cows at 50 5,216,950 00 

Beef cattle., at 25 7,S34,S00 00 

Work oxen, at 50 1,453,250 00 



$17,327,090 00 



Agricultural Products. 

Barley at $1 40 per bushel $3,163,227 00 

Oats at 1 00 " 100,497 00 

Wheat at 2 40 " 652,23100 

Potatoes at 1 50 " 2,0S9,755 00 

Corn at 2 50 " 156,330 00 



$6,162,040 00 



The counties of Sonoma, Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, Sacramento, Napa, Mendocino, Los Angeles, and Contra 

Costa have reported 5,553,655 pounds onions, valued at $1S6,000 

The counties of Tolo, Sierra, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, and Monterey have reported 2,359,250 

cabbages, valued at 60 777 

The counties of Sonoma. Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, and Monterey have reported 30,271 bush, of beans, value 72,492 

The county of Santa Barbara has reported 1,370 barrels olives, valued at 27,400 

The counties of Santa Barbara and Santa Clara have reported 26,S11 grape vines, valued at 26,S11 

The counties of Tolo, Sonoma, Sierra, Sacramento, and Mendocino have reported 490,990 lbs. turnips, valued . . 14.927 

The county of Sacramento has reported 1,039,S00 pounds tomatoes, valued at 32,403 

The counties of Santa Clara and Sacramento have reported 1,107,500 pounds of carrots, valued at 33.225 

The county of Sacramento has reported 35S acres of melons, valued at 17,900 

The county of Sacramento has reported 460,000 pumpkins, valued at 46,000 

The county of Santa Clara has reported 50S,000 bricks, valued at 10,1 60 

The county of Marin has reported 1,500,000 bricks per month, valued at (per annum) 360,000 

The counties of Santa Barbara and Los Angeles have reported 73,462 gallons wine, value 146,924 

And 73.056 gallons brandy 109,584 

The counties of Santa Cruz and Nevada have reported capital invested in manufactures 6,300 

100 



CAL 



CAM 



"Showing total capital and productions of the State as follows : 



Total capital employed for purposes other than 
those specified under general heads, includ- 
ing estimates for El Dorado and Calaveras. . $59,800,000 

Live-stock 18,903,714 

Agricultural products 6.162,040 

Land in cultivation 1,107,480 

Estimate for El Dorado and Calaveras 5,000,000 



Horticulture, manufactures, etc $1,150,000 



Quartz mining 

Placer " 

Other " 

Estimate for El Dorado mining. 



5,871,405 

4.174,419 

3,851,623 

2,500,000 

$108,520,681 

" In the above estimate it will be observed that the value of no land except that in actual cultivation is included. 

" With these facts now before us, it may not be uninteresting or devoid of utility to take a comparative view of our 
position in reference to the other States of the Union. 

" Horses. — In these we are in advance of fifteen of the States. Slides.— In these we are in advance of twenty-six of 
the States. Milch Cows. — In these we are in advance of twelve of the States. Work Oxen. — In these we are in advance 
of eight of the States. Sheep. — In these, although having returns from only twenty counties, we are in advance of four 
States. Swine. — In these, although only twenty counties have reported, we are in advance of three States. Value of 
Live-stock. — In this we surpass twenty-two of the States. Barley. — In this we are only equaled by one State, New York. 
"We raise more than one-half as much of this article as is produced in the whole Union besides. Potatoes. — In this 
again we stand next to New York, and raise one-fifth the quantity produced by the balance of the Union. Wheat. — In 
this we surpass ten of the States. Oats. — In this we cultivate more than three-fourths of our sister States. Indian Corn. 
— We produce less of this than any State of the Union. Beans. — In this we surpass nine of the States, notwithstanding 
only five counties have reported the quantity produced. Hay. — In this, though not returned from more than one-half 
counties, we exceed nine of the States. Fruits. — In these we excel all the States in variety, and one-half in quantity 
produced. Mining. — In this branch of industry we stand not only without a parallel, but without a competitor. Agri- 
culture. — This important branch has been comparatively but little attended to in this State, and consequently in the value 
of cultivated land we are surpassed by all the States of the Union. The fact, however, that we excel most of them in 
the productions of the soil, shows the fertility and productiveness of our lands in a most favorable light. Trade. — Yolo, 
Trinity, Sutter, Santa Cruz, San Diego, Sacramento, and Nevada counties have reported merchandise to the amount 
of $4,000,000. The remainder of the counties have included this item, with others, under the general head of 'Capital' 
employed for other purposes — in these, too, we surpass more than one-half the States. Minerals. — The many interesting 
geological developments made by the census, place our State far in advance of all her sisters in the variety and import- 
ance of these great handmaids of science and civilization. Many matters of interest are touched upon in the reports of 
the different agents, which, on account of their isolated character, could not be arranged under general heads and class- 
ified. I have, therefore, endeavored to supply this defect by reference to them in this manner. It is needless to say 
the estimates submitted in this report are not claimed to be entirely accurate, but sufficiently so for practicable purposes. 
They will be found, I think, to present no exaggerated representation of our resources." 

Vallejo is the capital of the State ; the Legislature of 1S53, however, sat at Benicia. 



California, t. and p. o., Branch co., Mich. : 66 m. S. by 
W. Lansing. 

California, p. v., Yallabasha co., Miss. : 109 m. N. by 
E. Jackson. 

Caltfoenia, p. v., Clermont co., Ohio : 87 m. S. W. Co- 
lumbus. 

California, p. v., and cap. Moniteau co., Mo. : 21 m. W. 
Jefferson City. 

California, p. v., Floyd co., Ga. : 145 m. N. W. Mil- 
ledgeville. 

Calk's Ferry, p. o., Lexington dist., S. Car. 

Callaghan's, p. o., Alleghany co., Virg. : at the forks 
of the roads leading to the Hot and Sulphur Springs, 5 m. 
W. of Covington, and 141 m. W. Richmond. 

Callands, p. o., Pittsylvania co., Virg. : 122 m. W. S. W. 
Richmond. 

Callaway county, Ky. Situate W. on S. border, and 
contains 460 sq. m. Drained by Clark's and Blood rivers, 
tributaries of the Tennessee, which lies on its E. border. 
Surface level, and soils moderately fertile. The products 
are wheat and Indian corn, with some tobacco and cotton. 
Farms 933 ; manuf. 7 ; dwell. 1,191, and pop.— wh. 7,094, fr. 
eol. 10, si. 992— total 8,096. Capital: Murray. 

Callaway county, Mo. Situate centrally on Missouri r. 
and contains 640 sq. m. Drained by Au Vase and other 
creeks. Surface undulating, with good timber, and the soils 
fertile. Wheat, corn, and tobacco are the chief products. 
Farms 1,169 ; manuf. 33 ; dwell.l, 612, and pop.— wh. 9,S98, 
fr. col. 22, sL 3,907— total 13,827. Capital : Fulton. 

Callensburg, p. o., Clarion co., Penn. : on the S. side 
of Clarion r., a tributary of Alleghany r., 152 m. W. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Callensville, p. v., Pendleton co., Ky. : 49 m. N. E. 
Frankfort. 

Calltcoon, p. v., Sullivan co., XT. Y. : on the E. side of 
fee Delaware r., 86 m. S. W. Albany. 



Callicoon Dep6t, p. o., Sullivan co., _V Y. : on the New 
York and Erie R. R., 141 m. from New York, and 323 from 
Dunkirk. 

Caln, p. o., Chester co., Penn. : 58 m. E. by S. Harris- 
burg. 

Calno, p. o., Warren co., 2F. Jer. : 51 m. N. by W 
Trenton. 

Calumet county, Wise. Situate N. E. on Lake Winne- 
bago, and contains 324 sq. m. Drained chiefly by the head 
streams of Manitouwoc and Sheboygan rivers. . Surface va- 
ried — in the centre traversed by a rocky ridgd ; and timber 
abundant. Farms 125 ; manuf. 4 ; dwell. 888, and pop. — 
wh. 1,721, fr. col. 122— total 1,843. Capital : Manchester. 

Calumet, p. o., Porter co., Ind. : on Calumet cr., 134 m. 
N. N. W. Indianapolis. 

Calumet Village, p. v., Fond du Lac co., Wise. : on 
the S. E. side of Winnebago Lake, 88 m. N. E. Madison. 

Calumio river, Ind. : rises on the W. side of La Porte co., 
and runs W. nearly parallel with Lake Michigan, into 
Illinois ; there a part of it empties into the lake, 15 m. N. E. 
of Chicago, and the other part returns directly E., parallel 
with its former course, and only 3 or 4 m. N. of it, falling 
into the lake at its extreme southern bend. The name was 
derived from calumet, the Indian "pipe of peace." Its 
original name was Ken-no-mo-koug. 

Calvary, p. v., Athens co., Ohio : 63 m. S. E. Columbus. 

Calvert county, Mel. Situate W. shore, and contains 
239 sq. m. Drained by creeks falling into Chesapeake Bay 
and Patuxent r. Surface undulating, rising from the waters ; 
soil a fine mold, producing tobacco, corn, wheat, etc. Farms 
434 ; dwell. 1,006, and pop.— wh. 3,630, fr. col. 1,430, si. 4,486 
— total 9,046. Capital : Prince Frederick. 

Calvin, p. o., Huntingdon co., Penn. : 69 m. W. Har- 
risburg. 

Camak, p. v., Warren co., Ga. : on the line of the Geor- 
gia R. E., 47 m. from Augusta, and 45 E. N. E. Milledge 

101 



CAM 



CAM 



ville. A branch K. E. hence diverges to Warrenton, dis- 
tant 4 m. 

Camanche, p. v., Clinton eo., la. : on the W. side of the 
Mississippi r., 67 m. E. by N. Iowa City. A railroad is pro- 
jected to run hence to Iowa City. 

Camaego, p. v., Lancaster co., Perm. : 46 m. E. S. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Camakgo, p. v., Lincoln co., Tenn. : 69 m. S. Nashville. 

Camaego, p. v., Monroe co., Miss. : 142 m. N. E. Jackson. 

Camaego, p. v., Jefferson co., Lid. ; 76 m. S. E. Indian- 
apolis. 

Camaego, p. v., Montgomery co., Ky. : 62 m. E. by S. 
Frankfort. 

Cambeia county, Perm. Situate W. centrally, and con- 
tains 720 sq. m. Drained by W. branch of Susquehanna r., 
and the head waters of the Connemaugh. Surface rough 
and sometimes mountainous — the Alleghanies making its 
E. and Laurel Bidge its W. border. The soils are of aver- 
age fertility. Farms 1,089 ; manuf. 126 ; dwell. 2,89S, and 
pop.— wh. 17,645, fr. col. 128— total 17,773. Capital : Ebens- 
burg. Public Works: Pennsylvania Canal and Pennsyl- 
vania E. E. 

Cambeia, p. v., Lucerne co., Penn. : 67 m. N. E. Harris- 
burg. 

Cambeia, p. v., Hillsdale co., Mich.: 62 m. S. by W. 
Lansing. 

Cambria, t. and p. v., Niagara co., JF. Y. : 248 m. W. 
Albany. The Eochester, Lockport, and Niagara Falls E. E. 
passes through the t, 64 m. from Eochester. Pop. 2,366. 

Cambeia, p. o., and cap. "Wayne co., la. : 112 m. S. W. 
by W. Iowa City. 

Cambeia Mills, p. o., Hillsdale co., Mich. : 62 m. S. by 
W. Lansing. 

Cambeidgb, p. v., Dallas co., Ala. : 62 m. W. S. W. 
Montgomery. 

Cambeidge, p. v., Dane co., Wise. : on the W. side of a 
stream flowing into Lake Koshkonong, 19 m. E. by S. 
Madison. 

Cambeidge, city and p. o., "Wayne co., Ind. : on the "W. 
branch of White "Water r., where it is crossed by the Na- 
tional Eoad and the Indiana Central E. E., 52 m. E. In- 
dianapolis. The White Water Canal has its northern ter- 
minus at Hagerstown, 7 m. N. of Cambridge. 

Cambridge, p. v., Henry co., III. : 92 m. N. N. W. 
Springfield. 

Cambeidge, p. v., and cap. Dorchester co., MS. : on the 
S. side of Choptank r., 12 m. from Chesapeake Bay, and 37 
m. S. E. Aunapolis. 

Cambeidge, t. and p. o., Somerset co., Me. : 47 m. N. by E. 
Augusta. Pop. 633. 

Cambeidge, t; and p. o., Lenawee co., Mich. : 54 m. S. 
by E. Lansing. Pop. 974 

Cambridge, p. v., Saline co., Mo.: on the S. side of the 
Missouri r., 64 m. W. N. W. Jefferson City. 

Cambridge, t., p. city, and cap. Middlesex co., Mass. : 
3 m. N. W. Boston. The Observatory stands in lat. 42° 22' 
4S", and long. 71° OS' W. Cambridge is the seat of Harvard 
University, one of the most flourishing schools of the United 
States, founded 1638 ; and here is located Mount Auburn 
Cemetery, a spot remarkable for its natural beauties. The 
public buildings are at East Cambridge, at Lechmere's 
Point, a v. at the S. E. extremity of the t., which is con- 
nected with Boston and Charlestown by bridges. A news- 
paper, the " C. Chronicle," is issued weekly. The t. is also 
connected with Boston by E. E. Pop. 15,215. 

Cambeidge, t. and p. v., Washington co., IF. Y. : on 
Hoosic r., 31 m. N. N. E. Albany. Pop. 2,598. 

Cambridge, t., p. v., and cap. Guernsey co., Ohio : on the 
E. bank of Wells cr., 72 m. E. Columbus. Pop. oft 2.4S9. 

Cambridge, p. v., Abboville dist., & Car: : 74 m W. by 
N. Columbia. 

Cambridge, t. and p. o., Lamoille co., Yerm. : on La- 
moille r., 31 m. N. W. Montpelier. Pop. 1.S49. 
102 



Cambeidge, p. v., Lancaster co., Penn. : 46 m. E. S. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Cambeidge Poet, p. o., Middlesex co., Mass. : 2 m. N.W. 
Boston. It is a place of considerable commerce, and sev- 
eral manufactures are established here. It has lately been 
incorporated with Cambridge City. 

Cambeidge Poet, p. v., Windham co., Yerm. : 93 m. S. 
Montpelier. 

Camden county, Ga. Situate S. E. corner, facing the 
Atlantic, and having for its S. boundary St. Mary's r., and 
contains 765 sq. m. Drained by Buffalo cr., Santilla r., and 
several streams tributaries of the St. Mary's. Surface low 
and sandy, with swamps. Eice and cotton are the principal 
products. Farms 235; manuf. 5; dwell. 642, and pop. — 
wh. 2,069, fr. col. 4, si. 4,246— total 6,319. Capital: Jeffer- 
sonton. 

Camden county, Mo. Situate centrally, and contains 480 
sq. m. Drained by Osage r. and its tributaries. Surface 
level or undulating, with considerable woodland and a soil 
of great fertility. Farms 214; dwell. 360, and pop.— wh. 
2,208, fr. col. 0, si. 130— total 2,33S. Capital : Erie. 

Camden county, IF. Jer. ' Situate W. middle, on Dela- 
ware r., and contains 26S sq. m. Watered by creeks of the 
Delaware. Surface flat; soils moderately fertile. Farms 
731 ; manuf. 148 ; dwell. 4,090, and pop.— wh. 23,825, fr. col. 
2,097, si. 0— total 25,422. Capital : Camden. Public Works : 
Camden and Amboy E. E. 

Camden county, 2F. Car. Situate N. E. between Pas- 
quotank and North rivers, and contains 22S sq. m. Surface 
low and marshy, and soils indifferent. Farms 579 ; manuf. 
15 ; dwell. 770, and pop.— wh. 3,572, fr. col. 290, si. 2,187— 
total 6,049. Capital : Camden C. H. 

Camden, p. v., and cap. Wilcox co., Ala. : on a cr. of 
Alabama r., 63 m. W. S. W. Montgomery. 

Camden, p. v., and cap. Benton co., Penn. : about 6 m. 
W. of Tennessee r., and 69 W. Nashville. The Nashville 
and Mississippi E. E. will pass through this place. 

Camden, p. v., and cap. Washita co., Ark. : on the W. 
side of Washita r., 78 m. S. by E. Little Eock. 

Camden, p. v., Kent co., Del. : on the S. branch of Jones' 
cr., 3 m. S. by E. Dover. 

Camden, p. v., Carroll co., Ind. : on the N. side of Pas- 
sianong cr., 63 m. N. N. W. Indianapolis. 

Camden, p. o., Schuyler co., III. : on a tributary of Crook- 
ed cr., S4 m. W. N. W. Springfield. 

Camden, t. and p. v., Waldo co., Me. : on the W. side of 
Penobscot bay, 36 m. E. by S. Augusta. It has a good har- 
bor and a number of vessels employed in the coasting trade 
and the fisheries. Lime is the principal staple, and is export- 
ed in large quantities. Ship-building is also an extensive 
employment at this port. Pop. 4,005. 

Camden, p. v., Madison co., Miss. : on a cr. of Big Black x 
r., 36 m. N. by E. Jackson. 

Camden, t. and p. o., Hillsdale co., Mich. : on Little St. 
Joseph's r., 66 m. S. by W. Lansing. Pop. 594. 

Camden, p. v., Eay co., Mo. : on the N. side of the Mis- 
souri r., 112 m. W. N. W. Jefferson City, and by course of 
the r., 342 m. above St. Louis. 

Camden, p. v., and cap. Camden co., IF. Car. : on the E. 
side of Pasquotank r., 147 m. E. N. E. Ealeigh. The ton- 
nage of the district of which it is the port, amounted in 
1S50 to 11,948 tons. 

Camden, t. and p. v., Oneida co., 2F. Y. : on Fish cr., 108 
m. W. N. W. Albany. The Watertown and Eome E. E. 
passes through the village IS m. from Eome. Pop. 2,320. 

Camden, t., p. city, port, and cap., Camden co., IF. Jer. : 
on the E. side of Delaware r., opposite Philadelphia, 55 m. 
S. by W. Trenton. The city is united with Philadelphia by 
three ferries. The largest ships come up to the lower part 
of the city, and vessels of 150 tons to the central parts. The 
city has considerable manufactures and trade, and contains 
numerous fine publie buildings, churches, and school-houses. 
The Camden and Amboy E. E. has its terminus at this 



CAM 



CAM 



point, and there is also a railroad to Woodbury. Three 
newspapers are published here weekly, the " "West Jersey- 
man" (whig), the " 0. Phoenix," and the " C. Democrat" 
(dem.) Pop. 9,618. 

Camden, p. v., Preble co., Ohio : on the W. side Seven 
Mile cr., 92 m. W. by S. Columbus. 

Camden, p. v., and cap. Eershaw dist., S. Car. : on the 
E. side of Wateree r., SI m. N. E. Columbia. The river is 
navigable to this point for 70 tons flat boats, but since the 
completion of the Camden Branch of the South Carolina 
E. B. the bulk of its commercial material has been convey- 
ed by land. The village has some manufactures, and its 
public buildings are commodious and substantial. A news- 
paper, the " C. Journal," is issued semi-weekly. Camden 
is noted as the scene of two battles of the Eevolution— the 
one fought 16th Aug., 1780, and the other 23d April, 1781. 
A monument, erected in honor of Baron De Kalb, and 
the foundation of which was laid by Lafayette in 1825, 
stands at the end of De Kalb Street ; it is of white marble, 
and the chief ornament of the village. 

Camden, p. v., Benton co., Term,. : 69 m. W. Nashville. 

Camden Mills, p. o., Eock Island co., III. : on Copper 
cr. of Eock r., 123 m. N. W. by N. Springfield. 

Camdenvelle, p. v., Anderson co., Ky. : 22 m. S. W. 
Frankfort. 

Camel's Bump, Verm. : one of the highest peaks of the 
Green Mountains, 17 m. W. Montpelier. Its elevation is 
4,188 feet above the sea-level. 

Cameeon county, Tex. Situate S. W. on Gulf of Mexico, 
and contains about 5,600 sq. m. It includes the Isla del 
Padre. Its principal settlements are on the Eio Grande. 
Earms 11 ; dwell. 1,554, and pop.— wh. 8,469, fr. col. 19, si. 
53 — total 8,541. In this enumeration Starr and Webb 
counties are also included. Capital : Santa Eita. 

Cameeon, t. and p. v., Steuben co., N. Y. : on the Camis- 
teo r., 216 m. W. by S. Albany. The New York and Erie 
E. E. passes through the village, 324 m. from New York 
City, and 145 m. from Dunkirk. Pop. 1,701. 

Cameeon, p. v., Clinton co., Penn. : 78 m. N. W. Harris- 
burg. 

Cameeon, p. v., and cap. Milam co., Tece. : on the N. side 
of Little r. of the Brazos r., 64 m. N. E. Austin City. 

Cameeon's Mills, p. o., Steuben co., K. Y. : 222 m. W. 
by S. Albany. 

Camilltts, t. and p. v., Onondago co., 27". Y. : 128 m. W. 
Albany. The Erie Canal traverses the northern part of the 
town, and the Eochester and Syracuse E. E. intersects the 
village, 7 m. W. Syracuse. Pop. 3,106. 

Campbell county, Ga. Situate N. W., and contains 3S8 
sq. m. Drained by Chattahoochee r. and its creeks. Sur- 
face undulating, and soils of average fertility. Products 
wheat, Indian corn, and cotton. Farms 694 ; manuf. IS ; 
dwell. 920, and pop.— wh. 5,718, fr.col. 7, si. 1,507— total 7,232. 
Capital: CampbeUton. Public Works: La Grange E. E. 

Campbell county, Ky. Situate N. between the Ohio and 
Licking rivers, and contains 180 sq. m. Drained by creeks 
flowing into the border rivers. Surface uneven, and soils 
moderately productive. Wheat, corn, and tobacco are the 
staple products. Farms 730 ; manuf. 12 ; dwell. 2,319, and 
pop.— wh. 12,871, fr. col. 79, si. 177— total 13,127. Capital: 
Newport. Public Works : Lexington and Cincinnati E. E. 
(projected). 

Campbell county, Tenn. Situate N. E., and contains 
672 sq. m. Drained by Cumberland and New rivers, and 
Clinch r. washes its S. E. border. Surface uneven and 
hilly — in the N. W. mountainous. Soils, with some excep- 
tions, fertile, and productive of the cereals and some cot- 
ton. Farms 521; manuf. 14; dwell. 916, and pop. — wh. 
5,653, fr. col. 97, si. 318— total 6,068. Capital: Jacksboro'. 

Campbell county, Vira. Situate S. between James and 
Staunton rivers, and contains 576 sq. m. Drained by Fall- 
ing r., Otter cr., and other streams. Surface much broken, 
but soil productive. Wheat, Indian corn, oats, and tobacco 



are the principal growths. Farms 758 ; manuf. 119 ; dwell. 
2,203, and pop.— wh. 11,538, fr. col. 841, si. 10,866— total 
23,245. Capital: Campbell C. H. Public Works: Virgi- 
nia and East Tennessee E. E., etc. 

Campbell, p. v., Coles co., Ml. : on the W. side of Em- 
barras r., 2 m from that stream, and 67 m. E. S. E. 
Springfield. 

Campbell, p. v., Lawrence co., Ohio: 96 m. S. by E. 
Columbus. 

Campbell C. H., p. v., and cap. Campbell co., Virg. : 92 
m. W. S. W. Eichmond. 

Campbell's Bp.idge, p. o., Marion dist., S. Car. : 89 m. 
E. by N. Columbia. 

Campbellsburgh, p. v., Henry co., Ky. : on the Louis- 
ville and Cincinnati E. E., 30 m. N. W. Frankfort. 

Campbell's Corners, p. o., Oakland co., Mich. 

Campbell's Mills, p. o., Windham co., Conn. : 38 m. 
E. N. E. Hartford. 

Campbell's Post, p. v., Portage co., Ohio : 122 m. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Campbell's Best, p. o., Sullivan co., Term. : 247 m. E. by 
N. Nashville. 

Campbell's Station, p. o., Knox co., Tenn. : on the N. 
side of Tennessee r., 129 m. E. Nashville. 

Campbellsville, p. v., and cap. Taylor co., Ky. : 58 m. 
S. by W. Frankfort. 

Campbellsville, p. v., Giles co., Tenn. : on a cr. of Ten- 
nessee r., 59 m. S. by W. Nashville. 

Campbellton, p. v., Jackson co., Flor.: on the W. side 
of Chipola r., 76" m. W. N. W. Tallahassee. 

Campbellton, p. v., and cap. Campbell co., Ga. : on both 
sides of Chattahoochee r., 93 m. W. N. W. Milledgeville. 

Campbellton, p. v., Itawamba co., Miss. : 173 m. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Campbelltown, p. v., Steuben co., K. Y. : on E. side of 
Conhocton r., 174 m. W. by S. Albany. The Buffalo, Cor- 
ning, and New York E. E. passes through the village, 9 m. 
from Corning. 

Campbelltown, p. v., Lebanon co., Penn-. : 15 m. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Campbellyille, p. v., Duchess co., N. Y. : 63 m. S. by 
E. Albany. 

Campbellyille, p. y., Sullivan co., Penn.: 87 m. N. 
Harrisburg. 

Camp Call, p. o., Cleveland co., 27. Car. : 153 m. S. W. 
Ealeigh. 

Camp Creek, p. o., Kosciusko co., Ind. : 7S m. N. by E. 
Indianapolis. 

Camp Creek, p. o., Jefferson co., Ark. : 52 m. S. by E. 
Little Eock. 

Camp Creek, p. o., Livingston co., Ky. : 198 m. W. by S. 
Frankfort. 

Camp Creek, p. o., Greene co., Tenn. : on a cr. so called 
of Nolichucky r., 228 m. E. Nashville. 

Campello, p. o., Plymouth co., Mass. 

Camp Ground, p. v., Appling co., Ga. : 117 m. S. S. E 
Milledgeville. 

Camp Hill, p. o., Tallapoosa co., Ala. : 43 m. N. E 
Montgomery. 

Camp Izard, p. o., Marion co., Flor. : 162 m. S. E. by E. 
Tallahassee. 

Camp Mills, p. o., Floyd co., Virg. : 163 m. W. S. W. 
Eichmond. 

Campobello, p. v., Spartanburgh dist., S. Car. : 73 m. 
N. by W. Columbia. 

Camp Point, p. o., Adams co., PI. : 61 m. W. by N. 
Springfield. 

Camp Eidge, p. o., Williamsburgh dist., S. Car. : 77 m. 
E. by S. Columbia. 

Camp Spring, p. o., Lawrence co., Ala. : 166 m. N. N. W. 
Montgomery. 

Campti, p. v., Nachitoehes par., La. : on the N. E. side 
of Eed r., 15S m. N. W. Baton Eouge. 

103 



CAM 



CAN 



Campton, t. and p. o., Grafton co., JK Ilamp. : on Peme- 
gemasset r., 44 m. ST. by W. Concord. Pop. 1,489. 

Campton Village, p. v., Grafton co., li. Ilamp. : 43 m. 
N. by W. Concord. 

Camptown, p. v., Bradford co., Penn. : 112 m. N. Har- 
risburg. 

Camptown, p. t., Essex co., A 7 ! Jer. : on Elizabeth r., 47 
m. N. N. W. Trenton. Considerable manufactures are car- 
ried on in this village. It derives its name from the fact of 
the encampment of the American army at this point dur- 
ing the Revolutionary war. 

Campville, p. v., Tioga co., iVI Y. : on the N. bank of 
Susquehanna r., 122 m. W. S. W. Albany, and on the line 
of the New York and Erie E. E., 240 m. from New York 
and 229 m. from Dunkirk. 

Campyille, p. v., Litchfield co., Conn. 

Cana, p. o., Jennings co., Ind. : 57 m. S. E. Indian- 
apolis. 

Canaan, p. v., Marion co., Ala. : 153 m. N. W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Canaan, t. and p. v., Litchfield co., Conn. : on the E. 
side of Housatonic r., 42 m. N. W. Hartford. The river 
between this and Salisbury has a fall of CO feet, and affords 
extensive hydraulic power. Iron and lime are the chief 
manufactures. The Housatonic E. E. passes through 
Canaan, 73 m. N. of Bridgeport. Pop. 2,727. 

Canaan, p. v., Jefferson co., Ind. : about 2 m. W. of 
Indian Kentucky r., 76 m. S. E. Indianapolis. 

Canaan, t. and p. v., Somerset co., Me. : on the E. side 
of Kennebec r., 27 m. N. by E. Augusta. Pop. 1,696. 

Canaan, t. and p. o., Grafton co., A 7 ! Samp. : on Mas- 
corny r., 33 m. N. W. Concord. Pop. 1,686. 

Canaan, t. and p. v., Columbia co., A". Y. : 22 m. S. E. 
Albany. The Hudson and Berkshire B. E., and the Albany 
and West Stockbridge (western) E. E. traverse the t., and 
the latter touches the v., 33 m. from Albany. Pop. 1,941. 

Canaan, t. and p. o., "Wayne co., Ohio : 84 m. N. E. 
Columbus. Pop. 1,923. 

Canaan, t. and p. o., Wayne co., Perm. : on branches 
of Lackawaxen cr., 143 m. N. E. Harrisburg. The E. E. 
extending from Carbondale to Honesdale traverses the t. in 
its N. part. 

Canaan, t. and p. o., Essex co., Yerm. : in the N. E. 
corner of the State, 67 m. N. E. Montpelier. Pop. 471. 

Canaan Centre, p. v., Columbia co., 2>f. Y. : 24 m. S. E. 
Albany. 

Canaan Four Corners, p. v., Columbia co., N. Y. : 23 
m. S. E. Albany. 

Canaanville, p. v., Athens co., Ohio : 73 m. S. E. 
Columbus. 

Canada creek, N. Y. : the W. and largest branch of the 
Mohawk r. It is about 60 m. long, and in its course has 
several rapids and cascades, which afford views of much 
grandeur and interest. 

Canadian, p. y., Mississippi co., Ark. : 142 m. N. E. 
Little Eock. 

Canabice, t. and p. v., Ontario co., W. Y. : on Honeyoke 
Lake, 1S7 m. W. Albany. Hemlock Lake bounds it on the 
W. side. The t. contains much fine agricultural land. 
Pop. 1,069. 

Canajohaeie, t. and p. v., Montgomery co., 2F. Y. : on 
the S. side of Mohawk r., 42 m. W. Albany. The Erie 
Canal passes through the village. The " Montgomery 
County Union" (dem.), is issued weekly. Pop. 4,097. 

Canal, p. o., Onondaga co., X. Y. : 122 m. W. Albany. 

Canal, t, and p. o., Yenango co., Penn. : 197 m.W. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Canal Dover, p. o., Tuscarawas co., Ohio : on the Ohio 
Canal, 86 m. E. by N. Columbus. 

Canal Fulton, p. o., Stark co., Ohio : on the E. side of 
Tuscarawas r., and on the Ohio Canal, 96 m. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Canal Lewisytlle, p. v., Coshocton co., Ohio: on the 
104 



N. side of Tuscarawas r., and on the Ohio Canal, C6 m. B, 
by N. Columbus. 

Canal Winchester, p. v., Fairfield co., Ohio : on a 
branch of Little Walnut cr., and on the Ohio Canal, 14 m, 
S. E. Columbus. Pop.j.274. 

Canandaigua lake, If. Y. : a beautiful sheet of water 
situate centrally in Ontario co. Its length, from N. to S., 
is 14 m., and its medial breadth about 1 m. It discharges 
itself into the river of the same name at the v. of Canan- 
daigua. 

Canandaigua river, N. Y. : is formed from the waters 
discharged from the lake, and under various names winds 
its course to the Seneca, the common recipient of a cluster 
of small lakes. 

Canandaigua, t., p. v., and cap. Ontario co., M Y.: on 
the W. side of Canandaigua Lake, 177 m. W. Albany. The 
v. is pleasantly situate at the outlet of the lake, and contains, 
besides the co. buddings, a number of substantial and 
elegant churches, stores, and dwellings. The "Ontario 
Eepository" (whig), and the " Ontario Messenger" (dem.), 
are published weekly. The Eochester and Syracuse E. E. 
passes through the v. 29 m. from Eochester, and it is the 
N. terminus of the Canandaigua and Elmira E. E., and the 
E. terminus of the Canandaigua and Niagara Falls E. E. 
Pop. 6,212. 

Canandaigua, p. o., Lenawee co., Mich. : on the W. side 
of Bear cr. of Eaisin r., 64 m. S. by E. Lansing. The 
Southern Michigan E. E. runs 4 m. N. of the village. 

Canasauga, p. o., Polk co., Tenn. : 142 m. E. S. E. 
Nashville. 

Canastota, p. v., Madison co., Al Y. : on the Erie Canal, 
and the Utica and Syracuse E. E., 201 m. from Albany. 

Candia, t. and p. o., Eockingham co., IV. Hatnp. : on the 
height of land between the Merrimac r. and the ocean, 17 
m. S. E. Concord. The view from these heights is exten- 
sive, reaching on one side to the White Mountains, and on 
the other to the distant Atlantic. Pop. 1,482. 

Candor, t. and p. v., Tioga co., M Y. : on Cottotong cr., 
127 m. W. by S. Albany. The v. lies on the Cayuga and 
Susquehanna E. E., 10 m. N. Owego. Pop..3,433. 

Candor, p. v., Washington co., Penn. : 192 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Caneadea, t. and p. v., Alleghany co., N. Y. : on the 
Genesee r., 227 m. W. by S. Albany. The v. is on the W. 
side of the river. Pop. 1.477. 

Cane Bottom, p. o., Lauderdale co., Tenn. : 162 m. W. 
by S. Nashville. 

Cane Creek, p. v., and cap. Butler co., Mo. : on the W. 
fork of the cr. so called, 154 m. S. E. Jefferson City. Cane 
cr. is a tributary of Big Black Water r., which it joins a 
little below the Arkansas State line. 

Cane Creek, p. o., Chatham co., AC Car. : on a cr. of 
Cape Fear r. so called, 43 m. W. by N. Ealeigh. 

Cane Creek, p. o., Lincoln co., Tenn. : on a cr. of Elk 
r. so called, 64 m. S. by E. Nashville. 

Cane Creek, p. o., Franklin co., Ala. : 174 m. N. W. 
Montgomery. 

Canemah, v., Clackamas co., Ore;;. : on E. side of Willa- 
mette r., 2 m. above Oregon City, and 33 m. N. by E. 
Salem. 

Cane Point, p. o., Troup co., Ga. : 112 m. Milledgeville. 

Cane Spring, p. o., Bullitt co., Ky. : 51 m. W. S. W. 
Frankfort. 

Caney, p. v., Washita co., Ark. : 86 m. S. Little Eock. 

Caney. p. v., Matagorda co., Tex. : on a stream so called, 
147 m. S. E. Austin City. The Caney empties into the 
Gulf at the N. E. end of Matagorda Bay. 

Caney Branch, p. o., Greene co., Tenn. : 219 m. E. 
Nashville. 

Caney Fork, p. o., Warren co., Tenn.: on Caney fork 
of Cumberland r., 55 m. E. by S. Nashville. 

Caney Spring, p. o., Marshall co., Tenn. : 32 m. 8. 
Nashville. 



CAN 



CAP 



Caneyyelle, p. v., Grayson co., Ky. : 98 m. W. S. "W. 
Frankfort. 

Canfield, p. v., and cap. Mahoning co., Ohio : 132 m. 
N. E. Columbus. The " Mahoning Index," a dem. paper, 
is issued weekly. 

Canfteld's Cornee, p. o., Tioga co., K. Y. : 134 m. 
"W. S. W. Albany. 

Canicello, p. v., Eockbridge co., Tirg. : 112 m. "W. 
Eichmond. 

Canisteo, t. and p. v., Steuben co., JK Y. : on Canisteo 
r., 18S m. W. by S. Albany. The v. on the N. side of the 
r. is intersected by the New York and Erie E. E., 337 m. 
from New York, and 132 from Dunkirk. The " Canisteo 
Express" is issued weekly. Pop. 2,030. 

Canisteo river, N. Y. : rises in Alleghany co., and after 
a general S. E. course of 60 m., falls into Tioga r., in the t. 
ofErwin, Steuben co. It is navigable for boats for about 
40 m., and is the recipient of numerous fine mill streams. 

Canktio river, K. Y. : a tributary of Tioga r., which it 
enters near the v. of Painted Post. Its whole course is 
about 60 m., and it is boatable for about 40 m. ; and though 
in some parts no more than 4 rods wide, floats arks contain- 
ing 1,000 bushels of grain, and opens fine facilities of inter- 
course with the Tioga and Susquehanna rivers. 

Cannaday Gap, p. o., Floyd co., Yirg. : at a pass of the 
mountains, 159 m. W. S. W. Eichmond. 

Cannelton, p. v., Perry co., Did. : on the Ohio r., 124 
m. S. by W. Indianapolis. The neighborhood abounds in 
coal, from a particular species of which (cannel) the y. takes 
its name. It possesses great manufacturing advantages, 
and considerable capital has been invested in cotton and 
earthenware factories. Building material, fire clay, etc., are 
abundant The " Economist," a weekly paper, is published 
here. Pop. about 700. 

Cannon county, Term. Situate centrally, and contains 
340 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Cumberland r. Sur- 
face mountainous, and soils generally fertile. Farms 877 ; 
manuf. 7 ; dwell. 1,326, and pop.— wh. 8,115, fr. col. 24, si. 
843— total S,9S2. Capital : Woodbury. 

Cannonsbttegh, p. v., Kent co., Mich. : on a cr. of Grand 
r., 51 m. W. N. W. Lansing. 

Cannonsbxjegh, p. v., Greenup co., Ky. : 72 m. S. W. 
Frankfort. 

Cannonsbuegh, p. v., "Washington co., Penn. : on Char- 
tier's cr., 18 m. S. W. Pittsburg, and 1S2 m. W. Harrisburg. 
Jefferson College, and a Theological Seminary are located 
here. 

Cannon's Feeey, p. o., Sussex co., Del. : 39 m. S. 
Dover. 

Cannon's Mile, p. o., Columbiana co., Ohio : 126 m. 
E. N. E. Columbus. 

Cannon's Stoke, p. o., Spartanburgh dist., 8. Car. : 68 
N. by W. Columbia. 

Cannonsviele, p. v., Delaware co., MY.: on the N. side 
of Delaware r., 89 m. S. W. Albany. 

Canoe Ceeek, p. o., Burke co., K. Car. : 163 m. "W. 
Ealeigh. 

Canoga, p. v., Seneca co., K. Y. : about one m. W. of 
Cayuga Lake, 148 m. W. Albany. 

Canonigut island, in Narraganset Bay, R. I. : 8 m. "W. 
Ehode Island. It is 7 m. long and a mile broad. 

Canoochee, p. o., Emanuel co., Ga. : on the r. so called, 
79 m. 8. E. Milledgeville. 

Canooche river, Ga. : the W. and largest confluent of 
Ogeechee r. It is 100 m. long, and navigable for 50 m. to 
Cedar cr. 

Canterbury, t. and p. v., "Windham co., Conn. : on the 
W. side of Quinnebaug r.,41 m. E. Hartford. Pop. 1,669. 
Canterbury, p. o., Kent co., Del. : at the head of Mother 
Kill cr., 7 m. S. by W. Dover. 

Canterbury, t. and p. v., Merrimac co., K. ITamp. : on 
the E. side of the Merrimac r., 8 m. N. Concord. In the 
S. E. part of the t. there is a Shaker's village. Pop. 1,614. 

O 



Canton, p. v., Smith co., Teas. : 218 m. N. E. Austin 
City. 

Canton, p. v., Wilcox co., Ala. : on the left bank of the 
Alabama r., 63 m. W. S. W. Montgomery. 

Canton, p. v., Lawrence co., Ark. : on a cr. of Strawberry 
r., 109 m. N. by E. Little Eock. 

Canton, t. and p. v., Hartford co., Conn. : on Farmington 
r., 13 m. N. W. by W. Hartford. It has some manufactures. 
Pop. 1,994. 

Canton, p. v., and cap. Cherokee co., Ga. : on the N. side 
of the Etowah r., 113 m. N. W. Milledgeville. 

Canton, p. v., Washington co., Ind. : 77 m. S. Indiana- 
polis. The New Albany ani Salem E. E. crosses the co. 
about a mile S. of the village. 

Canton, p. v., Fulton co., III. : on Big cr. of Spoon r., 47 
m. N. N. W. Springfield. 

Canton, p. v., Jackson co., la. : on the N. side of Mako- 
queta r., 47 m. N. E. Iowa City. 

Canton, p.v., Twigg co., Ky. : on the E. side of Cumber- 
land r., 40 m. from its mouth, and 194 m. W. S. W. Frank- 
fort. It is the place of shipment for the produce of a rich 
and productive back country. 

Canton, t. and p. o., Oxford co., Me. : on Androscoggin 
r., 26 in. "W. by N. Augusta. Pop. 926. 

Canton, p. v., and cap. Madison co., Miss. : between the 
forks of a cr. of Big Black r., 23 m. N. N. E. Jackson. 

Canton, t. and p. v., Norfolk co., Mass. : on Neponset 
r., 14 m. S. W. Boston. The Boston and Providence E. E. 
passes through the v., 14 m. from Boston, and 29 from 
Providence. It has several iron, cotton, and woolen facto- 
ries. Pop. 2,598. 

Canton, p. v., Salem co., K. Jer. : on the W. branch of 
Stow cr., 61 m. S. S. W. Trenton. 

Canton, t., p. v., and cap. St. Lawrence co., K. Y. : on 
Grasse r. of the St. Lawrence, 142 m. N. W. Albany. At 
the v. a fine bridgo is thrown over the stream, and the 
Watertown and Potsdam E. E. will cross the Grasse at this 
point Pop. 4,685. 

Canton, t, p. v., and cap. Stark co., Ohio: about 11 m. 
above the bifurcation of Nimishillen cr., 103 m. N. E. 
Columbus. Three newspapers, the " Ohio Expository" 
(whig), the " Stark County Democrat,'' and the " Ohio Staats 
Bote" (Germ, dem.), are published weekly. It is a very 
thriving place, being intersected by the Ohio and Pennsyl- 
vania E. E., Pop. of v. 2,604, and of t. 4,326. 

Canton, t. and p. v., Bradford co., Perm. : on Tonawanda 
r., 107 m. N. by W. Harrisburg. 

Canton, p. v., Lewis co., Mo. : 108 m. N. N. E. Jefferson 
City. 

Canton Centee, p. o., Hartford co., Conn. : 13 m. N. W. 
by W. Hartford. 

Canton Mills, p. o., Oxford co., Me. : 27 m. W. by N. 
Augusta. 

Canteell's Cross Eoads, p. o., M'Minn co., Term. : 131 
m. E. S. E. Nashville. 

Cantwell's Beidge, p. o., Newcastle co., Del. : on the 
N. side of Appoquinimink cr., 17 m. N. by W. Dover. 

Cape Arago, Oreg. Ter. : a prominent headland, jutting 
into the Pacific Ocean, about 40 m. S. of the TJmpqua r. 

Cape Ait Gray, p. o., Lincoln co., Mo. : on the W. side 
of the Mississippi r., S8 m. E. N. E. Jefferson City. 

Cape Blanco, Oreg. Ter. : a headland on the Pacific 
coast, about 25 m. N. of Cape Oxford. 

Cape Cod, Mass. : a projection from the mainland, in 
lat. 42° 2' 23" N., and long. 70° 3' 55" W. It is curved 
inward, something in the shape of a man's arm bent at the 
elbow and wrist, and is 65 m. long, and from 1 to 20 m. 
broad. It constitutes the co. of Barnstable. 

Cape Disappointment, Oreg. Ter. : a headland at the 
entrance of the Columbia r. 

Cape Fare, p. o., Taney co., Mo. : on White r., 133 m . 
S. S. W. Jefferson City. 

Cape Fear, K. Car. : the S. point of Smith's island, near 

105 



CAP 



CAR 



the mouth of Cape Fear r., in lat. 33° 4S' N., and long. 7S° 
09' W. 

Cape Feab river, 2T. Car. : the best navigable river of 
the State. It has two branches : the N. W. branch, formed 
by the union of Deep and Haw rivers, from which, flowing 
about 100 m., it receives the X. E. branch, or Clarendon 
r., above Wilmington, and 34 m. below it enters the Atlantic 
Ocean by two channels, one on each side of Smith's Island. 
Its channels have been deepened by embankments, and 
steamboats now navigate its waters to Fayetteville, 90 m., 
at the lowest stage of the waters. 

Cape Foitlw-eatheb, Oreg. Ter. : a headland on the 
Pacific coast, about 10 m. N. of the mouth of Alseya r. 

Cape Gleaedeatt county, Mo. Situate S. E. on Missis- 
sippi r., and contains 860 sq. m. Drained by White Water 
r. and other streams. Surface level, sometimes swampy, 
and studded with small lakes. Iron ore, useful clays, etc., 
are abundant. Wheat, Indian corn, oats, and tobacco are 
the chief products. Farms 1,019 ; manuf. 31 ; dwell. 2,108, 
and pop.— wh. 12,203, fr. coL 35, sL 1,674— total 13,912. 
Capital: Jackson. 

Cape Gleaedeatt, t. and p. v., Cape Girardeau co., Mo. : 
on the W. side of Mississippi r., 168 m. S. E. Jefferson 
City. It is the depfit of a great part of Southern Missouri. 
The " Western Eagle'' (whig) is here published weekly. 

Cape Horn, Clarke co., Oreg. : a noted headland on the 
N. bank of Columbia r., in lat. 45° 33' 09" N., and long. 
122° 06* 15" W. 

Cape Islajtd, p. v., Cape May co., -A 7 ". Jer. : at the extreme 
point of the State, 91 m. S. Trenton. It is a place much 
resorted to by the fashionables in the summer season, for 
whom splendid boarding-houses and hotels are provided. 
The place affords great faculties for sea bathing and 
fishing. 

Cape Lookout, Oreg. Ter. : a headland on the Pacific 
coast, in lat. 45° OS' N. 

Cape May county, JK Jer. Situate S. point of State, 
and contains 240 sq. m. Drained chiefly by creeks of Tuck- 
ahoe r., which demarks the N. border. Surface flat — in 
some places swampy. The coast is lined with long sand 
islands inclosing lagoons. Farms 2S5; manuf. 4; dwell. 
1,218, and pop.— wh. 6.190, fr. coL 243, si. 0— total 6,433. 
Capital : Cape May C. H. 

Cape Mat, p. v., and cap. Cape May co., 2sf. Jer. : 89 m. 
8. Trenton. 

Cape May : a promontory on the 1ST. side of the entrance 
of Delaware Bay, IS m. N. of Cape Henlopen, and in lat. 
8S° 57' N., and long. 74° 52' W. There is a light-house on 
this point. 

Cape Mendocino, Calif. : a bold headland of the Pacific 
coast, in lat. 40° 21' m. N., and long. 124° 35' W. This is 
the most westerly point of the United States. 

Cape Neddick, p. o., York co., Me. : on the headland so 
called, on the Atlantic Ocean, about 4 m. above York 
Harbor, and 84 m. S. W. by S. Augusta. The cape is 
chiefly inhabited by fishermen. 

Cape Oxford, Oreg. Ter. : a headland of considerable 
extent on the Pacifio coast, and by bending south, incloses 
a bay called Ewing Harbor. A city, named Port Oxford, 
has been founded here. 

Cape's Creek, p. o., Newton co., Mo. : on a cr. so called, 
166 m. S. W. Jefferson City. 

Cape Shoal-water, Oreg. Ter. : a headland on the N . 
side of the entrance of Shoalwater Bay. 

Capeville, p. v., Northampton co., Tirg. : on Cape 
Charles, the S. point of the Chesapeake peninsula, S3 m. 
E. by B. Richmond. 

Cape Vincent, t.. p. v., and port of entry, Jefferson co., 
2< T . Y. : on the S.side of the St. Lawrence r., opposite Wolf 
Island, 15S m. X. W. Albany. The v. is an important com- 
mercial entrepSt ; the Watertown and Rome R. R. termi- 
nates here, and steamboats ply regularly between this port 
and the principal lake ports of the Union and the Canadas. 
106 



The shipping owned in the district in 1850 amounted to 
2,497 tons. Pop/_3,044. 

Capon Bridge, p. o., Hampshire co., Yirg. : 147 m. N. by 
W. Richmond. 

Capon Springs, p. v., Hampshire co., Tirg. : 142 m. N. 
by W. Richmond. These springs are noted for their 
medicinal properties. * 

Captina, p. v., Belmont co., Ohio : 105 m. E. Columbus. 

Caraway, p. o., Randolph co., N. Car. : 173 m. W. by 9. 
Raleigh. 

Carbon county, Perm. Situate E. middle, and contains 480 
sq. m. Drained by tributaries of the Lehigh, which r. runs 
through it. Surface diversified, but in the N. W. and S. E. 
hilly and broken. Soils of moderate fertility. This is one 
of the first coal mining counties of the State. Farms 246 ; 
manuf. 15S ; dwell. 2,544, and pop.— wh. 15,656, fr. col. 30 
— total 15.6S6. Capital: Mauch-Chunk. Public Works: 
Lehigh Navigation, and a number of railroads from Mauch- 
Chunk to the mines. 

Carbondale, p. v., Luzerne co., Penn. : on Lackawanna 
cr., 117 m. N. E. Harrisburg. The celebrated Lackawanna 
coal is mined in this neighborhood, whence it is carried by 
E. R. to Honesdale, and thence by canal to Port Jervis, on 
the Delaware r., and by the Delaware and Hudson Canal 
to the Hudson r. There are also iron works in the vicinity. 
A mile W. of the v., Fall Brook has a cascade of SO feet 
descent 

Cardiff, p. o., Onondaga co., 2T. Y. : 116 m. W. Al- 
bany. 

Cardiff, p. v., Warren co., Miss. : 31 m. W. by S. 
Jackson. 

Cardington, p. v., Morrow co., Ohio : on the Cleveland, 
Co»imbus, and Cincinnati E. E., 33 m. N. Columbus. 

Carey, p. v., Wyandott co., Ohio : on the Finlay branch 
of the Mad River and Lake Erie E. E., 72 m. N. N. W. 
Columbus. 

Caellle's Mills, p. o., Perry co., Miss. : on Tallahalla 
cr., 84 m. S. E. Jackson. 

Carllnvtlle, p. v., and cap. Macoupin co., PI. : about 2 
m. BT. of Macoupin cr., and 41 m. S. by W. Springfield. It 
is one of the most flourishing interior villages of the State, 
and an important station on the Sangamon and Alton 
E.E. 

Carlisle, p. v., Sullivan co., Ind. : about 1 m. E. of Busse- 
ron cr. of the Wabash, 86 m. S. W. Indianapolis. It is the 
principal v. in the co., and has about 400 inhabitants. 

Carlisle, t. and p. v., Middlesex co., Mass. : on the 
N. W. side of Concord v., 19 m. N. W. Boston. Pop. 719. 

Carlisle, p. v., and cap. Nicholas co., Ky. : on a small 
cr. of Licking r., 51 m. E. N. E. Frankfort. 

Caelisle, p. v., Eaton co., Mich. : on a cr. of Big fork 
of Thornapple r., 26 m. W. S. W. Lans'ng. 

Carlisle, t and p. v., Schoharie co., K Y.: 37 m. W. 
Albany. The vicinity abounds with caverns. Pop. 1,817 

Carlisle, p. city, and cap. Cumberland co., Penn. : on 
the Cumberland Valley R. R., 22 m. from Harrisburg. Lat. 
40° 12' N., and long. 77° 10' W. Dickinson College is 
located here, and half a m. from the v. the United States' 
Barracks and Cavalry School. The v. has several manu- 
factures, and a considerable trade with the neighboring 
districts. The periodical press consists of the " American 
Volunteer" (dem.), the " American Democrat" (dem.), and 
the '• C. Herald" (whig), published weekly, and the " Month- 
ly Friend." Pop. 4,579. 

Carlisle, t. and p. v., Lorain co., Ohio : on W. branch 
of Black r., 104 m. N. N. E. Columbu3. Pop. 1 512 

Caelisle Springs, p. o., Cumberland co., Penn. :4 m. 
N. Carlisle, and 21 W. by S. Harrisburg. The waters are 
sulphurous. 

Cablocevtlle, p. v., Rutherford co., Tenn. : 31 m. S. E. 
Nashville. 

Cablow, p. v., Hopkins co., Ky. : on Deer cr. of Green 
r., 163 m. W. S. W. Frankfort. 



CAR 



CAR 



Caelowsytlle, p. v., Dallas co., Ala. : near Pine Barren 
cr. of the Alabama, 52 m. W. by S. Montgomery. 

Carlton, t. and p. t., Orleans co., 2f. Y. : on Lake Erie, 
221 m. W. by N. Albany. The v. is located on the E. side 
of Oak Orchard c, about 2 m. from the lake. Pop. 2.809. 

Carlton, t. and p. o., Barry co., Mich. : on Little fork 
of Thornapple r., 35 m. W. Lansing. 

Cablton's Stoke, p. o., King and. Queen co., Yirg.: 46 
m. N. E. by E. Richmond. 

Caelyle, p. v., and cap. Clinton to., III. : on the W. side 
of the Kaskaskia r., 215 m. from its mouth by its windings, 
and S7 m. S. by E. Springfield. The railroad from Vincen- 
nes across the State to LUinoistown, will probably intersect 
this point. 

Caelyle, p. v., Pickens co., Ala. : 118 m. N. W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Caejeel, p. v., Hamilton co., Ind. : 22 m. N". by E. Indian- 
apolis. 

Caemel, t. and p. o., Penobscot co., Me. : on Sowadabs- 
cook r., 46 m. N. E. Augusta. The Kennebec and Penob- 
scot E. E. passes through the township. Pop. 1,228. 

Cabmel, t., p. v., and cap. Putnam co., 2T. Y. : on the 
W. side of Croton r., 78 m. S. by E. Albany. There are 
several small lakes in the t., on one of which the v. is pleas- 
antly situate. Pop. 2,442. 

Caemel Hill, p. o., Chester dist., & Car. : 71 m. N. 
Columbia. 

Caemi, p. o., and cap. "White co., III. : on the W. side 
of the Little Wabash r., 147 m. S. E. Springfield. 

Caeiuchael's, p. o., Greene co., Penn. : 1S7 m. W. by 
8. Harrisburg. 

Caenent Peaieie, p. o., Perry co., El. : IIS m. S. Spring- 
field. 

Caenesvtlle, p. v., and cap. Franklin co., Ga. : on 
Stephen's cr. of Broad r., 91 m. N. by E. Milledgeville. 

Caroline county, Md. Situate E. shore on State line, 
and contains 310 sq. m. Drained by creeks of Choptank 
r., Marshy Hope cr., and other streams. Surface flat. Soils 
sandy, but improvable. Farms 730 ; dwell. 1,526, and pop. 
— wh. 6,096, fr. coL 2,788, si. SOS— total 9,692. Capital: 
Denton. 

Caeoline county, Yirg. Situate E. between Rappahan- 
nock and North Anna, a tributary of Pamunky r., and eon- 
tains 580 sq. m. Drained by head waters of Mattapony r. 
Surface hilly and broken, and soils various. The principal 
products are wheat, Indian corn, oats, and tobacco. Farms 
715 ; manuf. 51 ; dwell. 903, and pop.— wh. 6,892, fr. col. 
903, si. 10,661— total 18,456. Capital: Bowling Green. 
Public Works: Frederick and Eichmond E. E. 

Carolina, p. v., Haywood co., Tenn. : 146 m. W. by S. 
Nashville. 

Carolina Female College, p. o., Anson co., iK Car. : 89 
m. S. W. Ealeigh. 

Caroline, t. and p. v., Tompkins co., W. Y. : on the 
W. side of "West Owego cr., 128 m. W. Albany. The 
Cayuga and Susquehanna E. E. passes through the W. part 
of the t. Pop. 2,537. 

Caroline Centre, p. o., Tompkins co., K Y. : 131 m.W. 
Albany. 

Caeoline Mills, p. o., "Washington co., R. I. 

Caeondelet, p. o., St. Louis co., Mo. : on the W. side 
of the Mississippi, and 5£ m. below St. Louis, and 10S m. E. 
Jefferson City. It is an important v., and contains about 
800 inhabitants. 

Carpenter's Creek, p. o., Jasper CO., Ind. : on the cr. so 
called, 93 m. N. "W. Indianapolis. 

Carpenter's Landing, p. v., Gloucester co., M Jer. : at 
the head of sloop navigation on Mantua cr. of the Delaware, 
7 m. above its confluence, 44 m. S. W. Trenton. It has 
considerable trade in lumber and fire-wood. Pop. about 300. 

Carpenteesville, p. v., Putnam co., Ind. : on a branch 
of Big Eaccoon cr., 38 m. "W. Indianapolis. 

Carp Eivee, p. o., Marquette co., Mich. : on the r. of 



same name, 292 m. N. W. Lansing. Carp r. is a small 
stream emptying into Lake Superior, below Talcott Harbor. 

Care, p. o., Jasper co., la. : 83 m. "W. Iowa City. 

Caeeibott, p. o., Aroostook co., Me. 

Carritunk, p. v., Somerset co., Me. : on the E. side of 
Kennebec r., 53 m. N. by "W. Augusta. 

Carroll county, Ark. Situate N. "W. on State line, and 
contains 1,004 sq. m. Drained by Creeks of White r. Sur- 
face level or undulating. Soils of average fertility. Farms 
541; manuf 1; dwell. 6S6, and pop.— wh. 4,390, fr. col. 11, 
si. 213— total 4,614. Capital : Carrollton. 

Careoll county, Ga. Situate N. W. on State line, and 
contains 760 sq. m. Drained by Tallapoosa r. and the trib- 
utaries of Chattahoochee r., which bounds it S. E. Surface 
elevated and broken, and the soil indifferent. Wheat, In- 
dian corn, and cotton are the chief products. Farms 7S2 ; 
manuf. 16 ; dwell. 1,379, and pop.— wh. S,252, fr. col. 4, si. 
1,101— total 9,357. Capital: Carrollton. 

Caeeoll county, HI. Situate N. W. on Mississippi r., 
and contains 496 sq. m. Drained by Plum r. and several 
creeks. Surface undulating — prairie predominating. Near 
the Mississippi are several sloughs and lakes. Soil uni- 
formly rich. Farms 482 ; manuf. 17 ; dwell. S14, and pop. 
— wh. 4,583, fr. col. 3— total 4,5S6. Capital : Mount Carroll. 

Caeeoll county, Ind. Situate N. N. W. middle, and 
contains 376 sq. m. Surface generally level, but undulates 
on the Wabash, Tippecanoe, and Wild Cat, which are the 
principal streams. Mostly covered with timber. The soil 
is a rich loam. Farms 1,129 ; manuf. 79 ; dwell. 1909, and 
pop.— wh. 10,9S2, fr. col. 33— total 11,015. Capital : Delphi. 
Public Works : Wabash and Erie Canal. 

Caeeoll county, la. Situate W., and contains 576 sq m. 
Taken from Pottowattomie in 1851. 

Caeeoll county, Ky. Situate N., at the confluence of 
Kentucky r. with the Ohio, and contains 142 sq. m. Drained 
by Kentucky r. and its creeks. Surface generally level, and 
the soils of an average fertility. Wheat, corn, and tobacco 
are the staple products. Farms 376 ; manuf. 17 ; dwell. 766, 
and pop.— wh. 4,552, fr. col. 25, si. 949— total 5,526. Capi- 
tal: Carrollton. 

Caeeoll parish, La. Situate N. E. of W. District, on 
Mississippi, and contains 720 sq. m. Drained by Bayoux 
du Bceuf and Macon, and river Tensas — all tributaries of the 
Washita. Surface low and level; soils of great fertility. 
Farms 23S; manuf. 10; dwell. 582, and pop.— wh. 2,836, fr. 
col. 10, si. 6,443— total 8,789. Capital: Lake Providence. 

Caeeoll county, Md. Situate N. middle, and contains 
462 sq. m. Drained by streams flowing into Patapsco r., 
Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac, and Monocacy rivers. Parr's 
Eidge, a high watershed, divides the county, and diverts 
the course of the streams. Surface hilly and rocky ; soils 
thin, but there is much good farm land. Grazing is much 
attended to ; iron and copper abound, and there is fine tim- 
ber. Farms 1,3S7; manuf. 124; dwell. 3,476, and pop.— 
wh. 18,667, fr. col. 974, si. 975— total 20,616. Capital: 
Westminster. Public Works : Baltimore and Ohio E. E., 
and Westminster Branch of Baltimore and Susquehanna 
E. E. 

Carroll county, Miss. Situate N. centrally, and con- 
tains 1,040 sq. m. Drained by the branches of Yazoo and 
Big Black rivers. Surface various, but soils rich and pro- 
ductive. The principal products are Indian corn and 
cattle. Farms 9S0 ; manuf. 45; dwell. 1,441, and pop.— 
wh. 8,661, fr. col. IS, si. S,S12— total 1S,491. Capital : Car- 
rollton. 

Caeeoll county, Mo. Situate W. on Missouri r., having 
Grand r. on its E. border, and contains 670 sq. m. Drained 
by Waconda and Big creeks. Surface undulating, chiefly 
prairie. Farms 3S3; manuf. 15; dwell. 770, and pop.— 
wh. 4,812, fr. col. 8, si. 621— total 5,441. Capital : Carrollton. 

Carroll county, K Hamp. Situate E. middle, and eon- 
tains 512 sq. m. Drained N. by Saco r., and S. and E. by 
creeks emptying into Lake Winnipiseogee. Surface varied ; 

10T 



CAR 



CAR 



soils moderately fertile. Farms 2,S05 ; manuf. 135 ; dwell. 
3,724, and pop.— wh. 20,154, fr. col. 2— total 20,156. Capital : 
Ossipee. Public Works : Great Falls and Conway E. E. 

Caeeoll county, Ohio. Situate E., and contains 432 sq. 
m. Drained by creeks tributary of Tuscarawas and Ohio 
rivers. Surface varied, and soils fertile, producing line 
crops of wheat, oats, and Indian corn. Farms 1,926; 
manuf. 41 ; dwell. 3,063, and pop.— wh. 17,633, fr. col. 52— 
total 17,6S5. Capital: Carrollton. Public Works: Sandy 
and Beaver Canal; Carrollton Branch of Pittsburg and 
Cleveland E. E., etc 

Caeeoll county, Te?m. Situate "W., and contains 960 sq. 
m. Drained by Big Sandy, and other creeks of Tennessee 
r., and Eulherford and S. forks of Obion r. Surface high, 
forming a watershed between the Tennessee and Missis- 
sippi rivers. Soils fertile. Farms 1,404 ; manuf. 24 ; dwell. 
2,105, and pop.— wh. 12,814, fr. col. 18, si. 3,135— total 15,967. 
Capital : Huntingdon. Public Works : Nashville and 
Mount Holly E. E. (projected). 

Caeeoll county, Virg. Situate 8. middle, at the "W. 
base of Blue Eidge, and contains 380 sq. m. Drained by 
creeks flowing into Great Kanawha r. Surface elevated 
and hilly, and soils of great fertility. "Wheat is the staple 
growth. The county has iron and coal mines, and sulphur 
springs. Farms 615 ; manuf. 11 ; dwell. 996, and pop. — 
wh. 5,726, fr. col. 29, si. 154— total 5,909. Capital : Hillsville. 
Caeeoll, p. v., Carroll co., Ind. : on the W. side of the 
Wabash r., 65 m. N. W. Indianapolis. 

Caeeoll, t. and p. v., Fairfield co., Ohio : at the junction 
of the Ohio and Hocking Canals, 19 m. 8. E. Columbus. 
Caeeoll, t. and p. o., Penobscot co., Me. Pop. 401. 
Caeeoll, t. and p. o., Coos co., 2f. Hamp. : on the N. W. 
base of the White Mountains, 73 m. N. Concord. P. 299. 

Caeeoll, t. and p. o., Chautauque co., K. Y. : on Cone- 
wango and Stillwater cr.281 m. W. by 8. Albany. P. 1,835. 
Caeeoll House, p. o., Coos co., N. Hamp. ; 73 m. N. 
Concord. 

Caebollsville, p. v., Tishemingo co.. Miss. : 179 m. 
N. E. by N. Jackson. 

Caeeollton, p. o., and cap. Pickens co., Ala. : on the 
"W. side of Lubbub cr. of Little Tombigbee r., 122 m. N. "W. 
Montgomery. Two newspapers, the " Pickens Eepublican" 
(whig), and the " West Alabamian" (dem.), are published 
weekly. 

Caeeollton, p. v., and cap. Carroll co., Ark. : on the 
"W. side of Crooked cr. of White r., 123 m. N. N. "W. Little 
Eock. 

Caeeollton, p. v., and cap. Carroll co., Ga. : 113 m. 
W. N. W. Millcdgeville. 

Caeeollton, p. v., and cap. Greene co., III. : on the 
borders of Spring Prairie, and about 6 m. N. of Macoupin 
cr., 56 m. S. W. Springfield. The v. is one of the most 
flourishing in the interior, and the country in the neighbor- 
hood rich and productive. 

Caeeollton, p. v., and cap. Carroll co., Ky. : on the 
Ohio r., at the mouth of Kentucky r., 36 m. N. N. "W. 
Frankfort. 

Caeeollton, p. v., Jefferson par., La. : on the E. side 
of tho Mississippi r., 6 m. from New Orleans, 74 m. S. E. 
Baton Eouge. 

Caeeollton, p. v., and cap. Carroll co., Miss. : on the 
S. side of Big Sand cr. of Yallabusha r., 82 m. N. by E. 
Jackson. 

Caeeollton, p. v., and cap. Carroll co., Mo. : on the 
N. side of Wyaconda cr. of the Missouri r., 92 m. W. N. W. 
Jefferson City. 

Caeeollton, p. v., and cap. Carroll co., Ohio : a thriving 
v., 112 m. E. by N. Columbus. A branch of the Cleveland 
and Pittsburg E. E. comes to this point. Two newspapers, 
the " Carroll Free Press"' (whig), and the " Ohio Picayune" 
(dem.), are issued weekly. 

Cakeolltown, p. v., Cambria co., Penn. : 105 m. W". by 
S. Harrisburg. 
108 



Caeeoll ville, p. o., Wayne co., Temi. : on the E. bank 
of Tennessee r., 86 m. 8. "W. Nashville. 

Caeesville, p. v., Cooper co., Mo. : 42 m. "W. N. W. 
Jefferson City. 

Caeesville, p. v., Isle of Wight co., Virg.: 59 m. S. E. 
Eichmond. 

Caeson lake, Utah Ter. : on the E. side of the Sierra 
Nevada, from which it derives its waters by the Carson r. 
It has no outlet. 

Caeson river, Utah Ter. : a considerable stream rising 
in the Sierra Nevada, and falling into Carson Lake. 
Caeson's creek, Calif. : a tributary of Stanislaus r. 
Caesonvtlle, p. v., Talbot co., Ga. : S6 m. "W. by S. 
Milledgeville. 

Caetee county, Ky. Situate N. E., and contains 710 sq. 
m. Drained by Big and Little Sandy rivers, and Tygat cr. 
Surface uneven, with extensive valleys and plains — in the 
"W. hilly, and soils productive. Farms 654; manuf. 7; 
dwell. 944, and pop.— wh. 5,961, fr. col. 23, si. 257— total 
6,241. Capital: Grayson. 

Caetee county, Tenn. Situate N. E., and contains 543 
sq. m. Drained by "Watauga r. and its tributaries. Surface 
an elevated table-land, rugged, and in the E. mountainous. 
Soils, especially in the valley of the Watauga, fertile and 
productive. Iron abounds. Farms 565 ; manuf. 47 ; dwell. 
1,002, and pop.— wh. 5,911, fr. col. 32, si. 353— total 6,296. 
Capital : Elizabethtown. Public Works : East Tennessee 
and Virginia E. E. 

Caeteeet county, K. Car. Situate 8. E. on the Atlantic, 
and contains 4S0 sq. m. The shore is beset by lagoons 
formed by sand-islands which line its whole front. Cape 
Lookout is its most prominent projection. Surface low and 
level ; soils sandy, with extensive marshes. Products, 
Indian corn and naval stores. Farms 208; manuf. 19; 
dwell. 972, and pop.— wh. 5,167, ft. col. 149, si. 1,4S7— total 
6,803. Capital: Beaufort. 

Caetee's, p. o., Jackson par., La. : 154 m. N. "W. Baton 
Eouge. 

Caetee's Beidge, p. o., Albemarle co., Virg. : 74 m. W. 
by N. Eichmond. 

Cabtebsbubgh, v., Hendricks co., Ind. : on the line of 
the Terre Haute and Eichmond E. E., 17 m. W. Indiana- 
polis. 

Caetee's Station, p. o., Greene co., Tenn. : 223 m. E, 
Xashville. 

Caetee's Stoee, p. o., Nicholas co., Ky. : 51 m. E. 
Frankfort. 

Cabteesvtlle {formerly Amboy), p. v., Oswego co., 
N. Y. : 116 m. W. by N. Albany. 

Cabteesvtlle, p. v., Cass co., Ga. : 122 m. N. "W. Mil- 
ledgeville. The Western and Atlantic E. E. passes the v., 
55 m. from Atlanta. 

Caetebsville, p. v., Tishemingo co., Miss. : 182 m. N. E. 
by N. Jackson. 

Caetebsville, p. v., Darlington disk, S. Car. : 62 m, 
E. N. E. Columbia. 

Caetebsville, p. v., Cumberland co., Virg. : on 8. side 
of James r., near the mouth of Willis cr., 37 m. W. by N. 
Eichmond. 

Cabthage, p. v., Tuscaloosa co., Ala. : on a cr. of Black 
Warrior r., 16 m. S. Tuscaloosa, and 86 m. N. W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Cabthage, p. v., Eush co., Ind. : on Blue r., 31 m. E. 
Indianapolis. The Shelbyville and Knightstown E. B. 
passes through the village. 

Cabthage, p. v., and cap. Panola co., Tex. : on a cr. of 
Sabine r., 256 m. N. E. Austin City. 

Caetiiage, p. v., and cap. Hancock co., III. : between 
Bear and Long creeks, 11 m. E. of the Mississippi r. It is 
a prosperous v., with a fine neighborhood. It is notorious 
as the scene of the murder of Joe Smith and his compan- 
ions during the late Mormon troubles. Coal is abundant 
for miles around. 



CAR 



CAS 



Caethage, p. v., Campbell co., Ky. : near the Ohio r., 62 
m. N. N. E. Frankfort. 

Caethage, t. and p. v., Franklin co., Me. : on Webb's r. 
of the Androscroggin, S3 m. W. N. W. Augusta. Pop. 
472. 

Carthage, p. v., and cap. Leake CO., Miss. : on the N. 
side of Pearl r., 47 m. N. E. Jackson. 

Cajbthage, p. v., and cap. Jasper co., Mo* : on the S. side 
of Neosho r., 153 m. S. W. Jefferson City. 

Caethage, p. v., and cap. Moore co., 2f. Car. : on the 
E. side of M'Lennon's or. of Deep r., from ■which it is dis- 
tant 3 m., and 51 m. S. W. Ealeigh. 

Carthage, p. v., Jefferson co., K. Y. : on the N. E. side 
of Black r., 124 m. N. W. Albany. It has considerable 
iron works and several mills. The Long Falls furnish ex- 
tensive water-power ; above these the river is navigable 40 
m. to the High Falls, where the Black Eiver Canal com- 
mences, but below navigation is interrupted. 

Cakthage, p. v., Hamilton co., Ohio : on Mill cr., 8 m. 
N. Cincinnati, and 94 m. S. W. Columbus. The Miami 
Canal and the Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Dayton B. E. in- 
tersects it at this point. Its central position in the county 
causes it to be a place of public meetings, and here the 
Hamilton County Agricultural Fairs are held. 

Caethage, p. v., and cap. Smith co., Term. : on the N. 
bank of Cumberland r., opposite the confluence of the 
Caney Fork, 46 m. E. Nashville. 

Cajrthage (or Low Point) Landing, p. o., Duchess co., 
2T. Y. : 76 m. S. Albany. 

Caeticat, p. v., G-ilmer co., Ga. : on the river so called, 
132 m. N. W. MilledgevUle. 

Caevek, t. and p. o., Plymouth co., Mass.: 41 m. S. E. 
Boston. Pop. 1,186. 

Caevee's Haeboe, p. o., "Waldo co., Me. 

Cap.veesville, p. v., Bucks co., Perm. : 108 m. E. Har- 
risburg. 

Caevbeton, p. v., Luzerne co., Perm. : 78 m. N. E. Har- 
risburg. 

Caeysytlle, p. v., Champaign CO., Ohio: 53 m. W. by 
N. Columbus. 

Cascade, p. o., Dubuque co., la. : on Fall r., a branch of 
Makoqiieta r., 49 m., N. E. Iowa City. 

Cascade, p. o., Sheboygan co., Wise. : 82 m. N. E. by E. 
Madison. 

Cascade, p. o., Pittsylvania co., Yvrg. : on a cr. of Boan- 
oke r., 139 m. S. W. Eichmond. 

Cascade La Poetaille, Mich. : on the S. shore of Lake 
Superior. It consists of a stream emerging from a cliff of 
the Pictured Eocks, 70 feet above the lake, in its escape into 
which it leaps to such a distance that boats pass dry and 
safe between it and the rocks. The cascade contributes a 
beauty to the sublimity with which the scene is invested. 

Casco, p. v., Cumberland co., Me. : on Crook'd cr., 42 m. 
W. S. W. Augusta. Pop. of 1. 1,045. 

Casco Bay, Cumberland co., Me. : an arm of the At- 
lantic, which sets up between Cape Elizabeth and Cape 
Small Point, 20 m. apart, and affords a good anchorage. 
About 300 small islands are scattered within its superflces, 
most of them habitable and productive. 

Casey county, Ky. Situate centrally, and contains 448 
Bq. m. Drained by head waters of Green and Salt rivers, 
and gome creeks of Cumberland r. Surface uneven, and 
soils fertile. Salt springs abound. "Wheat, corn, and tobacco, 
are staple products. Farms 758 ; manuf. 11 ; dwell. 1,005. 
and pop.— wh. 5,S63, fr. col. 59, si. 634— total 6,556. Capi- 
tal : Liberty. 

Casey, p. v., Clarke co., III. : 97 m. E. Springfield. 

Caseyville, p. v., Union co., Ky. : 178 m. "W. by S. 
Frankfort. 

Cabhee's Valley, p. o., Macon co., N. Car.: 263 m. 
W. S. W. Ealeigh. 

Cash's Nob, p. o., Montgomery co., Ky. : 61 m. E. by S. 
Frankfort. 



Casiitown, p. v., Adams co., Perm. : on the Gettysburg 
and Chambersburg turnpike, 43 m. S. "W. Harrisburg. 

Cashville, p. o., Spartanburgh dist, 8. Car. : 91 m. 
N. W. Columbia. 

Cass county, Ga. Situate N. "W., and contains 432 sq, 
m. Drained by Etowah r. and its tributaries. Surface 
elevated and hilly ; soils generally fertile ; on the streams, 
a fine alluvion; wheat, Indian corn, and cotton, are the 
chief products. Farms 601 ; manuf, 8 ; dwell. 1,702, and 
pop.— wh. 10,271, fr. col. 21, si. 3,008— total 13.300. Capi- 
tal : Cassville. PulUa Works : Macon and Western E. E., 
with Branch E. E. to Eome. 

Cass county, III. Situate "W. centrally, on the left bank 
of Illinois r., and contains 360 sq. m. Drained by tributa- 
ries of Sangamon r., which borders the county on the N., 
and by Indian cr. Surface undulating ; prairie and timber 
being equally distributed. Soils very fertile. Farms 606 ; 
manuf. 26 ; dwell. 1,169, and pop.— wh. 7,248, fr. col. 5— 
total 7,253. Capital : Beardstown. 

Cass county, Ind. Situate N. middle, and contains 376 
sq. m. Surface generally level, but hilly or undulating near 
the Wabash and Eel rivers. All the S. part is heavily tim- 
bered bottom-land, while in the N. prairie prevails. Con- 
siderable manufactures are carried on along the Wabash 
and other streams, which afford immense driving power. 
Iron ore, building stone, etc., are abundant. Farms 1,134; 
manuf. 108 ; dwell. 1,863, and pop.— wh. 10,959, fr. col. 62— 
total 11,021. Capital : Logansport. Public Works : Wa- 
bash and Erie Canal. 

Cass county, la. Situate S. W., and contains 576 sq. m. 
Taken from Pottowattomie in 1837. 

Cass county, Mich. Situate S. W. on State line, and con- 
tains 504 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of St. Joseph r. 
Surface gently undulating and diversified by prairie and 
timber groves. Soils exceedingly fertile. Farms 950 ; 
manuf. 21 ; dwell. 1,914, and pop.— wh. 10,518, fr. col. 389— 
total 10,907. Capital : Cassopolis. 

Cass county, Mo. Situate W. on the State line, and con- 
tains 670 sq. m. Drained by the head waters of South 
Grand r. Surface level prairie, and soil excellent. Farms 
729 ; manuf. 19 ; dwell. 933, and pop.— wh. 5,610, fr. col. 2, 
si. 478— total 6,090. Capital : Harrisonville. 

Cass county, Tew. Situate N. E. between Sulphur Fork 
of Eed r., and Big Cypress r. and Caddo lake. The water- 
shed being near the N. border, the greater number and 
largest streams fall into the waters bounding it S. Surface 
elevated, undulating, and well watered — timber abundant 
on the streams. Soils dark black mold mixed with clay. 
Farms 365 ; manuf. 10 ; dwell. 55S, and pop.— wh. 3,0S9, fr. 
col. 0, si. 1,902— total 4,991. Capital : Jefferson. 

Cass, p. v., Tippecanoe co., Ind. : 63 m. N. W. Indian- 
apolis. 

Cass, p. v., Yenango co., Perm. : 169 m. W. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Cass, p. v., Du Page co., III. : about 3 m. N. of the Illi- 
nois r., and 158 m. N. E. Springfield. 

Cass, p. v., Hillsdale co., Mich. : 59 m. S. Lansing. 

Cass, t. and p. v., Hancock co., Ohio : 84 m. N. by W. 
Columbus. Pop. 621. 

Cass, p. v., Franklin co., Ark. : 112 m. N. W. Little 

Eock. ^ 

Cass, p. v., Lawrence co., Term. : 73 m. S. by W. Nash- 
ville. 

Cass river, Mich. : a large branch of Saginaw r.. into 
which it discharges, about 20 m. above its confluence. It 
passes through a rich interval, covered with a heavy growth 
of beech and sugar tree. In high water it is boatable for 
15 or 20 m., and in its whole course affords excellent mill 
sites. 

Cassadaga, p. v., Chautauque co., K Y. : on the W. side 
of the lake so called, 276 m. W. by S. Albany. Cassadaga 
lake and creek empty into the Conewango cr., a tributary 
of Alleghany r. 

109 



CAS 



CAT 



Cassity's Mills, p. o., Morgan co., Ey. : 89 m. E. Frank- 
fort. 

Cassofolts, p. v., and cap. Cass co., Mich. : on the N.W. 
border of Stone Lake, S9 m. S. W. Lansing. 

Casstowx, p. v., Miami co., Ohio : 68 m. W. Colum- 
bus. 

Casstown, p. v., "White co., Tenn. : 76 m. E. Nash- 
ville. 

Cassyille, p. v., and cap. Cass co., Ga. : 123 m. N. W. 
Milledgerille. It is a thriving village, and has a weekly 
newspaper, the " C. Standard." The Western and Atlantic 
E. E. passes it on the S. W". 

Cassyille, p. v., Harrison co., Ohio : 98 m. E. by N. 
Columbus. 

Cassvtlle, p. v., and cap. Barry co., Mo. : on Flat cr. of 
James r., a fork of the "White r., 162 m. S. "W. Jefferson 
City. 

Cassville, p. v., Oneida co., 27] Y. : on Sauquoit cr., 76 
m. "W. by N. Albany. 

Cassyille, p. v., Huntingdon co., Pewit.: 6S m. "W. 
Harrisburg. 

Cassyille, t. and p. v., Grant co., Wi.sc. : on the E. side 
of Mississippi r., S4 m. W. by S. Madison. 

Cassyille, p. v., Monongalia co., Yirg. : 198 m. N. "W. 
Eiehmond. 

Casswell county, 27] Car. Situate N. middle on the 
State line, and contains 432 sq. m. Drained by tributaries 
of Dan r. Surface elevated and varied. Soils fertile. 
Wheat, corn, oats, and tobacco are largely produced, and 
the stock of cattle, etc., is ample. Farms 707 ; manuf 56 ; 
dwell. 815, and pop— wh. 7,0S1, fr. col. 41S, si. 7,770— total 
15,269. Capital: Tanceyville. 

Castalia, p. v., Erie co., Ohio : 98 m. N. Columbus. 

Castaliax Spbejgs, p. o.j Sumner co., Tenn. : 33 m. 
N. E. Nashville. 

Castile, t. and p. v., Wyoming co., 27] Y. : 222 m. W. 
Albany. The Genessee r. flows through the E. part of the 
town, and in the N. part is Silver Lake. The village is lo- 
cated on the Buffalo and New York City E. E. Pop. 2,446. 

Castile, p. v., Greene co., Penn.; 1S9 m. "W. by S. 
Harrisburg. 

Castile, p. v., Clinton co., Mo. : on a cr. of Platte r. so 
called, 146 m. "W. N. "W. Jefferson City. 

Castine, p. v., Darke co., Ohio : 81 m. "W. Columbus. 

Castlxe, t., p. v., sea-port, and cap. Hancock co., Me. : 
on a peninsula on the E. side of Penobscot Bay, opposite 
Belfast, 4S m. E. Augusta. The town is almost surrounded 
by navigable waters. The village at the S. end of the pen- 
insula has a good harbor, capable of receiving the largest 
ships. The site was occupied by the French as early as 
1667, and it was held by the British in the last war. It is 
the key to the Penobscot r., and might easily be fortified. 
The lumber and coasting trade employ its shipping, and 
much attention is paid to the fisheries. Pop. 1,261. 

Castle Cbaig, p. o., Campbell co., Yirg. : 109 m. W. by 
B. P.iehmond. 

Castle Ceeek, p. o., Broome co., 27] Y. : 112 m. S. "W. 
Albany. 

Castle Fix, p. v., York co., Penn. : 41 m. S. by E. 
Harrisburg. 

Castle Gkoye, p. o., Jones co., la. : 42 m. N. E. by E. 
Iowa City. 

Castleman's Feeky, p. o., Clarke co., Yirg. : on Shenan- 
doah r., 105 m. N. by W. Bichmond. 

Castleman's river, Penn. : the E. branch of the You- 
ghiogeny r. It is a rapid stream and has many falls and 
cascades. 

Castletox, t., Richmond co., 27] F". .• oh the N. end of 
Staten Island. Pop. 5,3S9. 

Cabtlexon, t. and p. o., Barry co., Mich. : on the Big 
Fork of Thornapple cr. 42 m. W. by S. Lansing. In this 
town the river expands into large lakes, which cover a 
tenth of the town lands. Pop. 324 
110 



Castletoh, p. v., Eenssellaer co., 21. Y. : on the E. side 
of Hudson r., and on the line of the Hudson Eiver E. E., 
10 m. S. Albany. 

Castleton, t and p. v., Eutland co., Yerm. : on Castle- 
ton r., 54 m. S. "W. Montpelier. Lake Bombazine, 8 m. 
long and less than 3 m, broad, lies mostly in the town, and 
contains a beautiful island of 10 acres. The village is the 
seat of Castleton Medical College, a department of Mid- 
dlebury College. The Saratoga and Castleton E. E. and 
the Eutland and Washington E. E. intersect at this point, 
and unite with the Vermont and Canada lines. P. 3 016. 

Castoe, p. o., Caldwell par., La. : 134 m. N. "W. Baton 
Eouge. 

Castoevtlle, p. v., and cap. Medina co., Tex. : on the 
W. side of the Eio San Antonio, 93 m. S. "W. Austin City. 
The old Spanish military road crosses the r. at this point. 
The inhabitants are chiefly Germans. 

Caswell, p. v., Lafayette co., Miss. : 158 m. N. by E. 
Jackson. 

Catahoula parish, La. Situate E. centrally of W. Dist., 
and contains about S00 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of 
Eed and Washita rivers. Surface E. flat, and subject 
to inundation — W. moderately hilly, and covered with 
pine timber. Soils fertile, producing Indian corn, potatoes, 
and cotton. Farms 35S ; manuf. 3 ; dwell. 655, and pop. — 
wh. 3,5S5, fr. col. 19, si. 3,378— total 6,982. Capital: Har- 
risonburg. 

Catahottla river, La. ; a tributary of the Washita r. 

Catalpa Geoye, p. o., Greene co., Ey. : 76 m. S. S. W. 
Frankfort. 

Catalpa Geoye, p. o., Marshall co., Tenn. : 46 m. S. 
Nashville. 

Catalpa Geove, p. v., Benton co., Jnd. : 86 m. N. W. 
Indianapolis. 

Cat-a-Poodle river, Oreg. : a tributary of Columbia r. 
from the N. E., emptying opposite the village of St. Helens. 

Cataeact, p. o., Owen co., Lnd. : 52 m. S. W. Indian- 
apolis. 

Catasattqua, p. v., Lehigh co., Penn. : 73 m. E. by N. 
Harrisburg. Pop. 8S5. 

Catauxa, p. v., Harris co., Ga. : 114 m. W. by S. 
Milledgeville. 

Catawba county, 27. Car. Situate centrally, and contains 
430 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Catawba r., which is 
its S. border. Farms 957 ; manuf. 3 ; dwell. 1,237, and pop. 
— wh. 7,272, fr. col. 21, sL 1,569— total 8,862. Capital: 
Newton. 

Catawba, p. v., Clarke co., Oliio : 48 m. W. Columbus. 

Catawba, p. v., Botetourt co. Yirg. : on a cr. so called, 
133 m. W. Eichmond. 

Catawba Creek, p. o., Gaston co., N.Car. : 139 m. S. W. 
Ealeigh. 

Catawba Spetngs, p. v., Lincoln co., 21. Car. : on the 
W. side Catawba r., 3 m. distant, and 128 m. W. by S. 
Ealeigh. 

Catawba View, p. o., Caldwell co., 27] Car. : 153 m. W. 
Ealeigh. 

Catawtssa, t. and p. v., Columbia co., Penn.: on the 
Susquehanna, at the mouth of Catawissa cr., 53 m. N. N. E. 
Harrisburg. The Catawissa and Little Schuylkill E. E. 
passes through the village. Pop. of v. 565. 

Catawissa Valley, p. O., Schuylkill co., Perm. : 58 m, 
X. E. narrisburg. 

Catfish Fuexace, p. o., Clarion co., Penn. : 156 m. 
W. N. W. Harrisburg. 

Cathaeixes, t. and p. v., Chemung co., 27] Y. : 154 m. 
W. by S. Albany. The t. is drained by Catharines and 
Cayuta creeks. Pop. 3,070. 

Cathaetxe Lake, p. o., Onslow co., 27] Car. : 98 m. S. E, 
Ealeigh. 

Cathcaet, p. v., White co., Ind. : 82 m. N. N. W. Indian- 
apolis. 

Cathey's Ceeek, p. o., Henderson oo., 2T. Car. 



CAT 



CED 



Cathlamet, v., Pacific co., Oreff. : on the N. bank of 
Colnmbia r., about 30 m. from its mouth, and 86 m. N. 
Salem. 

Catlettsburgh, p. o., Greennp co., Ky. : on the Ohio r., 
below the mouth of Big Sandy r., 133 m. E. Frankfort. 

Cato, t. and p. v., Cayuga co., JV". Y. : on Seneca r., 142 
m. W. Albany. Pop. 2,247. 

Caton, t» and p. o., Steuben co., If. Y. : 166 m. W. S. W. 
Albany. Pop. 1.214. 

Catonsville, p. v., Baltimore co., Md. : on the N. side 
of Patapsco r., 2 m. distant, and 36 m. N. N. W. Annapolis. 

Cato Springs, p. o., Bankin co., Miss. 

Catsktll, t., p. v., and cap. Greene co., JVI Y. : on the 
"W. side of Hudson r., 81 m. S. Albany. The v. lies on 
both sides of Catskill cr., near its junction with the Hudson, 
and contains, besides the county buildings, several hand- 
some churches, hotels, and stores. It has numerous manu- 
factures, and is much engaged in the river trade. Two 
newspapers, the " C. Democrat," and the " Greene County 
Whig," are issued weekly. Pop. 5,464. 

Catskill Mountains (Kaatsberg), If. Y. : rise in Ulster 
co., and, extending through Greene and Schoharie counties, 
bend in a crescent form toward the Mohawk r. Bound 
Top, the highest peak, measured by the barometer, is 3,S04 
feet above tide water ; and a second peak is 3,718 feet. On 
the E. the mountains are precipitous, but on the W. side 
the descent is comparatively gentle. In these mountains, 
many of the wild animals indigenous to the State are still to 
be found. These mountains are frequently resorted to by 
summer tourists. 

Cattaraugus county, If. Y. Situate S. W., and contains 
1,234 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Alleghany r. and Cat- 
taraugus cr. — the waters of the former being conveyed to 
the Gulf of Mexico, and of the latter to the Atlantic through 
St. Lawrence r. Surface elevated, well timbered, and the 
soils excellent, producing wheat, corn, etc., of the finest 
quality. Bog-iron ore, manganese, peat, marl, etc., are 
found in abundance ; and near Freedom is an oil spring — 
there are also saline and sulphur springs. Farms 3,655 ; 
manuf. 299 ; dwell. 6,750, and pop.— wh. 38,851, fr. col. 99— 
total 38,950. Capital : Ellicottsville. Public Works : Gen- 
essee Valley Canal ; New York and Erie B. B., etc. 

Caughdenoy, p. v., Oswego co., MY.: 123 m. W. N.W. 
Albany. 

Cave, p. o., Franklin co., III. : in the S. E. part of the 
CO., 138 m. S. E. Springfield. 

Cave, p. o., White co., Term. : 78 m. E. Nashville. 

Cave in Bock, p. o., Hardin co., III. : on the Ohio r., 182 
m. S. S. E. Springfield. The remarkable cave which gives 
name to this p. o., is near the water's edge, and is partially 
filled at a high stage of the r. Its entrance is visible in 
passing up and down the stream. A perpendicular shaft 
opens at some distance from its mouth, on ascending which 
the visitor finds a large number of chambers of various 
sizes, hung with stalactites. This is one of the greatest 
curiosities of the West. 

Cavender's Creek, p. o., Lumpkin co., Ga. : 120 m. 
N. N. W. Milledgeville. 

Cavendish, t. and p. o., Windsor co., Verm. : on Black 
r., 56 m. S. by E. Montpelier. The surface of the t. is 
exceedingly hilly, and the channel of the r. at the falls has 
been worn down some 100 feet. Considerable manufac- 
tures have been established on the streams. Pop.' 1,576. 

Cave Spring, p. o., Floyd co., Ga. : a little to the W. of 
Cedar cr. of Coosa r., 145 m. N. W. Milledgeville. 

Cate Spring, p. o., Scott co., Ky. : 18 m. N. E. Frankfort. 

Cave Spring, p. o., Wright co., Mo. : 86 m. S. by W. 
Jefferson City. 

Cave Spring, p. o., Boanoke co., Yirg. : on W. side of 
the Blue Eidge, 129 m. W. Eichmond. 

Cavetown, p. v., Washington co., Md. : on Cave Branch 
of Beaver cr., 8 m. from Hagerstown, and 86 m. N. W. 
Annapolis. 



Cayuga county, If. Y. Situate W. centrally, and con- 
tains 648 sq. m. Drained by Skaneateles, Owasco, and 
Cayuga lakes, their connections and creeks ; also by several 
streams emptying into Lake Ontario. Surface generally 
level, but much varied, and the soils productive. Gypsum 
abounds, and there are several sulphur, chalybeate, and 
saline springs in the county. Farms 4,228 ; manuf. 503 ; 
dwell. 9,259, and pop.— wh. 54,924, fr. col. 534— total 55.458. 
Capital: Auburn. Public Works: Erie Canal; Syracuse 
and Bochester B. B., etc. 

Cayuga, p. v., Hinds co., Miss. : on a small cr. of Big 
Black r., 33 m. S. W. Jackson. 

Cayuga, p. v., Jackson co., Mich. : 37 m. S. by E. 
Lansing. 

Cayuga, p. v., Cayuga co., If. Y. : on the N. E. side of 
Cayuga Lake, 144 m. W. Albany. The lake is here crossed 
by a bridge more than a mile long, over which the Boches- 
ter and Syracuse B. B. passes, and a regular steamboat line 
runs from this v. to Ithaca, in connection with the Cayuga 
and Susquehanna B. B. 

Cayuga lake, If. Y. : lies between Seneca and Tomp- 
kins counties. It is about 40 m. long, and from 1 to 3^ m. 
wide, and empties into Seneca r. It is very deep, and con- 
tains abundance of fine fish. A steamboat plies regularly 
from Cayuga Bridge to Ithaca, calling at the intermediate 
places. 

Cayuta, t. and p. o., Chemung co., If. Y. : on Cayuta cr., 
142 m. W. S. W. Albany. Pop. 1,035. 

Cayutavtlle, p. v., Tompkins co., If. Y. : on E. side of 
Cayuta Lake, 140 m. W. S. W. Albany. 

Cazenovta, t. and p. v., Madison co., If. Y. : on Cazeno- 
via Lake, 10S m. W. Albany. It is a busy place, and has 
several manufactures. The "Madison County Whig". is 
issued weekly. Pop. 4,812. 

Cecil county, Md. Situate N. E., and contains 360 sq. 
m. Drained by Elk, North-east, and other rivers. Sur- 
face generally undulating, sometimes hilly and broken. 
Soils light and loamy, with a reddish clay subsoil. Bocks 
abundant, and iron, chromes, and other minerals found. 
Timber sufficient for domestic purposes. Farms 1,208 ; 
manuf. 176 ; dwell. 3,056, and pop— wh. 15,472, fr. col. 2,623, 
si. 844— total 18,939. Capital: Elkton. Public Works: 
Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore B. B. ; New- 
castle and Frenchtown B. B. ; and Chesapeake and Dela- 
ware Canal. 

Cecil, t. and p. o., Washington co., Perm. : on Muller's 
branch of Chartier's cr., 173 m. W. Harrisburg. Pop. 1,2S7. 

Cecilton, p. v., Cecil co., Md. : on the N. of Sassafras r., 
3 m. distant, 48 m. N. E. Annapolis. 

Cedar county, la. Situate E., and contains 576 sq. m. 
Drained by Cedar r. and its branches. Surface undulating 
and soils fertile. Farms 35S; manuf. 4; dwell. 6S6, and 
pop.— wh. 3,939, fr. col. 2— total 3.941. Capital: Tipton. 

Cedar county, Mo. Situate W., and contains 42S sq. 
m. Drained by the tributaries of Sac r. of the Osage. Sur- 
face level, with some woodland. Soils exceedingly fertile. 
Farms 347 ; manuf. 7 ; dwell. 561, and pop.— wh. 3,27S, fr. 
col. 1, si. 82— total 3,361. Capital: Fremont. 

Cedar, p. v., Allen co., Ind. : at the confluence of Cedar 
cr. with Little St. Joseph r., 112 m. N. E. Indianapolis. 

Cedar, p. o., Livingston co., Midi. : 38 m. E. by S. 
Lansing. 

Cedae Batou, p. o., Liberty co., Tex. : on a cr. so called, 
172 m. E. Austin City. 

Cedar Bluff, p. v., Cherokee co., Ala. : 132 m. N. by 
E. Montgomery. Formerly capital of the county. 

Cedab Bluff, p. o., Ocktibbeha co., Miss. : 107 m. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Cedar Bluff, p. o., Tazewell co., Yirg. : 233 m W. by 8. 
Eichmond. 

Cedar Branch, p. o., Campbell co., Ga. : 91 m. W. N.W. 
Milledgeville. 

Cedaeburgh, t, and p. v., Washington co., TTTse. .- on the 

111 



CED 



CEN 



W. side of Cedar cr. of Milwaukie r., 74 m. E. by N. 
Madison. Pop. 1,134. 

Cedar Creek, p. v., Sussex co., Bel. : 27 m. S. by E. 
Dover. Cedar Creek bund, contains 72,090 acres. 

Cedab Cbeek, p. o., Eutberford co., IT. Car. : 173 m. 
W. S. W. Ealeigh. 

Ckdab Creek, p. o., "Washington co., Wise. : on tbe W. 
side of Cedar cr., 63 m. E. by N. Madison. 

Cedab creek, Ind. : a tributary from tbe N. of Little St, 
Joseph r. It is an excellent mill stream, about 40 m. in 
length. 

Cedab creek, Ind. : a branch of Kankakee r., the outlet 
of Cedar Lake. 

Cedab creek, Eockbridge co., Yirg. : a tributary of 
James r. It is remarkable for the Natural Bridge that 
6pans it 12 m. S. of Lexington. The r. passes through a 
chasm which is 90 feet wide at the top, and the walls are 
250 feet high, almost perpendicular. The bridge is a huge 
rock thrown across the chasm at the top ; it is 60 feet wide, 
and covered with earth and trees, forming a sublime spec- 
tacle when seen from the margins of the stream. 

Cedab Greek, p. o., Barry co., Mich. : 42 m. W. by S. 
Lansing. 

Cedab Creek, p. o., Monmouth co., iK Jer. 

Cedab Creek, p. o., Eichland dist., S. Car. : on a cr. of 
the Congaree r. so called, 17 m. S. E. Columbia. 

Cedar Ceeek, p. o., Greene co., Term. : on Cedar cr. of 
the Nolichucky r., 221 m. E. Nashville. 

Cedab Creek, p. o., Frederick co., Yirg. : 122 m. N. N."W. 
Eichmond. 

Cedab Creek Mills, p. o., Stephenson co., III. : 156 m. 
N. Springfield. 

Cedar Falls, p. v., and cap. Black Hawk co., la. : on 
Cedar r., 73 m. N. W. Iowa City. 

Cedar Falls, p. o., Eandolph co., W. Car. : 66 m. W. 
Ealeigh. 

Cedab Falls, p. o., Eichland dist., S. Car.: on Cedar 
cr. of Congaree r., 22 m. S. E. Columbia. 

Cedar Ford, p. o., Grainger co., Term. : 179 m. E. 
Nashville. 

Cedab Grove, p. o., Jefferson co., Ala. : 92 m. N. by W. 
Montgomery. 

Cedar Grove, p. o., Sheboygan co., Wise. : S. of Union 
r. of the Sheboygan, 7S m. E. by N. Madison. 

Cedab Grove, p. v., Franklin co., Ind. : on the E. side 
of White Water r., SS m. E. by S. Indianapolis. 

Cedab Grove, p. o., Orange co., 21. Car. : 47 m. N. W. 
Ealeigh. 

Cedar Grove, p. o., Wilson co., Tenn. : 33 m. E. Nash- 
ville. 

Cedab Grove, p. o., Breckenridge co., Ky. : 89 m. 
W. by S. Frankfort. 

Cedab Grove, p. o., Kauffman co., Tex. : on Cedar cr. of 
Trinity r., 226 m. N. N. E. Austin City. 

Cedab Grove Mills, p. o., Eockbridge co., Yirg. : 114 
m. W. Eichmond. 

Cedab Hill, p. o., Albany co., K. Y. : near the Hudson 
r., 6 m. S. Albany. 

Cedab Hill, p. o., Anson CO., K. Car. : W. of the Tad- 
kin r., 87 m. S. W. Ealeigh. 

Cedar island, Mich. : a small island at the entrance of 
Detroit strait into Lake Erie. 

Cedar Key, p. o., Levy co., Flor. : 106 m. S. E. Talla- 
hassee. The Cedar Keys consist of several small islands 
off the mouth of the Suwannee r., on the W. coast of the 
peninsula, and are inhabited by fishermen and wreckers. 

Cedar Lake, p. o., Lake co., Ind. : on the lake so called, 
128 m. X. W. Indianapolis. Cedar Lake is 3 m. long, and 
three-fourths of a mile wide, and abounds in various de- 
scripiions of fish. 

Cedar Lake, p. o., Brazoria co., Tex. : on Cedar Lake 
Bayou, on the S. W. part of the co., 15S m. 8. E. Austin 
City. 

112 



Cedar Lake, p. o., Calhoun co., 3Iieh. : on a small col- 
lection of water so called, 42 m. S. W. Lansing. The lake 
empties through a cr. of St. Joseph's r. 

Cedar Lake, p. o., Herkimer co., N. Y. : on a lake so 
called, S7 m. N. W. Albany. 

Cedab lake, Mich. : a small collection of water in the 
S. E. corner of Van Buren co., the waters of which are con- 
ducted into St. Joseph r. by a branch of Dowagiake r., 
which rises from it. 

Cedar Mount, p. o., Wythe co., Yirg. : 211 m. W. by S. 
Eichmond. 

Cedar Plains, p. o., Morgan co., Ala. : 148 m. N. by W. 
Montgomery. 

Cedab Point, p. o., Page co., Yirg.: 93 m. N. W. 
Eichmond. 

Cedar Eapids, p. o., Linn co., la. : at the rapids of 
Cedar r., £3 m. N. by W. Iowa City. 

Cedar Shoal, p. o., Chester dist., S. Car. : 61 m. N. W. 
Columbia. 

Cedar Spring, p. o., Benton co., Ala. : 99 m. N. N. E. 
Montgomery. 

Cedar Spbing, p. o., Wythe co., Yirg. : 212 m. W. by S. 
Eichmond. 

Cedab Spring Asylum, p. o., Spartanburg dist., S. Car. 

Cedar Springs, p. o., Spartanburg dist., 3. Car. : 83 m. 
N. W. Columbia. 

Cedab Spbings, p. o., Allen co., Ky. : 122 m. S. W. 
Frankfort. 

Cedar Swajip, p. o., Queens co. N. Y. : 122 m. S. by E. 
Albany. 

Cedartown, p. v., Paulding co., Oa. : between the forks 
of Cedar cr. of Coosa r., 132 m. W. N. W. MUledgeville. 

Cedar Teee, p. o., Talladega co., Ala. : 61 m. N. Montr 
gomery. 

Cedar Valley, p. o., Wayne co., Ohio : 78 m. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Cedarvtlle, p. v., Cumberland co., N. Jer. : on Cedar 
cr., 4 m. from Delaware Bay, and 62 S. by W. Trenton. It 
has some manufactures and considerable trade in wood. 

Cedabville, p. v., Herkimer co., N. Y. : 72 m. W. by N. 
Albany. 

Cedarville, p. v., Greene co., Ohio : on the line of the 
Columbus and Xenia E. E., 47 m. S. E. Columbus. 

Cedarville, p. v., Washington co., Yirg. : 246 m. 
W. S. W. Eichmond. 

Cedron, p. v., Clermont co., Ohio : 86 m. S. W. Columbus. 

Celestine, p. v., Dubois co., Ind. : a few miles S. of 
Patoka r., and 9S m. S. S. W. Indianapolis. 

Celina, p. v., and cap. Mercer co., Ohio: on the W. side 
of the upper Wabash r., 94 m. W. N. W. Columbus. A 
newspaper, the " Western Standard" (dem.), is published 
weekly. 

Celina, p. v., Jackson co., Tenn. : on the E. side of 
Cumberland r., 72 m. E. N. E. Nashville. 

Central, p. o., St. Louis co., Mo. : 92 m. E. Jefferson 
City. 

Central, p. o., Columbia co., Penn. : 67 m. N. by E. 
Harrisburg. 

Central Bridge, p. o., Schoharie co., N. Y. : on Scho- 
harie cr. of the Mohawk, 27 m. W. Albany. 

Central College, p. o., Franklin co, MY.: 133 m, 
X. X. W. Albany. 

Central Plains, p. o., Fluvanna co., Yirg. : 49 m. W. 
Eichmond. 

Central Point, p. o., Caroline co., Yirg. : 37 m. N. 
Eichmond. 

Central Square, p. o., Oswego co., K. Y. : 12S m. 
W. X. W. Albany. 

Central Village, p. v., Windham co., Conn. : on the 
Norwich and Worcester E. E., 39 m. E. Hartford, 19 m. 
from Norwich, and 40 m. from Worcester. 

Centre county, Penn. Situate centrally, and contains 
1,480 sq. m. Drained by Bald Eagle, Perm's, and other 



CEN 



CEN 



creeks, and by the W. branch of Susquehanna r. Surface 
rocky and mountainous. Soils of a stubborn nature gen- 
erally, but along the streams there is much that is highly 
fertile. Farms 1,048 ; manuf. 171 ; dwell. 3,936, and pop — 
wh. 23,112, ft*, col. 243— total 23,355. Capital : Bellefonte. 
Centre, p. v., and cap. Cherokee co., Ala. : 136 m. 
N. by E. Montgomery. 

Centre, p. v., Montgomery co., Ohio: 66 m. W. S. W. 
Columbus. 

Centre, p. v., Talbot co., Ga. : 82 m. W. by S. Milledge- 
Tille. 

Centre, p. v., Cass co., Tea>. : 278 m. N. E. Austin City. 

Centre, p. v., Barren co., Ky. : 9S m. S. W. Frankfort. 

Centre, t. and p. o., Eock co., Wise. : 47 m. S. by E. 
Madison. Pop. 626. 

Centre, p. v., Guilford co., 27. Car. : 69 m. W. by N. 
Ealeigh. 

Centre, t and p. o., Perry co., Perm. : 36 m. N. W. Har- 
risburg. Pop. 1,208. 

Centre Almond, p. v., Alleghany co., 27. Y. : 203 m. 
W. S. W. Albany. 

Centre Barnstead, p. v., Belknap co., 27. Ramp. : on 
Suncook r., 18 m. N. E. by E. Concord. 

Centre Belpre, p. v., Washington co., Ohio: on the 
Ohio r., below Blennerhassett's Island, 86 m. E. S. E. 
Columbus. 

Centre Berlin, p. v., Eenssellaer co., 27. Y. : on Hoosic 
r., 19 m. E. Albany. 

Centre Bridge, p. o., Bucks co., Penn. : 103 m. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Centre Brook, p. o., Middlesex co., Conn. : 24 m. S. by E. 
Hartford. 

Centreburgh, p. o., Knox co., Ohio : on the S. side of the 
N. fork of Licking r., 33 m. N. E. Columbus. 

Centre Cambridge, p. v., Washington co., 27. Y. : 28 m. 
N. N. E. Albany. 

Centre Canisteo, p. t., Steuben co., 27. Y. : on the S. 
side of Canisteo r., 189 m. W. S. W. Albany. 

Centre Conway, p. v., Carroll co., 27. Samp. : on Swift 
r., 56 m. N. E. Concord. The Great Falls and Conway 
E. E. will pass near this village. 

Centre Creek, p. o., Iron co., Utah Ter. 

Centre Cross, p. o., Essex co., Yirg.: 62 m. N. E. 
Eichmond. 

Centredale, p. o., Providence co., P. I.: 11 m. W. 
Providence. 

Centeefleld, p. v., Ontario co., 27. Y. : 177 m. W. 
Albany. 

Centeefieid, p. v., Oldham co., Ky. : 37 m. N. W. 
Frankfort. 

Centrefield, p. v., Highland co., Ohio : on the S. side of 
Paint cr., 54 m. S. W. Columbus. 

Centre Groton, p. v., New London, co., Conn. : 43 m. 
6. E. Hartford. 

Centre Guilford, p. v., Piscataquis co., Me. : 58 m. 
N. N. E. Augusta. 

Centre Harbor, t. and p. v., Belknap co., 27. Uamp. : 
between Winnepisseogee Lake on the S., and Squam Lake 
on the N., 38 m. N. Concord. Pop. 549. 

Centre Hill, p. o., Centre co., Penn. : 74 m. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Centre Hill, p. o., Stewart co., Ga. : 113 m. S. W. 
Milledgeville. 

Centre Independence, p. o., Alleghany co., 27. Y. : 205 
m. W. S. W. Albany. 

Centre Lebanon, p. v., Tork co., Me. : 84 m. S. W. 
Augusta. 

Centre Lincolnville, p. v., Waldo co., Me. : 37 m. 
E. by S. Augusta. 

Centre Line, p. o., Centre CO., Penn. : 81 m. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Centre Lisle, p. o., Broome co., 27. Y.: 113 m. W. by S. 
Albany. 



Centre Lovell, p. o., Oxford co., Me. : 57 m. E. by S. 
Augusta. 

Centre Montville, p. v., Waldo co.. Me. :27 m. E. by N. 
Augusta. 

Centre Mokeland, p. v., Wyoming co., Penn. : 98 m. 
N. E. Harrisburg. 

Centre Ossippee, p. v., Carroll co., 27. Harnp. : 42 m. 
N. N. E. Concord. 

Centre Point, p. v., Monroe co., Ky. : 118 m. S. 8 W. 
Frankfort. 

Centre Point, p. v., Sevier co., Ark. : 147 m. W. S. W 
Little Eock. 

Centre Point, p. v., Linn co., la. : on a cr. of Cedar r., 
38 m. N. by W. Iowa City. 

Centre Point, p. v., Knox co., III. : 78 m. N. N. W 
Springfield. 

Centre Port (now Elm Bluff), p. v., Dallas co., Ala. : 
on the E. side of Alabama r., 49 m. W. S. W. Montgomery. 

Centeeport, p. v., Suffolk co., 27. Y.:on Great Cow Bay, 
118 m. S. by E. Albany. 

Centre Eidge, p. v., Kemper co., dfiss. : 91 m. E. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Centre Eutland, p. v., Eutland co., Term. : on Mill r. 
of Otter cr., 49 m. S. by W. Montpelier. 

Centre Sandwich, p. v., Carroll co., 27. Uamp. : 46 m. 
N. Concord. 

Centre Sherman, p. v., Chautauque co., 27. Y. : 293 m. 
W. by S. Albany. 

Centre Sidney, p. v., Kennebec co., Me. : 5 m. N. 
Augusta. 

Centre Star, p. o., Lauderdale co., Ala. : 194 m. JST. W. 
Montgomery. 

Centre Strafford, p. v., Strafford co., 27. Hamvp. : 21 m. 
E. Concord. 

Centreton, p. v., Salem co., 27. Jer. : 66 m. S. by W. 
Trenton. 

Centreton, p. v., Huron co., Ohio: 108 m. N. by E. 
Columbus. 

Centretown, p. v., Dubuque co., la. : 66 m. IT. E. Iowa 
City. 

Centretown, p. v., Mercer co., Penn. : 197 m. W. N.W. 
Harrisburg. 

Centretown, p. v., Anderson dist., S. Car. : 118 m. 
W. N. W. Columbia. 

Centre Valley, p. o., Lehigh co., Penn. : 69 m. E. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Centre Valley, p. o., Otsego co., 27. Y. : 49 m. W. by 
N. Albany. 

Centre Village, p. v., Camden co., Ga. : 168 m. S. E. 
Milledgeville. 

Centre Village, p. v.,Broome co., 27. Y. : 117 m.W. S. W. 
Albany. 

Centreville, p. v., Montgomery co., Ark. : 72 m. W. by 
S. Little Eock. 

Centreville, p. v., Leon co., Tex. : 126 m. N. E. Austin 
City. 

Centreville, p. v., and cap. Bibb co., Ala. : on the E. 
side of Cahawba r., at the lower falls, 65 m. IT. W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Centbeville, p. v., Newcastle co., Pel. : near the N. 
State line, 39 m. N. by W. Dover. 

Centreville, p. v., Leon co., Flor. 

Centreville, p. v., Wilkes co., Ga. : S. of Long cr. of 
Broad r., 51 m. N. E. Milledgeville. 

Centreville, p. v., Columbia co., Wise. : 61 m. N. E. 
Madison. 

Centreville, p. v., and cap. Wayne co., Itid. : on the E. 
side of White Water r., 61 m. E. by N. Indianapolis. The 
Central Indiana E. E. passes through the v. about 11 m. W. 
Eichmond. 

Centreville, p. v., and cap. St. Joseph's Co., Mich. : on 
the S. side of Prairie r. of St. Joseph's r., 73 m. S. W. 
Lansing. It is an improving town, and has a newspaper, 

113 



CEN 



CHA 



the "St Joseph's County Advertiser" (whig), published 
weekly. A branch of the University is located here. 

Centrevtlle, p. v., and cap. Appanoose co., la. : 76 m. 
8. W. Iowa City. 

Cextreyille, p. v., "Wabash co., III. : 133 m. S. E. 
Springfield. 

Centrevtlle, p. t., Conway co., Ark. : 47 m. N. "W. 
Little Rock. 

Centeevtlle, p. v., Bourbon co., Ky. : 33 m. E. Frank- 
fort. 

Centeevtlle, p. v., St. Mary's par., La. : on the S. side 
of Bayou Teche, 51 m. S. by "W. Baton Eouge. 

Centkevtlle, p. v., and cap. Queen Anne co., Md. : at 
the head of Corsica cr., 25 m. E. Annapolis. 

Genteeyille, p. v., Barnstable co., Mass.: 63 m. S. E. 
Boston. 

Centreville, p. v., Amitie co., Miss. : 94 m. S. "W. by S. 
Jackson. 

Centeevtlle, p. v., Moore co., AC Car. : 45 m. S. "W. 
Raleigh. 

Centeevtlle, p. v., Hunterdon co., AC Jer. : 33 m. N. 
Trenton. 

Centeevtlle, t. and p. v., Alleghany co., AC Y. : in the 
N. "W. corner of the co., 22S m. W. by S. Albany. P. 1,445. 

Centeevtlle, p.v., Montgomery co., Ohio : 6S m. W. S."W. 
Columbus. Building stone is abundant in the neighbor- 
hood. 

Centeevtlle, p. v., Crawford co., Perm. : on a cr. of 
Alleghany r., 157 m. N. W. Harrisburg. 

Centeevtlle, p. v., Kent co., R. I. : on the E. side of 
Patuxent r., 11 m. S. S. "W. Providence. The inhabitants 
are chiefly engaged in the manufacture of cotton goods. 
Pop. about 450. 

Centeevtlle, p. v., Laurens dist., S. Car. : 73 m. N. "W. 
Columbia. 

Centeevtlle, p. v., Hickman co., Term. : on the S. side 
of Duck r. of the Tennessee, 47 m. S. "W. Nashville. This 
v. was formerly capital of the county. 

Centkeyille, p. v., Fairfax co., Virg. : on the N. branch 
of Occoquan cr., 84 m. N. Richmond. It has some manu- 
factures, and about 360 inhabitants. 

Centeevtlle, p. v., and cap. Appanoose co., la. : on the 
S. side of Cooper's cr. of Chariton r., 87 m. S. "W". Iowa City. 

Centre "White Ceeek, p o., "Washington co., AC Y. : 31 
m. N. N. E. Albany. 

Cebalvo, p. v., Carroll co., Miss. : 71 m. N. by E. 
Jackson. 

Ceees, p.v., Alleghany co., AC Y.: on a tributary of Alle- 
ghany r., 218 m. "W. S. "W. Albany. 

Ceeesco, p. v., Calhoun co., Mich. : on the N. side of 
Kalamazoo r., 39 m. S.W. Lansing. The Michigan Central 
R. R. passes through the v. 5 m. "W. of Marshall. 

Ceeesco, t. and p. v., Pond du Lac co., Wise. : on a cr. 
emptying into Green Lake, 65 m. N. E. Madison. P. 1,337. 

Ceeko Gokdo county, la, Situate "W. middle, and con- 
tains 576 sq. m. Taken from Pottowattomee in 1S51. 

Ceeeo Goedo, p. v., and cap. Holmes co., Flor. 

Cereo Gordo, p. v., Piatt co., HI. : on the S. side of the 
N. fork of Sangamon r., 47 m. E. N. E. Springfield. 

Chadd's Fobd, p. o., Delaware co., Penn. : 162 m. E. by 
S. Harrisburg. 

Chagein Palls, p. o., Cuyahoga co., Ohio : on Chagrin 
r. of Lake Erie, 165 m. N. E. Columbus. 

Chalk Blttff, p. o., Greene co., Ark. : 143 m. N. E. 
Little Rock. 

Chalk Level, p. o., Cumberland co., AC Car. : 89 m. S. 
Raleigh. 

Chalk Level, p. o., St. Clair co., Mo. : 94 m. "W. by S. 
Jefferson City. 

Chalk Level, p. o., Pittsylvania co., Yirg. : 108 m. 
8. W. Bichruond. 

Chalk Level, v., Benton co., Term. : on the W. side of 
Tennessee r., 71 m. W. by S. Nashville. 
114 



Chalk Level, p. o., Hopkins co., Ky. : 171 m. W. S. W. 
Frankfort. 

Chalkville, p. v., Chester dist., S. Car. : 87 m. N. W. 
Columbia. 

Chambers county, Ala. Situate E. on State line, and 
contains 720 sq. m. Drained by creeks of Chattahoochee 
and Tallapoosa rivers. Surface undulating, and soils gen- 
erally fertile, producing wheat, corn, and cotton. Farms 
1,342 ; manuf. 56 ; dwell. 2,138, and pop.— wh. 12,784, fr. col. 
18, si. 11,158— total 23,960. Capital : Chambers. Publio 
Works : Montgomery and West Point R. R. 

Chambebs, p. v., and cap. Chambers co., Ala. : 63 m. 
N. E. Montgomery. 

Chambeesbuegh, p. v., Pike co., 111. : on the "W. side of 
M'Kee's cr. of the Illinois r., 53 m. W. Springfield. 

Chambeesbtjegh, p. v., Clarke co., Mo. : on Fox r. of the 
Mississippi, 136 m. N. by E. Jefferson City. 

Chambeesbtjegh, p. v., Orange co., Ind. : at the head 
waters of Patoka cr., S4 m. S. by W. Indianapolis. 

Chambersburgh, p. v., Montgomery co., Ohio : on a 
branch of Miami r., 75 m. S. "W. Columbus. 

Chambeesbtjegh, p. v., and cap. Franklin co., Penn. : 
in the valley of Con»cocheague r., a tributary of the Poto- 
mac, 44 m. S. "W. Harrisburg. It is one of the most flour- 
ishing places in the interior, has numerous manufactures, 
and considerable commerce. The Franklin E. R. extends 
hence to Hagerstown, Md., 22 m., and the Cumberland 
Valley R. R. to Harrisburg, 56 m. ; at the latter place form- 
ing a junction with the Pennsylvania R. R., etc. Five 
weekly newspapers are published here ; the " Repository 
and Whig," the " Franklin Intelligencer" (whig), the " Val- 
ley Sentinel" (dem.), the " Valley Spirit" (deni.), and the 
" Messenger" (religious). Pop. 4,272. 

Chamber's Creek, p. o., Navarro co., Tex. : on a stream 
so called of Pecan cr. of Trinity r., 14S m. N. N. E. Austin 
City. 

Chambee's Mills, p. o., Buckingham co., Yirg. : 56 m. 
"W. Richmond. 

Chambeesville, p. v., Dallas co., Ark. : 73 m. S. by "W. 
Little Rock. 

Chamblissbuegh, p. v., Bedford co., Yirg. : on a cr. of 
the Roanoke r., 126 m. "W. S. W. Richmond. 

Champagnolle, p. v., Union co., Ark. : on the S. side of 
Washita r., 93 m. S. Little Rock. 

Champaign county, III. Situate E. middle, and contains 
972 sq. m. Drained by the head streams of Sangamon, 
Kaskaskia, and Big Vermillion rivers. Surface undulating, 
with large prairies bordered by fine groves of timber. Soil 
excellent. Farms 273 ; dwell. 480, and pop.— wh. 2,647, fr. 
col. 2— total 2,649. Capital : Urbana. Public Works : Chi- 
cago Branch of Hlinois Central E. R. 

Champaign county, Ohio. Situate "W. centrally, and 
contains 464 sq. m. Drained by the head tributaries of 
Mad r. Surface generally level or undulating, in some 
places low and marshy. Prairie and timber well appor- 
tioned. Soils deep and rich, producing fine grain crops. 
Farms 1,677 ; manuf. 93 ; dwell. 3,437, and pop.— wh. 19,272, 
fr. col. 490 — total 19,762. Capital: Urbana. Public 
Works : Mad River and Lake Erie R. E. 

Champion, t. and p. v., Trumbull co., Ohio : 177 m. N. E. 
Columbus. Pop. 1,090. 

Champion, t. and p. v., Jefferson co., AC Y. : on the S. 
side of Black r., 127 m. N. "W. Albany. Pop. 2 nS5. 

Champion South Roads, p. o., Jefferson co., AC Y. : 127 
m. N. W. Albany. 

Champlatn lake, AC Y. and Yerm. : this fine sheet of 
water lies between the States of New Tork and Vermont, 
and penetrates a few miles beyond the line of the United 
States into Canada. Its length is about 140 m., and its 
width from 1 mile to 10 miles. The direction of its length 
is nearly N. and S., and it contains a large number of small 
islands, most of which belong to Vermont. From White- 
hall to Crown Point the lake is quite narrow, but at the 



CHA 



CHA 



latter point it begins to expand, and soon becomes three 
miles wide, still increasing in width northward, until near 
Btirlington it attains its greatest spread. Steamboats of the 
first class, and vessels of 100 tons navigate the lake from 
end to end, and may pass the Sorel or Bichlieu, its outlet to 
St. Johns, where steamboat navigation ceases. The lake is 
connected southward with the navigable waters of the Hud- 
son by means of the Champlain Canal, 63 miles long. As 
the centre of the lake is approached, a large body of water 
presents itself to view, bordered by scenery of the most 
picturesque description. The headlands are seen to great 
advantage, and the vast range of mountains on either side 
is truly a scene of grandeur seldom witnessed. The highest 
peak of the Green Mountains, the Camel's Rump, is seen 
on the east, while the high range of mountains of Essex 
County loom boldly above the western horizon. This latter 
range of mountain peaks contains the highest land of the 
State of New York, and rises in some instances to the height 
of 5,000 feet and upward, the forests covering it swathed in 
clouds ; streams leap from their sides, and cascades of great 
beauty foam from their crevices. The immediate shores of 
the lake have numerous indentations and bays of singular 
beauty ; fish abound in the waters, and the angler nowhere 
else can so well enjoy the pleasures of the " gentle art" than 
here. Salmon, salmon-trout, sturgeon, pickerel, etc., of the 
finest flavor, abound through the whole length of this 
delightful lake. 

Champlain, t. and p. v., Clinton co., N. Y. : the north- 
easternmost t. of the State, on the W. side of Lake Cham- 
plain, 153 m. N. Albany. The v. on Chazy r., is intersected 
by the Northern E. E., 4 m. W. of Eouse's Point. P. 5,067. 

Chancefoed, t. and p. v., York co., Perm. : on the S. W. 
fork of the Susquehanna r., 3S m. S. S. E. Harrisburg. 

Chancelloesville, p. v., Spottsylvania co., Virg. : S. of 
the Eappahannock r., 54 m. N. by W. Eichmond. 

Chancery, p. o., Howard co., Ind. : 56 m. N. Indiana- 
polis. 

Chanceville, p. v., Monmouth co., N. Jer. : 39 m. E. 
Trenton. 

Chandleesvtlle, p. v., Muskingum co., Ohio: 62 m. E. 
by N. Columbus. 

Chandlerville, p. v., Chester co., Peivn. : 62 m. E. S. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Channahon, p. v., "Will co., IU. : on a tributary of Illinois 
r., 133 m. N. E. Springfield. 

Channlngytlle, p. v., Dubuque co., la. : 69 m. N. E. 
Iowa City. 

Chanttlly, p. o., Lincoln co., Mo. : 76 m. N. E. Jefferson 
City. 

Chanttlly, p. o., Fairfax co., Yirg. : 92 m. N. Eich- 
mond. 

Chapel Hill, p. v., Orange co., N. Car. : on New Hope 
r., a branch of Cape Fear r., 27 m. N. "W. Ealeigh. The v. 
derives its chief importance from being the seat of the 
University of North Carolina. This institution was founded 
in 1789, and is well endowed. Permanent population, 
about 360. 

Chapel Hill, p. v., Monmouth co., Jf. Jer. 

Chapel Hill, p. v., Marshall co., Term. : on a cr. ofDuck 
r., 37 m. 8. by E. Nashville. 

Chapel Hill, p. v., Perry co., Ohio : 52 m. E. by S. 
Columbus. 

Chapel Hill, p. v., "Washington co., Tex. : 76 m. E. 
Austin City. 

Chapel Hill, p. v., La Fayette co., Mo. : 98 m. W. by 
N. Jefferson City. 

Chapelsbueg, p. v., Cattaraugus co., A 7 ! Y. : 242 m. W. 
by S. Albany. 

Chaptnville, p. v., Ontario co., A^ Y. : 172 m. W. by N. 
Albany. 

Chapinville. p. v., Litchfield co., Corm. : 44 m. W. 
Hartford. 

Chaplin, p. v., Nelson co., Ky. : 47 m. W. by S. Frankfort. 



Chaplin, t. and p. v.,"Windham co., Corm. : on Na'.chaug 
r., 27 m. E. by N. Hartford. Pop. 799. 

Chapman, t. and p. o., Union co., Penn. : on Mahantango 
cr., 39 m. N. W. Harrisburg. Pop. 1,427. 

Chapmanville, p. v., Logan co., Virg. : 246 m. W. 
Eichmond. 

Chappaqua, p. v., "Westchester co., N.Y.: on the line of 
the New York and Harlem Extension E. E. 97 m. S. by E. 
Albany. 

Chappell, p. v., Dallas co., Ar/c. : 59 m. S. Little Eock. 

Chapttco, p. v., St. Mary's co., Md. : on the S. side of 
Chaptico cr., 47 m. S. by W. Annapolis. Chaptico cr. is 
navigable to the village. 

Chapuxtepeo, p. v., Blount co., Ala. : 122 m. N. by W. 
Montgomery. 

Chapultepec, p. v., Benton co., Term. : 71 m. "W. Nash- 
ville. 

Chardon, p. v., and cap. Geauga co., Ohio : ISO m. N. E. 
Columbus. It is a flourishing v., and has two newspapers, 
the " Geauga Eepublican" (whig), and the " Free Demo- 
crat" (free soil), both published weekly. Pop. 1,622. 

Chaeenton, p. v., St. Mary's par., La. : 54 m. S. by W. 
Baton Eouge. 

Chaeiton, p. v., Lucas co., la. : on the N. side of Chariton 
r., 103 m. S. W. Iowa City. 

Chariton Mills, p. o., Adair co., Mo. : on Chariton r., 
118 m. N. by W. Jefferson City. 

Chaelemont, t. and p. o., Franklin co., Mass. : on Deer- 
field r., 93 m."W. Boston. The Greenfield and North Adams 
E. E. will traverse the t. E. and "W., forming a section of the 
Troy and Boston line of railroads. Pop. 1,173. 

Chaelemont, p. v., Bedford co., Virg. : 118 m. "W. by S. 
Eichmond. 

Charlton county, Mo. Situate centrally on N. bank of 
Missouri r., and contains 780 sq. m. Drained by Chariton 
r., and several tributaries of Grand r. Surface level or 
undulating prairie, and soil good. Farms 659 ; manuf. 24 ; 
dwell. 1,096, and pop— wh. 5,688, fr. col. 48, si. 1,778— total 
7,514. Capital: Keytesville. 

Charles county, Md. Situate W. shore, and contains 460 
sq. m. Drained by a number of creeks flowing to the Po- 
tomac and Patuxent rivers. Surface low and sandy. Soil 
indifferent and exhausted. Tobacco is the chief product, 
but wheat, corn, etc., are grown extensively. Timber is 
various and abundant. Farms 709 ; manuf. ; dwell. 1,335, 
and pop.— wh. 5,665, fr. col. 913, si. 9,584— total 16,162. 
Capital : Port Tobacco. 

Chaeles river, B. I. : has its source in' Warden's Pond, 
in S. Kingston, and empties into Pawcatuck r. at Westerly. 

Charles river, Mass. : rises on the borders of Hopkinton 
and Milford townships, and after a circuitous course, empties 
into Boston Harbor. It is navigable to "Watertown, 7 m. 
above Boston. 

Charles City county, Virg. Situate S. E. on a penin 
sula formed by James and Chickahominy rivers, and con- 
tains 208 sq. m. Surface rolling, and soils sandy. Indian 
corn, wheat, and oats are the principal products. Farms 
199 ; manuf. 6 ; dwell. 486, and pop.— wh. 1,664, fr. col. 772, 
si. 2,764— total 5,200. Capital: Charles City C. H. 

Charles City C. H., p. v., and cap. Charles City co., 
Virg. : on the N. side of James r., 33 m. E. by S. Eichmond 

Charles Etvee Village, p. v., Norfolk co., Mass. : on 
Charles r., 16 m. S. W. Boston. 

Charleston district, S. Car. Situate S. E. on the Atlan- 
tic, between the Santee and Ashley rivers, and contains 1,520 
sq. m. Drained by Cooper's r. and other streams. The 
surface is low and swampy, and produces abundantly rice 
and cotton, with some grain. Farms 6S2 ; manuf. 76 ; 
dwell. 5,213, and pop.— wh. 24,5S6, fr. col. 3,S43, si. 44,376— 
total 72,805. Capital: Charleston. Public Works: Santee 
Canal, and South Carolina E. E. 

Charleston, p. v., Mississippi eo., Mo. : 196 m. S. E. 
Jefferson City. 

116 



CHA 



CHA 



Charleston, p. v., and cap. Coles co., El. : about 2 m. 
W. of Embarras r., 82 m. E. by S. S. Springfield. The Terre 
Haute and Alton E. B. will pass through this village. 

Charleston, t. and p. v., Penobscot co., Me. : 57 m. N.E. 
Augusta. Pop. 1,288. 

Charleston, t. and p. o., Kalamazoo co., Mich. : on the 
S. side of Kalamazoo r., 51 m. S. W. Lansing. Pop. S46. 

Charleston", p. v., and cap. Tallahatchie co., Miss. : on 
Tillaboba cr. of Tallahatchie r., 114 m. N. Jackson. 

Charleston, p. v., Lee co., 7a. .• on the bank of the 
Mississippi r., at the confluence of Sugar cr., 89 m. S. by E. 
Iowa City, and about 6 m. S. W. Fort Madison. It is a 
place of some trade, and near the line of the proposed 
Dubuque and Keokuk E. E. 

Charleston, t. and p. v., Montgomery co., -K Y. : on 
the "W. side of Schoharie cr., 31 m. W. Albany. Pop. 2,216. 

Charleston, p. v., Tioga co., JV. Y. : 184 m. W. S. "W. 
Albany. 

Charleston, p. city, port of entry, and cap. Charleston 
dist, & Car. : on a tongue of land formed by the meeting 
of Cooper and Ashley rivers in Charleston Harbor, 101 m. 
B. E. Columbia. Lat. 32° 46' 33'' N., and long. 79° 57' 27" 
W. from Greenwich, or 2° 55' 57" "W". from Washington. 

The bay, or Charleston Harbor, is a large estuary, with 
an average width of 2 m., and extends about 7 m. S. E. from 
Charleston to the Atlantic Ocean, which it enters between 
Sullivan's and Morrison's islands. Cooper and Ashley 
rivers are from 30 to 40 feet deep, the former being 1,400, 
and the latter 2,100 yards wide opposite the city, and both 
are capable of accommodating the largest class of vessels. 
A sand-bar extends across the mouth of the harbor, but it 
has several channel entrances, the deepest of which, passing 
very close to Sullivan's Island, admits vessels drawing 16 
feet water at high tide. The harbor is open to easterly 
winds, and vessels are much exposed during storms from 
that quarter — so much so, indeed, that they were at one 
time prohibited by law from lying at the wharves from the 
last of July to the middle of September. The fortifications 
protecting Charleston, are Fort Moultrie, on Sullivan's 
Island, Castle Pinckney, 2 m. below the city, and Fort 
Johnson, about 4 m. below. 

The ground upon which Charleston is built is low, only 
elevated 8 or 9 feet above the level of the harbor at high 
tide, which here rises about 6 feet, flowing by the city with 
a strong current, and thus contributing to the salubrity of a 
location naturally unhealthy. The city has several times 
been inundated by the waters driven up the harbor by 
violent winds, and has from this cause at various times suf- 
fered considerable damage. The years 1 699, 172S, 1752, and 
1797 are noted in the history of the city as periods of these 
devastating occurrences. The streets are laid out recti- 
lineally, running east and west, from the rivers north and 
south, forming nearly square blocks. The width of the 
streets varies from 35 to 70 feet. Most of the buildings of 
the city arc of brick, and the dwellings are in general of 
elegant construction. The streets are lined with the pride 
of India, while elegant villas, adorned with verandahs 
reaching from the ground to the tops of the houses, sur- 
rounded by green edges, and buried in the rich foliage of 
orange trees, magnolias, and palmcttoes, give an air of 
wealth and elegance to the city. Charleston is divided into 
four wards, and is governed by a mayor and 12 aldermen. 
Among the public buildings, are the City Hall, the Ex- 
change, the District Court House, the jail, two arsenals, a 
theatre, the U. S. Custom House, the Halls of the College 
of Charleston, between 30 and 40 churches, several high 
schools, and buildings devoted to benevolent purposes, as 
the alms-houses, the orphan asylum. The Literary and 
Philosophical Society has a fine collection of objects of nat- 
ural history, etc ; the Academy of Fine Arts possesses some 
valuable paintings, and the City Library contains about 
24,000 volumes. The College of Charleston is one of the 
most flourishing institutions of the Southern States, and has 
116 



an efficient statf, consisting of a president and six professors ; 
it was founded in 17S5, and in 1S50 had 70 students. The 
Medical College of the State of South Carolina was founded 
in 1833 ; in 1850 it had 8 professors and 15S students. The 
list of free school pupils is 894, and the average cost of 
instruction $10 per annum ; these are valuable schools, but 
are inadequate for so large a city. There is also a High 
School, founded in 1S39, which averages from 130 to 150 
pupils. It is endowed with $1,000 a year for 100 years by 
the council. The number of grammar schools and acade- 
mies, which are open only to pay scholars, are pretty 
numerous, and these are usually efficient institutions, at 
which the best classical and mathematical education can 
be had. 

The public press of Charleston consists of four daily 
papers : the " Sun" (neutral), the " C. News" (dem.), the 
" C. Mercury" (dem.), and the " C. Courier" (neutral) : of 
the latter a tri-weekly edition is also issued ; four weekly 
papers, the " Southern Literary Gazette," the " Southern 
Baptist," the " Catholic Miscellany," and the " Southern 
Christian Advocate ;" three monthly periodicals, the " Gospel 
Messenger," the " School-Fellow" (educational), and the 
" Masonic Miscellany ;" and one bi-monthly, the " Medical 
Journal." Many of these are publications exhibiting a high 
order of talent, and have circulations beyond the locality. 
The " Medical Journal" is a work of world-wide renown, 
and has among its contributors the highest names among 
Southern physicians. 

The city of Charleston is one of the most ancient in the 
Union. Its foundations were laid in 1672. In 1677 it was 
called Oyster Point Town ; in 16S0 New Charlestown, and 
in 16S2 New Charleston. It was chartered as a city in 
1783. At an early period of its history it attracted a consid- 
erable population from Barbadoes, and received large 
accessions of French Huguenots. "On the spot," says 
Bancroft, "where opulence now crowds the wharves of 
the most prosperous mart on our Southern sea-board, among 
ancient groves that swept down the river's banks, and 
were covered with yellow jasmine which burdened the 
verdant zephyrs with its perfumes, the city was begun." 
Two centuries have nearly been completed since its founda- 
tion, and momentous have been the events and changes 
within that lapse of time. In 1731 — we have it on the 
authority of an old historian — there were 690 houses in 
Charleston, 5 handsome churches, and that out of the city 
were to be found courtly, stately buildings, noble castles, 
etc. The advantages of the location were early appreciated, 
and it soon became a place of considerable trade. Its first 
exports were staves, lumber, furs, and peltries, rice (first 
planted 1698), to which were added in 1747 indigo, in 17S2 
tobacco, and in 1790 cotton. At the present time its great 
exports are rice and cotton. Of cotton, the receipts from 
the interior in 1S50 were 400,714 bales, and of sea-island, 
17,994 bales, and the exports were 365,327 bales upland, and 
16,437 bales sea-island ; and the receipts of rice amounted 
to 147,690 barrels, and the exports to 134,417 barrels. The 
foreign commerce of Charleston, however, has not pro- 
gressed equally with its coasting trade ; and many reasons 
might be assigned for this, but none so weighty as the fault 
of its own inhabitants in preferring the employment of the 
shipping of other States, and neglecting its own facilities for 
ship-building. It has consequently become a tributary to 
Northern ports, and instead of reaping the benefits of a 
foreign navigation of its own, has been constantly heaping 
up the coffers of its Northern neighbors. At present, indeed, 
the great bulk of its staples are carried coastwise to New 
York, and thence shipped to foreign countries. In the year 
1S49-50, ending 30th June, the clearances to foreign ports 
amounted only to 351 vessels (121.367 tons), and its direct 
entrances to only 3i>S vessels (96.619 tons), a proportion 
quite inadequate for the transportation of so large a com- 
! mercial material as that supplied from the back country, of 
which the port is the only outlet. The registered shipping 



CHA 



CHA 



of the port at this period consisted of 15,377 tons, and the 
shipping employed in the coasting trade, of 17,916 tons. 
The coastwise trade of Charleston in comparison with this is 
immensely greater. In 184S the arrivals were 63 steamships, 
22S ships, 196 brigs, 39S schooners, S sloops, and 730 steam- 
boats; and the clearances were 61 steamships, 163 ships, 
177 brigs, 369 schooners, 7 sloops, and 731 steamboats. At 
the same period, and of the above amount, the following 
were regular packets plying between Charleston and other 
ports of the Union : Boston, 6 vessels (1,371 tons) ; New 
York, 2S vessels (11,027 tons) ; Philadelphia, 13 vessels 
(2,950 tons) ; Providence, 2 vessels (346 tons) ; Baltimore, 6 
vessels (600 tons) ; Wilmington, 4 vessels (1,538 tons) ; 
Savannah, 4 vessels (1,070 tons) ; and New Orleans, 7 ves- 
sels (1,627 tons) ; the remainder being made up of transient 
traders. Of this number, 5 were steamships, 11 ships, 9 
barks, 24 brigs, 1 ketch, 26 schooners, and 8 steamboats. 
There are also engaged in the pilotage of the bar, IS full 
branch pilots and S second branch pilots, employing 9 pilot 
boats, with an aggregate of about 400 tons. 

There is at Charleston a Floating Dry Dock — one of the 
best of its kind in the Union ; it is the balance dock of Gil- 
bert, and was built in 1S45 by James Marsh. Its length is 
160 feet, its width 52 feet, and its depth 20 feet, and its ca- 
pacity 1,500 tons. The operations of the dock are perform- 
ed by a steam-engine. 

The South Carolina B. E. is the great conduit of the 
commerce of Charleston to and from the interior. It ex- 
tends from Charleston to Augusta, 136 miles, and has nu- 
merous connections (feeders), westward and northward, 
through which an immense amount of merchandise is 
carried to and fro. It has also the advantages of a canal 
22 miles long, which connects the harbor with the Santee 
river, and by means of the railroads now building, it will 
have access to the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. Already its 
railroad facilities extend from Charleston to Nashville, 
Tenn., 598 miles, and to Montgomery, Ala., 482 miles. 

Charleston has seven banks, with an aggregate capital 
of $9,500,000, and five insurance companies, with capitals 
in the aggregate amounting to $4,500,000 ; also a provident 
institution for savings. The Bank of the State of South 
Carolina is the fiscal agent of the State, and holds, besides 
its capital of $1,123,357, the deposits of the State funds. 

The population of Charleston in 1790 was 16,359 ; in 1800, 
1S,711 ; in 1810, 24,711 ; in 1820, 24,780 ; in 1830, 30,289 ; in 
1840, 29,261, and 1850, 42,985. This is exclusive of St. 
Philip's parish, or the neck, which is, however, virtually a 
part of Charleston, and contains about 16,000 inhabitants. 

Charleston, p. v., Bradley co., Tenn. : on the S. side of 
the Hiwassee r., 123 m. E. S. E. Nashville. The East Ten- 
nessee and Georgia E. E. passes the v. 40 m. from Dalton. 
Charleston Four Corners, p. o., Montgomery co., JSf. 
T. : 32 m. W. by N. Albany. 

Charlestown, p. v., Franklin eo., Ark. : on Arkansas r., 
108 m. W. N. W. Little Eock. 

Charlestown, t. and p. c, Middlesex eo., Mass. : on a 
peninsula between Charles and Mystic rivers, and connected 
■with Boston, etc., by bridges. The c contains the Massa- 
chusetts State Prison, situated on Prison Point, the U. S. 
Navy Yard, etc. Breed's Hill, where the noted battle was 
fought, 17th June, 1775, lies immediately behind the v., and 
this great event is commemorated by a granite obelisk 
(Bunker Hill Monument). The t. has considerable manu- 
factures, trade, and commerce ; and a newspaper, the 
•" Bunker Hill Aurora," is here published weekly. Charles- 
town may be considered as a portion of the metropolitan 
district, of which Boston is the centre. Pop. 17,216. 

Charlestown, p. v., Cecil co., Md.; on the W. side of 
North-East r., 5 m. from Chesapeake Bay, and 49 m. N. E. 
Annapolis. The Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore 
R. E. passes near the v., 57 m. from Philadelphia, and 41 m. 
from Baltimore. 
Charlestown, p. v., and cap. Clarke co., Ind. : on the 



E. side of Pleasant Eun of Silver cr., 3 m. from the Ohio r., 
and 92 m. S. S. E. Indianapolis. 

Charlestown, t. and p. v., Sullivan co., i\7! JTamp. : on 
the E. side of Connecticut r., 45 m. W. Concord. A bridge 
connects this t. with Springfield, Verm., and the Sullivan 
E. E. intersects the v. 8 m. from Bellows Falls. Pop. 1.676. 

Charlestown, p. v., Calumet co., Wise. : 88 m. N. N. E. 
Madison. 

Charlestown, t, and p. v., Portage co., Ohio : on the 
N. side of the W. branch of Mahoning r., 154 m. N. E. 
Columbus. Pop. 809. 

Charlestown, t. and p. v., Washington co., E. I. : on 
Charles r. of the Pawcatuck r., 37 m. S. S. W. Providence. 
Pop. 994. 

Charlestown, p. v., and cap. Jefferson co., Virg. : on the 
line of the Winchester and Potomac E. E., 10 m, from 
Harper's Ferry, and 122 m. N. Eichmond. 

Charlevoix county, Mich. Situate N. W. of Lower 
Peninsula, on Little Traverse Bay, and contains 534 sq. m. 
Erected since 1850. 

Charloe, p. v., Paulding co., OMo : 143 m. N. W. 
Columbus. 

Charlotte county, Virg. Situate S. middle, and con- 
tains 600 sq. m. Drained by Eoanoke r. and its tributaries. 
Surface level, and soils fertile, producing wheat, Indian 
corn, oats, and tobacco. Farms 563 ; manuf. 6 ; dwell. 903, 
and pop.— wh. 4,605, fr. col. 362, si. 8,9S8— total 13,955. 
Capital : Charlotte C. H. 

Charlotte, t. and p. o., Washington co., Me. : 131 m. 
E. N. E. Augusta. Pop. 718. 

Charlotte, p. v., and cap. Eaton co., Mich. : on the N. 
side of Battle cr. of the Kalamazoo r., and 18 m. S. W 
Lansing. 

Charlotte, p. v., and cap. Mecklenburgh co., N. Car. : 
between Sugar and Little Sugar creeks of Catawba r., 118 
m.W. S.W. Ealeigh. East of Charlotte there are rich gold 
mines, and at the v. a branch mint has long been established 
for its coinage. The Charlotte and South Carolina E. E. 
has its N. terminus at this point, and hence the E. E. will 
be continued N. to Danville, Virg. Two newspapers are 
published weekly, the " Charlotte Journal" (whig), and the 
" Hornet's Nest" (dem.) ! Pop. about 1,300. 

Charlotte, p. v., Monroe co., Jf. T. : on the W. bank 
of Genesee r. at its mouth, 7 m. N. Eochester, and 194 m. 
W. by N. Albany. (Sometimes called Port Genesee.) It 
has a convenient landing for steamboats navigating the r. 
and lake, and has regular steam communication with Cana- 
da and the principal lake ports. 

Charlotte, t. and p. v., Chittenden co., Verm. : on the 
E. side of Lake Champlain, 31 m. N. W. Montpelier. The 
Eutland and Burlington E. E. passes through the v. 11 m. 
from Burlington, and 109 from Bellow's Falls. It is one of 
the best farming t. in the State. Pop. 1,634. 

Charlotte, p. v., and cap. Charlotte co., Virg. ; 72 m. 
W. S. W. Eichmond. It contains the co. buildings, and 
has several mechanic shops. Pop. about 600. 

Charlotte, p. v., and cap. Dickson co., Term. : 33 m. W. 
Nashville. The Nashville and Mississippi E. E. will pass 
through the village. 

Charlotte Centre, p. o., Chautauque co., A1 T. : on a 
branch of Conewango cr., 29S m. W. by S. Albany. 

CnARLOTTE Hall, p. v., St. Mary's co., Md. : at the head 
of Cool Springs cr., 39 m. S. S. E. Annapolis. A noted 
college so called is located here ; in 1850 it had 63 students. 
The v. has about 120 permanent inhabitants. 

Charlottesville, p. v., Hancock co., Ind. : on the E. 
side of a branch of Blue r., 29 m. E. Indianapolis. The 
Central Indiana E. E. passes through the village. 

Charlottesville, p. v., and cap. Albemarle co., Virg. : 
on Moore's cr. of Bivanna r., 63 m. N. W. Eichmond. It 
derives its chief importance from being the site of the 
University of Virginia, which has a fine observatory, and is 
a most efficient institution. Three newspapers are pub- 

11? 



CHA 



CHA 



lished in the v., the "Virginia Advocate'' (whig), the 
" Jeffersonian Republican" (dem.), and the " Jefferson 
Monument" (lit.), all weekly. Pop. about 1,400. 

Charlotteville, p. v., Schoharie co., N. Y. : 42 m. W. 
by S.Albany. Pop. 2,015. 

Charlton, t. and p. o., "Worcester co., Mass. : 49 m. W. 
by S. Boston. 

Charlton, t. and p. v., Saratoga co., 2T. Y. : on Aelplass 
cr. of Mohawk r., 21 m. N. W. Albany. Pop. 1,902. 

Chaklton Dep6t, p. o., Worcester co., 3Iass. : on the 
"Western B. P., 57 m. from Boston. 

Chartiers river, Penn. : a small tributary of the Ohio r., 
which it joins 4 m. below Pittsburg. It runs through the 
bituminous coal region of Washington co. 

Chartiers, t. and p. o., Washington co., Penn. : on the 
N. side Chartier's or., 187 m. W. by S. Harrisburg. There 
is abundance of coal in this locality, and on the cr. are a 
large number of saw and grist mills. 

Chaseville, p. v., Murray co., Ga. : 163 m. N. W. 
Milledgeville. 

Chaseville, p. v., Benton co., Tenn. : on the W. side of 
Tennessee r., 69 m. W. Nashville. 

Chataty, p. v., Bradley co., Tenn. : 131 m. E. S. E. 
Nashville. 

Chateaugay, t. and p. v., Franklin co., 2T. Y. : on the 
head tributaries of Chateaugay r., 157 m. N. by W. Albany. 
The village lies on the Northern P. P., 45 m. from Eouse's 
Point, and 73 from Ogdensburg. Pop. 3,696. 

Chateaugay lake, A 7 ". Y. : this small lake, which is 4 m. 
long, and about 2 m. wide, lies in Beekmantown, in Clinton 
co. It abounds in fish, and has many scenes of beauty in 
its immediate neighborhood. Its surface is elevated 1,400 
feet above the tide waters of Hudson r. 

Chateaugay mountains, N. Y. : a range of hills com- 
mencing in Canada, and extending southward through the 
north-west part of Clinton into Franklin county. Some of 
the highest peaks are in Franklin, near Chateaugay Lake. 

Chateaugay river, 2F. Y. : a stream flowing northward 
from Chateaugay Mountains into Canada, where it empties 
into the St. Lawrence Biver. 

Chatfleld, t. and p. v., Crawford co., Ohio : 84 m. N. 
Columbus. Pop. 1,356. 

Chatham county, Ga. Situate S. E. on the Atlantic, be- 
tween Savannah and Ogeechee rivers, and contains 420 sq. 
m. Surface very low, scarcely above sea level — near the 
coast broken into islands by numerous inlets and canals. 
The chief products are rice and cotton. Farms 132 ; manuf. 
13 ; dwell. 1,915, and pop.— wh. 9,161, fr. col. 722, si. 14,013 
—total 23,901. Capital : Savannah. Public Works : Cen- 
tral Georgia P. E. 

Chatham county, W. Car. Situate centrally, and con- 
tains 85S sq. m. Drained by Haw r. and its tributaries. 
Surface elevated and varied. Soils clayey, and productive 
in wheat, corn, cotton, and tobacco. Farms 1,633 ; manuf. 
4S ; dwell. 2,210, and pop— wh. 12,164, fr. col. 300, si. 5,9S5 
—total 18,449. Capital: Pittsboro. 

Chatham, p. v., Sangamon co., III. : near the line of the 
Alton and Sangamon P. P., 24 m. S. S. W. Springfield. 

Chatham, t. and p. v., Barnstable co., Mass. : on the S. E. 
point of Cape Cod, 73 m. S. E. Boston. It has a good har- 
bor, and an extensive coasting trade and fisheries. Salt is 
also manufactured. Pop. 2,467. 

CnATnvM, t., Middlesex co., Conn. : on the Connecticut 
r., opposite Middletown, 16 m. S. Hartford. It has consider- 
able manufactures. Pop. 1.531. 

Chatham, t. and p. y., Columbia co., 2F. Y. : on Kinder- 
hook cr., 16 m. S. E. Albany. Chatham Pour Corners, a 
village in the S. part of the town, is an important point, 
where several lines of E. P. intersect or form a union. 
Pop. 3.S39. 

Chatham, t. and p. v., Morris CO., 2T. Jer. : on the Pas- 
saic r., 39 m. N. N. E. Trenton. The river passes through 
the village. Pop. 2,409. 
118 



Chatham, p. v., Chester co., Penn.: 63 m. E. S. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Chatham, p. v., Licking co., Ohio : near the N. fork of 
Licking r., 39 m. E. N. E. Columbus. 

Chatham Centre, p. v., Columbia co., Jf. Y. : on the 
line of the Western P. P., 20 m. S. E. Albany. 

Chatham Centre, p. v., Medina co., Ohio: on the E. 
branch of Black r., 113 m. N. N. E. Columbus.. 

Chatham Four Corners, p. v., Columbia co., 2F. Y. : on 
the S. part of the town of Chatham, 23 m. S. E. Albany. 
It is a village of great importance, being the point of in- 
tersection of the Albany and West Stockbridge P. P. 
(western), the Hudson and Berkshire E. P., and the Harlem 
Extension P. E., etc. 

Chatham Hill, p. o., Smyth co., Virg. : 222 m. W. by S. 
Eichmond. 

Chatham Eun, p. o., Clinton co., Penn. : 71 m. N. W. by 
N. Harrisburg. 

Chatham Valley, p. o.,Tioga co., Penn. : 117 m. N. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Chattahoochee, p. v., Gadsden co., Flor.: on the E. 
side of Appalachicola r., immediately below the union of 
Chattahoochee and Flint rivers. 

Chattahoochee river, Ga. and Ala. : it has its rise in 
the Appalachee Mountains, and for a great part of its course 
forms the boundary line between Georgia and Alabama, 
forming ultimately the largest constituent of the Appalachi- 
cola r. Steamboats ascend it to Columbus, and boating is 
carried much farther up. 

Chattanooga, p. v., Hamilton co., Tenn. : on the S. bank 
of Tennessee r., 112 m. E. S. E. Nashville. At this point 
the Nashville and Chattanooga E. P. forms a junction with 
the Western and Atlantic E. E., 151 m. from Nashville, and 
311 from Augusta. A railroad is also in progress from 
hence to Charleston, on the East Tennessee and Georgia 
E. E. This point, indeed, is destined to become the entre- 
pot of an inmense inland commerce, reaching to the At- 
lantic sea-board on the one hand and beyond the Missis- 
sippi and Ohio on the other. Two newspapers are pub- 
lished weekly, the " C. Gazette" (whig), and the " C. Ad- 
vertiser" (dem.) Pop. about 3,000. 

Chattooga county, Ga. Situate N. W., and contains 
420 sq. m. Drained by Chattooga r., a branch of Coosa r. 
Surface elevated, hilly, and rugged, and the soils generally 
indifferent — on the streams fertile. Wheat, corn, and cotton 
are the chief products. Farms 419 ; manuf. 10 ; dwell. 869, 
and pop.— wh. 5,131, fr. col. 4, si. 1,6S0— total 6,S15. Capi- 
tal : Summerville. 

Chattoogaville, p. v., Chattooga co., Ga. : 148 m. N. W. 
Milledgeville. 

Chaumont, p. v., Jefferson co., N. Y.: at the head of 
Chaumont Bay, 149 m. N. W. Albany. It has unrivaled 
water-power and great facilities for lake commerce, its har- 
bor being spacious and of easy access. It is also celebrated 
for its fisheries and for the quantity of blue limestone found 
in its vicinity. The Cape Vincent P. E. passes through the 
village, S6 m. from Eome. Pop. about 400. 

Chaumont bay, 2f. Y. : a fine open bay near the outlet 
of Lake Ontario. It is of an irregular shape, about 7 m. 
long and 2 m. wide, and receives Chaumont r. The fish- 
eries of the bay are very valuable, and it abounds in all the 
descriptions found in the lake of which it is an arm. 

Chaumont river, & Y. : this stream rises in Jefferson 
County, and flows almost directly south, to its confluence 
with Chaumont Bay. It is only 15 or 16 m. in length, but 
affords abundance of hydraulic power. 

Chauxcey, p. v., Athens co., Ohio : on the N. side of 
Hocking r. and canal, 76 m. S. E. Columbus. 

Chautauque county, 1?. Y. Situate S. W. on Lake Erie, 
and contains 1.017 sq. m. Drained by Chautauque Lake, 
and a large number of streams flowing to Alleghany r. An 
elevated ridge traverses the county 4 or 5 m. distant from 
Lake Erie, forming the watershed. Surface finely varied, 



CHA 



CHE 



and the soils, even to the hill-tops, open to cultivation. Bog 
iron, copperas, alum, marl, etc., abound, and there tre 
sulphur springs and a hydrogen spring, which at Fredonia, 
Westfield, and Van Buren Harbor, are used to illuminate — 
the gas burning equal to coal gas. Farms 5,163; manuf. 
510 ; dwell. 9,074, and pop.— wh. 50,358, fr. col. 135— total 
50,493. Capital : May ville. Public. Works : New York 
and Erie E. JL, and Buffalo and State Line E. E. 

Chautauque Valley, p. o., Alleghany co., 27. Y. : 213 
m. "W. S. W. Albany. 

Chautauque lake, 27. Y. : a most beautiful sheet of water 
in the county of the same name. It is 18 m. in length, 
and varies in breadth from 1 to 3 m., except near the mid- 
dle, where it contracts to a few rods in width. It empties 
into Conewango cr. Its elevation is 726 feet above the sur- 
face of Lake Erie, and 1,291 above the ocean, being the 
most elevated lake in the Union on which steamboats ply. 

Chautauque river, MY.: a tributary of Lake Erie, 
from the county of the same name. It flows through a 
deep ravine, and in its course furnishes excellent mill sites 

Chazt, t. and p. v., Clinton co., 27. Y. : on Chazy r., 146 
m. N. Albany. The village is situate about 3 m. W. of 
Lake Champlain, on which is also a village called Chazy 
Landing. Pop. 4,324. 

Cheap Valley, p. o., Henry co., Tenn. : S9 m. W. by N. 
Nashville. 

Cheat Bridge, p. o., Preston co., Yirg. ; on Cheat r., 
182 m. N. W. Eichmond. 

Cheat river, Yirg. : a large tributary of Monongahela r., 
from the mountain region of Eandolph co. 

Cheboygan county, Mich. Situate N. of Lower Penin- 
sula, and contains 324 sq. m. Erected since 1850. 

Cheboygan river, Mich. : the largest stream in the N. 
part of the peninsula. It rises N. W. of Saginaw Bay, 
flows in a N. direction, and empties into the straits of 
Mackinac, opposite Bois Blanc Island. There are numer- 
rous salt springs 12 or 15 m. from its month. 

Checkered House, p. o., Oswego co., 27. Y. (now 
Kasoag). 

Checksvtlle, p. v., Marion co., Term. ; on the W. side 
of Sequatchy r., 94 m. S. E. Nashville. 

Checktowaga, p. v., Erie co., 27. Y. : 246 m. W. Albany. 

Cheesequakes, p. o., Middlesex co., 27. Jer. : 34 m. N. E. 
Trenton. 

Chehalem, p. o., Yam Hill co., Oreg. Ter. : on a r. of 
the same name, 2S m. N. by W. Salem. 

Chehalem river, Oreg. : a large r. from the E., formed 
by the union of the Skukumchuck and Newaukum rivers, 
and falling into Gray's Harbor. 

Chelmsford, t. and p. v., Middlesex co., Mass. : on the 
S. side of Merrimac r., 24 m. N. W. Boston. The town 
abounds in granite and limestone, and has several manu- 
factures, among which are those of glass and iron. The 
Middlesex Canal passes through the town, and it has sev- 
eral railroads on its borders, connecting it with the towns 
on all sides. Lowell was taken from Chelmsford in 1S24. 
Pop. 2,09S. 

Chelsea, p. v., Mill co., Hi. : 143 m. N. E. Springfield. 

Chelsea, p. v., "Washtenaw eo., Mich. : 52 m. S. E. 
Lansing. • 

Chelsea, t. and p. v., Suffolk co., Mass.: 3 m. N. E. 
Boston. The Eastern E. E. passes through the town. It 
may be considered as a part of the Boston metropolitan 
district. It has considerable manufactures, and is on the 
whole a busy place. Chelsea has two newspapers, the 
"Telegraph" (whig), and the "Pioneer" — both published 
weekly. Pop. 6,701— in 1840 it had only a pop. of 2,390. 

Chelsea, t., p. v., and cap. Orange co., Verm. : on a branch 
of "White r., 22 m. S. by E. Montpelier. The village con- 
tains the county buildings and about 80 dwellings. Pop. 
1,958. 

Chemung county, '27. Y. Situate S. W. middle, and con- 
tains 523 sq. m, Drained chiefly by Chemung r. and its 



tributary streams. Surface broken, hilly, and well timbered, 
with large river flats. Soils very productive. Farms 2,170 ; 
manuf. 321 ; dwell. 5,095, and pop.— wh. 28,537, fr. col. 284 
—total 28,821. Capital: Elmira. Public Works: Che- 
mung Canal ; New York and Erie E. E. ; Elmira and 
Williamsport E. E., etc. 

Chemung, p. v., M'Henry eo., III. : on the E. side of 
Piskashaw cr., 186 m. N. N. E. Springfield. 

Chemung, t. and p. v., Chemung co., 27. Y. : on the N. 
side of the Chemung r., 143 m. W. S. "W. Albany. The New 
York and Erie E. E. intersects the village 270 m. from New 
York and 199 from Dunkirk. Pop. 2,672. 

Chemung river, 27. Y. : formed by the junction of Cos- 
chocton and Tioga rivers, in Steuben county, whence it 
flows in a S. E. direction through Chemung county and 
into the State of Pennsylvania, where it empties into the 
Susquehanna at the village of Athens. Its whole length is 
about 40 m., and in high flood its volume is sufficient to 
float down timber and produce to market. It is also used 
as the main feeder of the Chemung Canal. 

Chenango county, 27. Y. Situate "W. centrally, and con- 
tains 792 sq. m. Drained by Chenango and Unadilla 
rivers and their tributary streams. Surface broken and 
hilly, but there are extensive and rich valleys, productive 
of all kinds of grain. Farms 4,406 ; manuf. 561 ; dwell. 
7,572, and pop.— wh. 40,051, fr. col. 280— total 40,311. Cap- 
ital : Norwich. Public Works : Chenango Canal, and 
Utica and Binghampton E. E. (projected). 

Chenango, t. and p. o., Lawrence co., Pemn. : on the 
N. E. side of Beaver r., 193 m. W. by N. Harrisburg. Pop. 
1,622. 

Chenango Forks, p. v., Broome co., 27. Y. : at the 
junction of the Chenango and Tioughnioga rivers, and on 
the line of the Chenango Canal, 108 m. W. S. W. Albany. 
It has considerable advantages for internal trade, etc. Pop. 
about 400. Pop. of Chenango t. 8,734. 

Chenango river, 27. Y. : an important tributary of the 
Susquehanna r., which it joins at Binghampton, in Broome 
County. Its course is from Madison and Oneida counties, 
through Chenango and Broome counties for about 75 m., 
and upon its banks are many flourishing villages. This 
river is navigable for boats and rafts 50 m. above its mouth, 
and is used to a considerable extent to feed the Chanango 
Canal, which runs nearly parallel with it through its whole 
course. 

Cheney's Geove, p. o., M'Lean co., III. : on a head 
stream of the N. fork of Sangamon r., 72 m. N. E. Spring- 
field. 

Cheneyvtlle, p. v., Eapides par., la. : on the S. side of 
Bayou Teche, 81 m. N. W. Baton Eouge. 

Cheningo, p. v., Cortland co., 27. Y. : 114 m. "W. by S. 
Albany. 

Chenuba, p. v., Lee co., Oa. : 117 m. S. "W. Milledgeville. 

Cheohee (Keowee), p. v., Picken's disi, S. Car. : on a r. 
so called, 127 m. N. W. Columbia. 

Chepachet, p. v., Providence co., B. I. : on the r. so 
called, 14 m. W. by N. Providence. 

Chequtst, p. o., Davis co., la. : on Chequist cr. of Des 
Moines r., 71 m. S. "W. Iowa City. 

Cheeaw, p. v., Chesterfield dist., S. Car. : on the W. side 
of Great Pedee r., S9 m. N. E. Columbia. The r. is navi- 
gable to this point, and a great trade in cotton centres here. 
The " C. Gazette" (dem.) is issued weekly. Pop. 1,350. 

Cherokee county, Ala. Situate N. E., near State line, 
and contains 756 sq. m. Drained by Coosa r. and its tribu- 
taries. Surface generally uneven and rough — in the W. 
hilly or mountainous. Gold is found at the base of the 
mountains. The soils are difficult of culture, and in sev- 
eral parts sterile. Corn and cotton are the staple growths. 
Farms 1,126 ; manuf. 15 ; dwell. 2,089, and pop— wh. 12,170, 
fr. col. 23, si. 1,691— total 13,SS4. Capital: Jefferson. 

Cherokee county, 6a. Situate N. W. centrally, and 
contains 528 sq. m. Drained by Etowah r. and its creeks. 

119 



CHE 



CHE 



Surface elevated, hilly, and broken. Soils indifferent, except 
on the rivers, where they are very productive. Wheat and 
Indian corn are largely grown — cotton in small quantities. 
Farms 1,000 ; manuf. 5 ; dwell. 1,970, and pop.— wh. 11,629, 
fr. col. 14, si. 1,157— total 12,800. Capital : Canton. 

Cherokee county, la. Situate W., and contains 576 sq. 
m. Taken from Pottowattomee in 1851. 

Cherokee county, AC Car. Situate S. W. corner, and 
contains 1,200 sq. m. Drained by the head waters of Hiwas- 
see and Tennessee rivers. Surface elevated and hilly — on 
the N.W. and E. mountainous. Iron, gold, lead, and silver, 
also marbles of various hues and textures are found here. 
Soils excellent — on the hills producing fine grasses, and 
near the streams the several grains. Farms 459; manuf. 
5 ; dwell. 1,020, and pop.— wh. 6,493, fr. col. 8, si. 337— total 
6,83S. Capital: Murphey. 

Cherokee county, Tex. Situate E. eentrally between 
Neches and Angelina rivers, and contains about 740 sq. 
m. Drained by numerous tributaries of the border streams. 
Surface elevated, with a watershed running transversely 
N. W. and S. E. through the N. part of the county. Prairie 
predominates, but timber lines all the rivers. Farms 154 ; 
manuf. 8 ; dwell. 891, and pop. — wh. 5,389, fr. col. 1, si. 
1,2S3— total 6,673. Capital : Eusk. 

Cherokee Nation, Ind. Ter. Situate between lat. 36° 10' 
and 37° 02' N., and extending from the Arkansas boundary 
to long. 100° W., or about five degrees, and containing 
about 16.000 sq. m. It is a fine agricultural country, pro- 
ducing in abundance all the necessaries of subsistence, and 
is well watered by the Arkansas Eiver and its numerous 
and wide-spreading arms. The Cherokees number about 
2S,000 souls, and are, perhaps, more advanced in civilization 
than any others of the immigrant tribes. They have large 
cultivated settlements, comfortable houses, numerous herds 
of cattle and sheep, and many fine horses, for which their 
extensive prairies afford an ample subsistance. They also 
manufacture salt from brine springs which exist extensively 
In their country, and to a considerable extent manufacture 
their own clothing and such agricultural implements, etc., 
as their necessities demand. They have of late years 
exported much of their surplus products, bringing it down 
the rivers to New Orleans. The government of the Chero- 
kees is based on a written constitution, and is republican in 
form. They have an elective chief or governor, a general 
council, elected annually, and consisting of an upper and 
lower house, similar to the Senate and House of Eepresent- 
atives of the United States, and a judiciary, observing all 
the legal forms prescribed by the legislature. In fact, all 
the operations of the government are similar to those of 
other enlightened communities. They have adopted the 
English language to a great extent, and in their dress follow 
the fashions of Paris and New Tork. The United States 
supplies them with blacksmiths, wheelwrights, and wagon- 
makers, to teach them those useful mechanic trades ; and 
they also receive a large annuity from the General Govern- 
ment on account of their lands east of the Mississippi Eiver. 
Numerous missionaries are settled among them, and have 
been very successful in their endeavors to civilize and 
Christianize them ; and their schools and churches are such 
as any enlightened nation might be proud of—more effi- 
cient, indeed, than several of the States of our Union can 
boast of; and their public press is not inferior to that of 
Arkansas either in talent or respectability. 

Cherokee Heights, p. o., Abbeville dist., S. Car. : 97 m. 
W. Columbia. 

Cherokee Iron Works, p. o., Tork dist., g. Car. : 82 
m. N. Columbia. 

Cherry, t. and p. o., Sullivan co., Perm. : 91 m. N. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Cherry Creek, t. and p. v., Chautauque co., A r . T. : on 
Conewango cr., 26S m. W. by S. Albany. 

Cherrt Creek, p. o., Pontotoc co., Mm. : 146 m. N. N. E. 
Jackson. 

120 



Cherry Flat, p. o., Eutherford co., Term. : 38 m. S. E. 
Nashville. 

Cherry Flats, p. o., Tioga co., Perm. : 107 m. N. by W. 
Harrisburg. 

Cherry Grove, p. o., Schuyler co., Mo. : on the S. side 
of Middle Fabius cr., 136 m. N. Jefferson City. 

Cherry Grove, p. o., Carroll co., III. : on the Galena and 
Dixon turnpike, 162 m. N. by W. Springfield. 

Cheery Hill, p. o., Brooke co., Virg. : 253 m. N. W. 
Eichmond. 

Cheery Hill, p. v., Cecil co., Mil. : on the W. side of 
North-East r., 4 m. N. of Etkton, and 57 N. E. Annapolis. 
It has a Methodist church, a school-house, 2 or 3 stores, 22 
dwellings, and about 100 inhabitants. The neighborhood 
is thickly settled, and within a circuit of 2 miles there are 5 
paper mills, 4 grist mills, a rolling mill, and .2 cotton facto- 
ries, one of which employs 100 hands. 

Cherry Hill, p. o., Washington co., Wise. 

Cherey Hill, p. o., Chickasaw co., Miss. : 128 m. N. E. 
Jaekson. 

Cherry Hill, p. o., Erie co., Perm. : 208 m. W. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Cherry Lake, p. o., Madison co., Flor. : 54 m. E. by N. 
Tallahassee. 

Cherry Mills, p. o., Sullivan co., Perm. : 92 m. N. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Cherry Eidge, p. o., Wayne co., Perm. : 123 m. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Cherry Eidge, p. o., Union par., La. : 194 m. N. W. by 
N. Baton Eouge. 

Cherry Stone (formerly Huntington), p. v., Northamp- 
ton co., Virg. 

Cherry Tree, t. and p. o., Venango co., Perm. : 187 m. 
W. N. W. Harrisburg. 

Cherry Valley, t. and p. v., Otsego co., AT Y. : on 
Cherry Valley cr. of Susquehanna r., 38 m. W. Albany. 
There is published in the v. the " C. V. Gazette," a weekly 
newspaper. The Great Western Turnpike passes through 
the t., 54 m. from Albany. Pop. 4,206. 

Cherry Valley, p. o., Boone co., El. : on the W. side 
of Beaver cr. of Kishwaukee r., 168 m. N. by E. Spring- 
field. The Galena and Chicago Union E. E. intersects the 
v. S5 m. from Chicago. 

Cheery Valley, p. o., Wilson co., Term. : 41 m. E. 
Nashville. 

Cheery Valley, t. and p. o., Ashtabula co., Ohio : on 
Pymatuning cr. 197 m. N. E. Columbus. Pop. 889. 

Cherryville, p. v., Northampton co., Perm. : 91 m. 
E. N. E. Harrisburg. 

Cherryville, p. V., Haywood co., Term. : on the S. 
branch of Forked Deer cr. of the Mississippi, 132 m. W. by 
S. Nashville. 

Cherryville, p. v., Hunterdon co., AT Jer. : 39 m. N. by 
W. Trenton. 

Chesapeake, p. v., Lawrence co., Mo. : 137 m. S. W. 
Jefferson City. 

Chesapeake City, p. v., Cecil co., Md.: at the conflu- 
ence of Broad cr. and Back cr. of Elk r., 51 m. N. E. Annap- 
olis. The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal has its W. 
terminus at this point. 

Chesapeake bay, Md. and Virg. : is the largest arm of 
the sea within the limits of the Union. Its entrance is 
between Cape Charles and Cape Henry, in Virginia, 12 m. 
apart, and it extends inland 270 m., dividing Maryland into 
two unequal parts (and the lower part of the peninsula from 
the main body of Virginia). It is from 7 to 20 m. broad, 
and generally as much as 9 fathoms deep. This great bay 
affords many commodious harbors, and a safe and easy 
navigation. Numerous fine rivers empty into it — the Sus- 
quehanna, at its northern termination, and the Potomac 
and James on its W. side ; and besides these, it receives the 
waters of the Eappahannock, the Patuxent, the Patapsco, 
the Chester, the Elk, the Choptank, the Nanticoke, and 



CHE 



CHE 



numerous others. The area drained by these, its tributa- 
ries, has been estimated at 72,000 sq. m. Baltimore is the 
chief commercial city within its circuit, but there are many 
others of minor importance which depend upon its waters 
for an outlet to the ocean. The fisheries of the Chesapeake 
are of immense value to the inhabitants of its shores. 

Chesher's Store, p. o., Anderson co., Ky. : 18 m. 8. W. 
Frankfort. 

Cheshire county, K. Ramp. Situate S. W. corner, and 
contains 460 sq. m. Drained centrally and W. by Ashuelot 
and other creeks of Connecticut r., which forms its W. bor- 
der, and by Contoocoolc r. in the E. sections. Surface 
beautifully varied with hills and vales. Grand Monadnock, 
8,718 feet high, lies in S. W. Farms 2,805 ; manuf. 877 ; 
dwell. 5,802, and pop— wh. 80,117, fr. col. 27— total 30,144 
Capital: Keene. Public Works: Cheshire E. E., Ashue- 
lot E. E., etc. 

Cheshire, t. and p. v., New Haven co., Conn. : on Quin- 
nipiak r., 22 m. S. by W. Hartford. The v. is the seat of an 
Episcopal academy, and is intersected by the New Haven 
and Northampton E. E., 15 m. from New Haven. Pop. 1,627. 

Cheshire, t. and p. v^ Berkshire co., Mass. : on Hoosic 
r., 110 m. W. by N. Boston. Leather, boots, shoes, and 
glass are its chief manufactures, and it is noted for its fine 
cheese. The Pittsfield and North Adams E. E. passes 
through it. Pop. 1,297. 

Cheshire, p. v., Ontario co., K. Y. : on a cr. of Canan- 
daigua Lake, 174 m. W. Albany. 

Cheshire, t. and p. v., Gallia co., Ohio : on the N. W. 
side of the Ohio r., 106 m. S. S. E. Columbus. Pop. 1,410. 

Chesntjt Bluffs, p. o., Dyer co., Term. : on the E. side 
of the S. branch of Forked Deer cr., 141 m. "W". by S. 
Nashville. 

Chesntjt Creek, p. o., Autauga co., Ala. : an the cr. so 
called of Coosa r., 31 m. N. by W. Montgomery. 

Chesntjt Fiat, p. o., Walker co., Oa. : 1S6 m. N. W. 
Milledgeville. 

Chesntjt Grove, p. o., Shelby co., Ky. : 23 m. W. by N. 
Frankfort. 

Chesntjt Grove, p. o., Lycoming co., Perm. : 78 m. N. by 
W. Harrisburg. 

Chesntjt Grove, p. o., Chester dist., S. Car. : 56 m. N. 
Columbia. 

Chesntjt Grove, p. o., Davidson co., Term. : 13 m. W. 
Nashville. 

Chesntjt Grove, p. o., Pittsylvania co., Yirg. : 123 m. 
"W. S. W. Eichmond. 

Chesntjt Hill, p. o., Perry co., Ala. : 62 m. W. N. W. 
Montgomery. 

Chesntjt Hill, p. o., Calvert co., Md. : 22 m. S. by W. 
Annapolis. 

Chesntjt Hill, p. o., Hall co., Ga. : 84 m. N. N. W. 
Milledgeville. 

Chesntjt Hill, p. o., "Walton co., Flor. : 126 m. W. by 
N. Tallahassee. 

Chesntjt Hill, p. o., "Washington co., Ind.: 83 m. S. 
Indianapolis. 

Chesntjt Hill, p. o., Strafford co., K. Ramp. : 33 m. E. 
Concord. 

Chesnttt Hill, p. o., Philadelphia co., Peiw. : 9 m. W. 
Philadelphia, and 85 m. E. Harrisburg. It is a highly 
healthy situation, and is resorted to by the Philadelphians 
in the summer season for recreation. 

Chesnttt Level, p. o., Lancaster co., Penn. : 47 m. S. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Chesntjt Eedge, p. o., Duchess co., N. Y. : 68 m. S. by E. 
Albany. 

Chesntjt Eedge, p. o., Lincoln co., Tenn. : 71 m. S. 
Nashville. 

Chesntjt Eidge, p. o., Union co., Penn. : 43 m. N. by "W. 
Harrisburg. 

Chess Springs, p. o., Cambria co., Penn. : 109 m. "W. 
Harrisburg. 

Q 



Chest, t. and p. o., Clearfieid co., Penn. : on the "W 
branch of the Susquehanna r., 108 m. N. W. Harrisburg. 

Chester county, Penn. Situate 8. E., and contains 792 
sq. m. Drained by Brandywine, Elk, Chester, and other 
creeks. Surface to the E. level or rolling — to the W. hilly 
and even mountainous. Soils generally fertile, producing 
large crops of grain. Farms 4,S35; manuf. 1,086; dwell. 
11,5S0, and pop.— wh. 61,209, fr. col. 5,229— total 66,438 
Capital: West Chester. Public Works : Philadelphia and 
Columbia E. E. ; West Chester Branch E. E. ; and a pro- 
posed E. E. from West Chester direct to Baltimore. 

Chester district, S. Oar. Situate N., between Broad r. 
and the Wateree, and contains 480 sq. m. Drained by the 
tributaries of those rivers. Surface pleasantly diversified by 
hill and dale, and the soils of middling quality. The staples 
are Indian com and cotton. Farms 844 ; manuf. 50 ; dwell. 
1,541, and pop— wh. 8,005, fr. col. 146, si. 9,887— total 18,038. 
Capital: Chester. 

Chester, t. and p. v., Middlesex co., Conn. : on the E. 
side of Connecticut r., 27 m. S. by E. Hartford. The t. is 
drained by Deep and other creeks, and has a small lake in 
its N. part, which gives it considerable hydraulic power. The 
v. is a neat and flourishing place, with some manufactures. 
Pop. 992. 

Chester, t. and p. o., Dodge co., Wise. : 11 m. N. E. 
Madison. Pop. 829. 

Chester, p. v., Gwinnett co., Ga. : 73 m. N.W. Milledge- 
ville. 

Chester, p. v., Wayne co., Ind. : 66 m. E. by N. Indian- 
apolis. 

Chester, p. v., and cap. Eandolph co., III. : on the Mis- 
sissippi r., immediately below the mouth of Kaskaskia r., 
132 m. S. Springfield. It is a place of commercial import- 
ance, and the dep6t for the trade of an extensive back 
country. The v. is located on an elevated bottom at the 
foot of the bluffs, and has a good landing for steamboats. 
The " Chester Herald" is published weekly. Pop. about 
1,300. 

Chester, t. and p. v., Hampden co., Mass. : on branches 
of Deerfield r., 89 m. W. Boston. It has some wool and 
cotton manufactures. The Western E. E. passes through 
the t. 119 m. from Boston, and 81 from Albany. Pop. 
1,521. 

Chester, t. and p. o., Eaton co., Mich. : on the Big fork 
of Thornapple r., IS m. W. S. W. Lansing. Pop. .3S0. 

Chester, t. and p. v., Eockingham co., N. Ramp. : on a 
branch of Exeter r., 22 m. S. S. E. Concord. Massabesic 
Pond, in the N.W. of the t., covers 1,500 acres. The v. is a 
place of considerable business. Pop. 1,301. 

Chester, t. and p. v., Morris co., K. Jer. : on Black r., 
and several tributaries of the W. bank of the Earitan r., 38 
m. N. Trenton. The v. extends along the base of an isolated 
hill for more than a mile. Pop. 1,334. 

Chester, p. v., Orange co., N.Y.: on the line of the New 
York and Erie E. E., 89 m. S. by W. Albany. The New- 
burg Branch E. E. diverges in this t. from the trunk line. 
Chester Village has long been known as a great live-stock 
market. Pop. 1,642. 

Chester, t. and p. v., Meigs co., Ohio : 106 m. S. E- 
Columbus. The v. is situate on Shade r., a tributary of the 
Ohio. Pop. of v. 190, and of t 1,600. 

Chester, p. v., and cap. Delaware co., Penn. : on the 
W. side of Delaware r., 84 m. E. by S. Harrisburg. It is the 
oldest v. in the State, having been founded long before 
Penn obtained his charter, and was, until 1701, called Up- 
land. It contains the co. buildings, an Athenaeum, and the 
dwellings are chiefly of brick or stone. Some of the original 
houses are still standing. The Philadelphia, Wilmington, 
and Baltimore E. E. passes through the v., 15 m. from 
Philadelphia. It has three newspapers, the "Delaware 
County Eepublican" (whig), the " Upland Union" (dem.), 
and the " C. Herald" (neutral), all published weekly. Pop. 
2,097. 

121 



CHE 



CHI 



Chestee, p. v., and cap. Chester dist,, S. Car. : between 
Broad and Wateree rivers, 59 m. N. by W. Columbia. 

Chester, p. v., Gibson co., Tenn. : 113 m. "W. by S. 
Nashville. 

Chestee, t. and p. o., "Windsor co., Verm. : on "Williams 
r. of the Connecticut, S2 m. S. by E. Montpelier. The Eut- 
land and Burlington E. E. intersects the v., 14 m. from 
Bellow's Falls, and 106 m. from Burlington. Pop. 2,008. 

Chester river, Del. and Md. : a considerable stream of 
the eastern shore of Maryland, rising in Delaware, and 
flowing nearly S. W., dividing in its course the counties of 
Queen Anne and Kent, and falling into a large estuary of 
Chesapeake Bay, between Swan Point and Love Point. It 
is navigable to Charlestown, 30 miles. 

Chestee Ceoss Eoads, p. o., Geauga co., Ohio : 165 m. 
N. E. Columbus. 

Chester Factories, p. o., Hampden co., Mass. : on the 
line of the Western E. E., 126 m. from Boston. 

Chesteefield district, S. Car. Situate N. E., between 
Great Pedee r. and Lynch's cr., and contains 560 sq. m. 
Drained by creeks flowing to the limitary streams. Surface 
flat or rolling ; and soils, except on the streams, sandy and 
of inferior fertility. The staples are Indian corn and cotton. 
Farms 54S ; manuf. 32 ; dwell. 1,263, and pop.— wh. 6,678, 
fr. col. 218, si. 3,S94— total 10,790. Capital : Chesterfield. 

Chesterfield county, Virg. Situate S. E., between the 
forks of James and Appomattox rivers, and contains 456 
sq. m. Swift cr. and other streams drain the interior. 
Surface somewhat broken, but soils of average fertility, pro- 
ducing wheat, Indian corn, oats, and tobacco. There are 
valuable coal mines in the county. Farms 564 ; manuf. 30 ; 
dwell. 1,757, and pop— wh. S,405, fr. col. 468, sL 8,616— 
total 17,489. Capital : Chesterfield C. H. Public Works: 
Petersburg E. E. ; Clover Hill E. E., etc. 

Chesteefield, p. v., New London co., Conn. : on the E. 
side of a cr. of Niantie i\, 33 m. S. by E. Hartford. 

Chesterfield, p. v., Madison co., Ind. : on the S. side 
of the W. fork of White r., 39 m. N. E. Indianapolis. 

Chesteefield, p. v., Macoupin co., III. : on the N. side 
of Macoupin cr., and between it and Eock cr., 47 m. S. S."W. 
Springfield. 

Chesteefield, p. v., Grundy co., Tenn. : 73 m. S. E. 
Nashville. 

Chesterfield, t., Burlington co., A 7 ! Jer. : on Cross- 
wick's and Black creeks of Delaware r., which bounds it on 
theW. Pop. 4,514. 

Chesteefield, p. v., Madison par., La. : 149 m. N. Baton 
Eouge. 

Chesteefield, t. and p. v., Hampshire co., Jfass. : on a 
branch of Westfield r., 91 m. "W. Boston. Pop. 1,014. 

Chesteefield, t and p. v., Cheshire co., A 7 ! Hamp. : on 
the E. side of Connecticut r., opposite Brattleboro', 49 m. 
S. "W. Concord. Spafford Lake, in the centre of the t., 
covers 526 acres, and empties into the Connecticut. The v. 
has a flourishing academy, founded in 1794. Pop. 1,6S0. 

Chesterfield, t and p. v., Fulton co., Ohio : on the E. 
side of Tiffin r., and on the N. State line, 104 m. N. N. W. 
Columbus. Pop. 538. 

Chesteefield C. H.. p. v., and cap. Chesterfield co., Yira. : 
on the N. fork of Swift cr., 13 m. S. "W. Eiehmond. 

Chesteefield C. H., p. v., and cap. Chesterfield dist, S. 
Car. : on the S. "W. side of Thompson's cr. of the Great 
Pedee r., 97 m. N. N. E. Columbia. 

Chesteefield Factoey, p. o., Cheshire CO., N, Samp. : 
51 m. S. W. Concord. 

Chester Hell, p. o., Morgan co., Ohio : 82 m. E. S. E. 
Golunibus. 

Chester Springs, p. v., Chester co., Penn. : 6S m. E. by 
S. Harrisburg. A watering place frequently resorted to by 
summer visitors. 

Chesteetows', p. v., port, and cap. Kent co.. Md. : on a 
fine and open plain on the N. W. side of Chester r., 30 m. 
above its confluence with Chesapeake Bav, 31 m. N. E. 
122 



Annapolis. The v. contains the C. H., the county prison, 1 
Episcopal and 3 Methodist churches, a bank, and markets 
house. It is the seat of Washington College, a branch of 
the University of Maryland, and it has also an academy, 
a ladies' boarding-school, and 2 primary schools. The 
" Kent News" is issued weekly. The government of the v. 
is vested in 7 police commissioners, elected annually. Sev- 
eral steamboats and sloops ply regularly to and from Balti- 
more, and many of the inhabitants are employed in the bay 
fisheries. It was formerly a port of entry. Houses 200, and 
pop. 1,295. 

Chesteetown, p. v., Warren co., A 7 ! Y. : between Hudson 
r. and Schroon r., 69 m. N. Albany. Schroon Lake lies on 
the N. E. border of Chester t., and there are several small 
lakes within it, abounding in trout. Pop. oft. 1,850. 

Chester Village, p. v., Hampden co., Mass. : on the 
line of the Western E. E., 119 m. from Boston, and SI from 
Albany. It has some manufactures. 

Chesterville, t. and p. o., Franklin co., Me. : on "Wil- 
son's cr. of Sandy r. of the Kennebec, 17 m. N."W. Augusta. 
Pop. 1,142. 

Ghesteevtlle, p. v., Chester co., Penn. : 63 m. E. by S. 
Harrisburg. 

Chesteeville, p. v., Morrow co., Ohio : 46 m. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Chesteevtlle, p. v., Kent co., Md. : in the N. part of the 
co., 53 m. N. E. Annapolis. 

Cheshncooe lake, Me. : a large sheet of water in Piscat- 
aquis co., and through which the Penobscot r. passes. It 
receives the Kahkoguamook and Umbazookskus rivers. 
This lake is about 25 m. long and 3 m. wide, and its central 
point is about 130 m.W. N.W. Augusta. The country neigh- 
boring on the lake is very fertile and highly picturesque. 

Chetemaches lake, La. : lies between Atehafalaya and 
Tech6 rivers, and receives its waters from the former at 
high water, discharging them at all seasons into it again, 15 
m. above its entrance to the Gulf. It is 40 m. long, and 
from 1 to 6 wide, shallow, and surrounded by a low, marshy 
country, which is annuaUy overflowed. 

Cheviot, p. v., Hamilton co., Ohio : 123 m. S. W. 
Columbus. 

Chew's Landing, p. v., Camden co., If. Jer. : on the N. 
side of Big Timber cr., 32 m. S. S. E. Trenton. The v. has 
considerable trade in wood and lumber. 

Chewsville, p. v., "Washington co., Md. : 79 m. N. W. 
by "W. Annapolis. 

Chicago, post city, port of entry, and cap. Cook co., 
III. : at the mouth of Chicago r., on Lake Michigan, 183 
m. N. N. E. Springfield. Lat. 42° 52' 20" N., and long. 
S7° 35' W. The main body of the r. sets back about 2 
m. into the city, then divides into two branches, both of 
which have a pretty uniform depth of 12 to 15 feet, all 
making a commodious and almost unlimited harbor for 
an immense amount of shipping which continually comes 
to, and goes from, this point. The city borders on a 
wide, rich, and beautiful prairie, extending in different 
directions for many miles, and which is handsomely diver- 
sified by groves and strips of timber springing up at intervals 
along the banks on the lake shore, furnishing a diversified 
picture, which is greatly enhanced by gardens and villas, 
which, mixing with the scene, make it one of enchanting 
loveliness. Though the site is very low and level, scarcely 
five feet above the lake, there are no marshes or wet lands 
about the place, and the lake winds, by constantly agitating 
the waters, much like the tidal perturbations of sea-board 
rivers, have a good effect in promoting cleanliness and 
health to so large a city. 

Chicago is one of the most substantial cities of the Great 
"West. It extends along the lake shore for about a mile, 
and inland beyond the bifurcations of the river. The bar at 
the entrance has been much reduced, and piers have been 
extended into the lake to prevent accumulations of sand and 
drift. The depth is now sufficient, indeed, for the admission 



CHI 



CHI 



of the largest lake craft and steamers. Milwaukie is the 
only city of the West that has progressed at a more rapid 
rate within the past ten years. In 1S30 Chicago was a 
mere trading post, and in 1S40 it had only 4,470 inhabitants. 
In 1850 its population amounted to 29,903, being an in- 
crease of 25,493 within the decade, or at the rate of 570.31 
per centum. The increase of Milwaukie, within the same 
period, was at the rate of 1,071.7S per centum ; of St. Louis, 
of 372.76 ; and of Cincinnati, of 149.11 per centum. Such 
facts are sufficient to show its present importance and its 
future prospects, which are attributable no less to the energy 
of the citizens of the place in prosecuting great public works, 
than to its position in relation to the route of travel, east and 
west. Fronting on the lake, it has direct shipping connection 
with all the ports of the States of the Union, north and 
west, and with Canada ; and by means of the extensive 
lines of internal improvement, its commerce reaches from 
the Atlantic sea-board to the banks of the Mississippi. On 
all these great lines of travel and trade its commerce is brisk 
and ever increasing. 

The internal improvements directly connecting Chicago 
with the great marts of commerce are, the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal, 100 miles long, which extends from the 
lake to the Illinois Biver at La Salle, and opens to the port 
the wide river country of the South and West, forming an 
outlet for the rich products of Kentucky, Missouri, Iowa, 
and Illinois, by the lakes ; two lines of railroad round the 
bend of Lake Michigan, thence continuous to the sea-board 
at Boston and New Tork, and also connecting with the 
Indiana and Ohio railroads ; lines to the Mississippi Elver at 
Galena, Bock Island, and Quincy, Alton, and Cairo ; a line 
along the shore to Milwaukie ; and lines extending to Janes- 
ville, Madison, Fond du Lac, etc. Chicago also reaches to 
the back country by means of numerous plank roads, which 
accommodate the producers of the neighborhood. Most of 
the lines of railroad have sufficiently progressed to insure 
their early completion ; and to judge by the working of 
those portions now opened for traffic, the success of each 
enterprise will far exceed the anticipations of the most 
enthusiastic of their projectors. Chicago has felt their 
advantages ; the internal trade of the State has quintupled 
itself within a few years, and capital and population have 
sought a market so replete with facUities of trade and com- 
merce as those centering at Chicago. In 1839, the total 
value of property in Chicago was assessed at $236,S42 ; in 
1850 it was assessed at $8,562,717, of which $6,804,262 was 
real estate ! At the latter period the commerce of the port 
was conducted through the agency of eight bankers and 
dealers in exchange, 109 wholesale, forwarding, commis- 
sion, and produce houses, and 54 lumber dealers. During 
the year 1851, the arrivals at Chicago were as follows: 
steamers, 662 ; propellers, 183 ; schooners, 1,182 ; brigs, 230 ; 
barges, 13. Total, 2,279 vessels, the aggregate burden of 
which was 958,600 tons. The following tables will exhibit 
the quantity of some of the leading exports and imports, by 
lake canal and railroad for the same year. 



EXPORTS. 

Lake. Canal. 

Barley . . . .bu. 8,537 11,460 

Beef. bbls. 49,306 135 

Beef. tcs. 2,329 — 

Butter lbs. 10,424 75,117 

Buff, robes « 7,215 — 

Cattle No. 448 — 

Cheese.... lbs. 2,215 178,737 

Coal " — 1,182,803 

Corn bu. 3,221,317 — 

Fnrs, etc.pks. 5,645 — 

Flour. . . .bbls. 71,723 6S3 

Hams " 1,934 ' — 

Hams., casks 683 — 

Hams...hhds. 112 — 



909,749 



Total. 

19,997 

49,441 

2,829 

85,441 

7,215 

448 

181,052 

2,091,552 

3,221,317 

5,645 

72,406 

1,934 

6SS 

112 



Lake. Canal. Railroad. Total. 

Hams lbs. 1,354 700 — 2,054 

Hams No. 3,090 — — 3,690 

Hemp lbs. 694,783 — — 694,783 

Iron " 132,480 1,035,579 2,256,010 8,454,060 

Lard " 259,0 17 — — 259,647 

Lard bbls. 9,057 — — 9,057 

Lath pes. — 12,785,285 2,136,135 14,921,420 

Lead lbs. 1,375,872 1,007 — 1,376,879 

Lumber... feet — 54,186,745 13,770,452 67,957,287 

Oats bu. 767,0S9 108 — 767,197 

Potashes.. " — 114,366 8,000 122,366 

Pork bbls. 19,188 27 — 19,215 

Pork tcs. 489 — — 489 

Sh'lders .bbls. 1,020 — — 1,020 

Sh'lders.hhds. 300 — — 360 

Sh'lders... No. 9,797 — — 9,797 

Sugar lbs. — 344,312 — 344,312 

Sugar... hhds. 20 — — 20 

Sugar.... bbls. 619 — — 619 

Timber.. C. ft. — 7,812 — 7,812 

Wheat.... bu. 436,803 352 — 437,660 

Wool lbs. 1,086,944 1,609 — 1,083,553 

IMPOETS. 

Lake. Canal. Railroad. Total. 

Bacon lbs. — 434,716 — 434,716 

Barley.... bu. 12,331 262 23,518 86111 

Beef bbls. — 1,571 — 1,571 

Buff.robes.lbs. — 512,196 — 512,196 

Corn bu. — 2,352,302 295.003 2,047,465 

Flour.... bbls. 6,630 5,819 39,203 51,652 

Hams lbs. — 1,086,933 — 1,086,933 

Hemp..... lbs. — 1,035,648 — 1,035,648 

Hides " — 487,806 361,070 S4S,S76 

Lath... pieces 27,5S3,475 — — 27.583,475 

Lard lbs. — 2,069,625 — 2,069.625 

Lead " — 1,402,135 — 1,402,135 

Lumber ..feet 125,056,437 466,685 — 125,523,122 

Oats bu. — 181,293 152,S55 334,148 

Pork bbls. — 8,241 — 8,241 

Pork lbs. — — 2,390,248 2,390,24S 

Shingles ..bu. 60,33S,250 — — 60,333,250 

Sugar lbs. — 3,765,83G — 3,765,336 

Sugar... hhds. 2,563 — — 2,563 

Sugar .bis, bxs 2,884 — — 2,884 

Timber. C. feet 410,679 152,297 — 562,976 

Tobacco... lbs. — 324,923 — 824,923 

Wheat.... bu. 26,0S4 67,972 274,021 388,077 

Wood... cords 5,924 10,676 454 17,054 

Wool lbs. — 520,026 211,930 731,956 

The above only represents a portion of the domestic com- 
merce of Chicago, and even does not estimate that carried 
on by teams, which is commensurably large. The value of 
articles imported from Canada during the year, was $5,S11, 
and of exports from Chicago to Canada, $116,1S5. The 
arrivals from Canada were 7, and the clearances for the 
same destination, 13. The value of the whole domestic 
commerce for a series of Years, has been as follows : 

Years. Imports. Exports. 

1S36 $325,203 90 $1,000 64 

1837 373,077 12 11.605 00 

1S8S 579,174 61 10,044 75 

1339 630,980 26 33,843 00 

1840 562.106 20 228,635 74 

1841 564,847 S3 848,862 24 

1842 664,347 SS 659,305 20 

1S43 971.849 75 6S2,210 85 

1844 1,6S6,416 00 7S5,504 23 

1845. 2,043,445 73 1,5*3,519 85 

1846 2,027,150 00 1,818,468 00 

1S47 2,641,852 52 2,296.299 00 

1S4S 8,338,639 S6 10,709,833 40 

123 



CHI 



CHI 



Chicago has five daily newspapers : the " C. Tribune" 
(indep't.), the " C. Democrat" (dem.), the " C. Journal" 
(whig), the " Commercial Advertiser" (whig), and the "Ar- 
gus," all of which also issue weekly editions ; six weekly 
newspapers, the " New Covenant," and the " Western Citi- 
zen" (both Universalis!), the " Gem of the Prairie" (lib.), 
the " Prairie Herald" (Presbyterian), the " Watchman of the 
Prairie" (Baptist), and the " Commercial Reporter ;" one 
tri-weekly, the " Illinois State Gazette ;" one semi-monthly, 
the " North-western Medical Journal ;" and three monthly 
periodicals, the " Eclectic Review" (educat.), the " Prairie 
Farmer" (agric), and the " North-western Journal of Ho- 
mcepathy." 

Latrobe, an intelligent traveler, who visited Chicago in 
1S33, thus describes it : " This little mushroom town is situ- 
ated on the verge of a level tract of country, for the greater 
part consisting of open prairie lands, at a point where a 
email river, whose sources interlock — in the wet season — 
with those of the Illinois River, enters Lake Michigan. It, 
however, forms no harbor ; and vessels must anchor in the 
open lake, which spreads to the horizon, on the north and 
east, in a sheet of uniform extent." The contrast between 
Chicago of 1833 and Chicago of the present day, is truly 
startling ; and the writer of twenty years ago, had he been 
told that his " mushroom town" was so soon to become the 
focus of a commerce equal to that enjoyed by many of the 
States of Europe, would he have credited so unprecedented 
a fact, or would he not have considered the prognostication 
the emanation of a crazy brain ? 

Chichester, t. and p. v., Merrimac co., A 7- . Ramp. : on 
Suncook r., S m. E. Concord. Pop. 997. 

Chickahomeny, p. v., Hanover co., Yirg. : on the r. of 
the same name, 81 m. E. Richmond. 

Chickahomeny river, Yirg. : a tributary of James r. from 
the N. W. It is about 60 m. long, and debouches 37 m. 
above Point Comfort 

Chickaiiaw Bend, p. o., Madison par., La. : 137 m. N. 
Baton Rouge. 

Chickahauga, p. o., Hamilton co., Tenn. : on a er. so 
called, 108 m. S. E. Nashville. 

Chickasaw county, la. Situate N. E., and contains 576 
sq. m. Taken from Pottowattomee in 1S51. 

Chickasaw county, Miss. Situate N., and contains 972 
sq. m. Drained by the Tallabusha, Ocktibbeha, etc. Sur- 
face undulating, and soils productive of Indian corn, cotton, 
and tobacco. Farms 1,167 ; manuf. 29 ; dwell. 1,647, and 
pop.— wh. 9,SS6, fr. col. 2, si. 6,480— total 16,363. Capital: 
Houston. 

Chickasaw, p. v., Mercer co., Ohio : 86 m. W. N. W. 
Columbus. 

CniCKASAwnATomE, p. v., Lee co., Ga. : on the cr. so 
called, a tributary of the Ichawaynochaway r. of Flint r., 
128 m. S. E. Milledgeville. 

Chickasaw Nation, Ind. Ter. The Chickasaws are 
settled in the Choctaw Territory. {See Choctaws.) 

Chick's Springs, p. o., Greenville dist., S. Car.: 92 m. 
N. W. Columbia. 

Cdicopee (Cabotvtlle), p. >t., Hampden co., Mass. : 
near the confluence of Chicopee r. with the Connecticut, 4 
m. N. of Springfield and 80 m. W. by S. Boston. It is one 
of the most enterprising manufacturing places in New 
England. A newspaper, the "C. Telegraph" (whig), is 
published weekly. Pop. 8,291. 

Chicopee Falls, p. v., Hampden co. Mass. : at the falls 
of the Chicopee r., 2 m. from its mouth, SO m. W. by S. 
Boston. It has numerous factories. A branch of the Con- 
necticut River R. R. extends from Cabotsville to the Falls. 

Chicopee river, Mass. : a tributary of the Connecticut r., 
into which it falls in the N. part of the town of Chicopee. 
In its course it receives the waters of Quaboag Pond and 
of Ware and Swift rivers. 

Chicot county, Ark. Situate S. E. on Mississippi r., and 
contains S60 sq. m. Drained by Bayou Macon, River de 
124 



Breuf, and Bayou Bartholomew. Surface low and level — 
subject to inundation. Soils various — some very fertile, and 
some inferior. Cotton is the great staple. Farms 142 ; 
dwell. 226, and pop.— wh. 1,122, fr. col. 9, si. 8,934— total 
15,115. Capital: Columbia. 

Chief Waeeior, p. v., Erie co., 2T. T.: 257 m. W. 
Albany. 

Chtkalah, p. v., Tell co., Ark. : on a branch of Petite 
Jean cr., 65 m. W. N. W. Little Rock. 

Chtldsvtlle, p. v., Yancey co., N. Car.: 216 m. "W. 
Raleigh. 

Chilhowee, p. v., Blount co., Term. : on the N. side of 
Little Tennessee r., 156 m. E. by S. Nashville. 

Chili, p. v., Miami co., Ind. : on the N. side of Eel r., 74 
m. N. Indianapolis. The Goshen and Peru E. R. crosses _ 
the r. at this point. 

Chili, p. v., Hancock co., III. : 86 m. W. N. W. Spring- 
field. 

Chili, t. and p. v., Monroe co., K T. : on the W. side 
of Black cr. of Genesee r., 206 m. W. by N. Albany. The 
Buffalo and Rochester R. R. passes through the village 66 
m. from Buffalo and 262 m. from Albany. Pop. 2,247. 

Chtli, p. v., Coshocton co., Ohio: 67 m. N. E. by E. 
Columbus. 

Chtllicothe, p. v., Wapello co., la. : on the S. side of 
Des Moines r., 63 m. S. W. Iowa City. 

Chtllicothe, p. v., Peoria co., III. : at the upper end of 
Prairie Lake, on its W. side, SO m. N. Springfield. It is a 
village of importance, and has considerable trade. 

Chillicothe, p. v., and cap. Livingston co., Mo. : on a 
fine prairie, 3 m. N. of Grand r., US m. N. W. Jefferson 
City, 

Chillicothe, p. city, and cap. Ross co., Ohio : on the W. 
side of the Scioto r., 37 m. S. Columbus. In plan, this 
city somewhat resembles Philadelphia, being bounded N. 
by Scioto r. and S. by Paint cr., here about three-fourths of 
a mile apart. The principal streets follow the course of the 
Scioto, and these are crossed rectilineally by others extend- 
ing from river to creek — the two main streets crossing each 
other in the middle of the city, and being each 99 feet 
wide. Water Street, which faces on the river, is 82i feet 
wide, and the others 66 feet. The streets are lighted with 
gas. The city has numerous fine and substantial buildings, 
among w T hich are the Court House, the markets, banking 
houses, hotels, and numerous churches and school-houses. 
The city occupies the site of an ancient mound, but this has 
been leveled to make way for improvements. On the W. 
side of the city is a hill rising abruptly to the height of 300 
feet, from which there is an extensive and beautiful view of 
the city and vicinity. Through the city the Ohio Canal 
passes, and before long it will become connected in every 
direction by railroads now in course of construction. The 
city has two daily papers, the "Scioto Gazette" (whig), and 
the " Ancient Metropolis" (indep.), both of which also pub- 
lish a weekly edition ; and two weekly papers, the " C. Ad- 
vertiser" (dem.), and the "Ohio Correspondent" (indep.) 
As a place of manufactures and commerce, the city has a 
high rank among the inland towns, and is rapidly pro- 
gressing in material prosperity. Chillicothe was formerly 
the State capital. Pop. in 1S40, 8,977; in 1850, 7,093. 

CinxLiSQ.iTAQ.rE, p. v., Northumberland co., Perm. 

Chtllitecatjx, p. v., and cap. Dunklin co., Mo. : 192 m. 
S. E. Jefferson City. 

Chilmark, t. and p. o., Dukes co., Mass. : in the S. W. 
part of Martha's Vineyard, 62 m. S. by E. Boston. At the 
W. end of the town is Gay Head, a noted headland on 
which is a light-house. There are some native Indians still 
residing on the neck leading to the Head. The S. W. point 
of the town is known as Squebnocket. Pop. 747. 

CniLO. p. v., Clermont co., Ohio: on the Ohio r., 100 m. 
S. W. Columbus. 

Chilton's Mills, p. o., Walker co., Ala. : 123 m. N. W. 
Montgomery. 



CHI 



CHO 



Chtltonytlle, p v., Plymouth co., Maes. 

Chimney Point, p. o., Addison co., Verm.: on Lake 
Champlain, nearly opposite Crown Point, 52 m. W. by S. 
Montpelier. 

Chimney Eock, p. o., Eutherford co., N. Car, : 192 m. 
AV. S. AV. Ealeigh. 

China, t and p. v., Kennebec co., Me. : on a beautiful 
lake which covers a great part of the town, and empties 
into a creek of Kennebec r., affording extensive mfll power. 
The village on the S. margin of the lake is a beautiful 
place. Several manufactures are carried on. Pop, 2.769. 

China, t. and p. v., St. Clair co., Mich. : on the AV. side 
of St. Clair r., 100 m. E. Lansing. The village lies on Belle 
r., a tributary of the St. Clair. Pop. 1,037. 

Chtna, p. v., Lee co., III. : 138 m. N. by E. Springfield. 

China, t. and p. v., Wyoming co., JF. Y. : on Cattaraugus 
cr., 244 m. AV. Albany. Hydraulic power is abundant, and 
numerous mills are in operation. Pop. 1,961. 

China Grove, p. o., Pike co., A la. : on the line of the 
Girard and Mobile E. E., 32 m. S. E. Montgomery. 

China Geove, p. o., Pike co., Miss. : on the AV. side of 
M'Gee's cr. of Bogue Chitto, 66 m. S. Jackson. 

Chtna Geove, p. o., Eowan co., K Car. : 108 m. AV. by S. 
Ealeigh. 

China Grove, p. o., AVilliamsburg dist., 8. Car.: on 
Cedar cr. of Black r., 92 m. E. S. E. Columbia. 

China Geove, p. o., Gonzales co., Tew. : 60 m. S. Austin 
City. 

Chtna Hill, p. o., Gadsden co., Flor. : on Little r. of 
Ocklockony r., 20 m. N. AV. Tallahassee. 

Chtncaptn Geove, p. o., Gwinnett co., Ga. : 64 m. N. AV. 
Milledgeville. 

Chtncapkjn, p. v., Duplin co., 2V. Car. : 69 m. S. E. 
Ealeigh. 

Chincoteague, p. o., Accomac co., Yirg. : 122 m. E. N. E. 
Eichmond. 

Chtnnibec, p. o„ Talladega co., Ala. : about 4 m. E. of 
Talladega, and 72 m. N. by E. Montgomery. 

Chtpman's Point, p. o., Addison co., Term. : on Lake 
Champlain, opposite Crown Point, 45 m. AV. S. AV. Mont- 
pelier. 

Chippewa county, Mich. Situate on the N. peninsula, 
occupying the E. extremity, and contains 2,376 sq. m. 
Drained by several streams flowing to Lake Superior, 
Tah-qua-me-naw r. falling into the bay of the same name, 
and numerous rivers and creeks of St. Mary's r. and Lake 
Huron. Surface richly varied with much good farm land. 
Farms 17 ; manuf. 10 ; dwell. 1S7, and pop.— wh. S90, fr. 
col. 8— total 898. Capital : Sault de St. Marie. 

Chippewa county, Wise. Situate N. AV. on Mississippi 
r., and contains 2,740 sq. m. Drained by the Chippewa r. 
and other streams. In the N. are many beautiful lakes. 
Surface much varied, but chiefly prairie. Timber abund- 
ant. Farms—; manuf. 3; dwell. 94, and pop.— wh. 614, 
fr. col. 0— total 614. Capital : . 

Chtppewa, t. and p. v., Beaver co., Perm. : 192 m. AV. 
Harrisburg. 

Chtppewa, t. and p. v., AVayne co., OMo : on the Chip- 
pewa r., 92 m. N. E. Columbus. The village lies on the N. 
bank of the river, about a mile from the AV. border of the 
town. Pop. 2,637. 

Chtppewa, p. o., New Castle co., Bel. 

Chtppewa bay, N. Y. : on the E. side of St. Lawrence r., 
opposite St. Lawrence co. It contains a number of the 
" Thousand Islands." 

Chtppewa river, Mich. : a branch of Pine r., which it 
joins near its mouth. 

Chtppewa river, Wise. : this river (the Ojtbwa of the 
Indians) runs entirely across the State, having its rise on 
the borders of Michigan, near the sources of the AVisconsin, 
Montreal, etc., and running into the Mississippi r. near the 
foot of Lake Pepin. It is about 500 yards wide at its mouth. 
There are 14 rapids on the Chippewa — the principal one, 



called the " Falls," is about 75 m. from its mouth, and hag 
a descent of 24 feet in the distance of half a mile. A very 
large amount of pine lumber is annually sent down this 
river. Toward the sources of the stream and its branches 
there are many fine lakes, some of which have received 
names, and the principal are known as Lac Courtorielle, 
Lac Chetac, Lac du Flambeau, Tomahawk Lake, Bed 
Cedar Lake, Eice Lake, etc. The Bed Cedar Fork is the 
main branch of the Chippewa, entering it from the AV., 
about 36 m. above its mouth. About 60 m. below Bice 
Lake, on this river, according to Schoolcraft, commences a 
series of rapids over horizontal layers of sandstone rock, 
which extend, with short intervals, down the river 24 m. 
The remainder of the distance (about 50 m.) to the junc- 
tion is characterized by deep water, with a strong current ; 
and at the junction is commanding and elevated, affording 
a fine view of a noble expanse of waters. 

Cutppewayan mountains. (See Eocky mountains.) 

Ciiittenango, p. v., Madison co., N. Y. : on Chittenango 
cr., 112 m. AV. by N. Albany. The Syracuse and Utica 
B. E. passes near the village, and about a mile to the N. 
the Erie Canal, with which a side cut connects it. It is a 
flourishing place, has some manufactures, considerable 
trade, and publishes the " Phenix" (dem.) weekly. Hy- 
draulic cement is found in the neighborhood, and a mile 
S. of the village is a valuable sulphur spring. 

Chittenango Falls, p. o., Madison co., JV. Y. : on the 
river so called, 112 m. AV. by N. Albany. 

Chittenango river, 2V. Y. : rises in the town of Nelson, 
Madison co., and flows N. into Oneida Lake. 

Chittenden county, Verm. Situate N. AV., on Lake 
Champlain, and contains 496 sq. m. Drained by Onion, 
Lamoille, and other rivers. Surface generally finely varie- 
gated, but mountainous in the E. ; soils as various — here 
sandy, and there rich alluvion or clayey. Farms 1,908; 
manuf. 201 ; dwell. 4,805, and pop.— wh. 28,927, fr. col. 109 
—total 29,036. Capital : Burlington. Public Works : Eut- 
land and Burlington B. B. ; Vermont Central B. B. ; and 
Burlington Branch B. B. 

Chittenden, t. and p. v., Eutland co., Verm. : on the 
highlands of the Green Mountains, forming the watershed 
between Lake Champlain and the Connecticut r., 33 m. 
S. by AV. Montpelier. It is a rugged country and sparsely 
populated. Pop. 675. 

Chocolate river, Mich. : a considerable stream of fhe 
Upper Peninsula, which has its rise in a small lake in the 
highlands N. E. of Menomonee r., and running N. and N. E. 
discharges its waters on the S. border of Lake Superior. 

Choconut, t. and p. v., Susquehannah co., Perm.: on 
the N. line of the State, 126 m. N. by E. Harrisburg. 

Choctaw county, Ala. Situate S. AV., and contains S64 
sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Tombigbee r., which 
forms the E. border. Surface level ; soils fertile, producing 
corn and cotton. Farms 445; dwell. 760, and pop. — wh. 
4,620, fr. col. 0, si. 3,769— total 8,389. Capital: Butler. 

Choctaw county, Miss. Situate N. centrally, and con- 
tains 900 sq. m. Drained by the head waters of Big Black 
r. and several creeks of the Tallabusha. Surface elevated 
and rolling, with abundance of timber; soils excellent 
The products are chiefly Indian corn and cotton. Farms 
1,132 ; manuf. 17 ; dwell. 1,405, and pop— wh. S,420, fr. coL 
4, si. 2,978— total 11,402. Capital: Greensboro. 

Choctaw Agency, p. o., Choctaw Nation, Ark. 

Choctaw Agency, p. o., Oktibbeha co., Miss. : on the E. 
side of Noxubee r., 100 m. N. E. Jackson. 

Choctaw Coenee, p. o., Clarke co., Ala. : 34 m. AV. by S. 
Montgomery. 

Choctaw Nation, Ind. Ter. : is bounded N. by the Cana- 
da and Arkansas rivers, E. by the State of Arkansas, S. by 
Bed Biver, and W. by the 100th meridian. The country in 
the E. is mountainous, with large and fertile valleys— in the 
AV. it is undulating and varied. The whole is well drained 
by numerous tributaries of the Arkansas and Bod rivers, 

125 



CHO 



CHU 



both of winch are navigable for steamboats. The Choctaws 
are extensively engaged in agriculture, and have good 
houses and well-fenced fields, on which they raise corn and 
cotton in abundance, and they have good stocks of cattle, 
horses, and sheep. On the streams they have numerous 
saw and grist mills, and in several parts cotton gins ; spin- 
ning and weaving are carried on in their principal settle- 
ments ; and- all their own blacksmithing, wagon-building, 
etc., are done by themselves under direction of mechanics 
furnished them by the United States' Government. The 
Choctaws are governed by a written constitution and laws ; 
the nation is divided into four districts, each of which elects 
its own chief quartennially. The General Council, consist- 
ing of 40 members, and chosen by the voters of each district, 
meets annually at the Council House, on the first Monday 
of October. This body frames all laws, but the chiefs have 
a veto, which the council can only overrule by a two-thirds 
vote. Their legislative business is transacted according to 
the usual forms of civilized societies, and the councilors are 
paid, during their sittings, $2 from the national treasury. 
For judicial purposes, the nation is divided into districts, 
and trial by jury, and appeal to the higher courts are 
allowed. The military department is intrusted to a general 
elected by the people at large, and there are 82 captains in 
each district. The Council House, which is a large and 
commodious building, is located on the W. side of Kiame- 
shi r., nearly equi-distant between the N. and S. lines of the 
national territory. The Chtckasaws, who were their kins- 
men on the E. side of the Mississippi, dwell with the 
Choctaws on the W. side, forming the fourth district of the 
nation. They are governed by the same laws, and have a 
proportional representation in the General Council. The 
two nations, however, receive their annuities from the 
United States separately, and are distinct in some other 
respects. Numerous missionaries are settled among both 
the Choctaws and Chickasaws, and have succeeded well in 
their efforts to civilize them; so that these nations may 
now be considered as among the most intelligent of the 
Indian tribes. 

Ciioppeen, p. v., "Wells co., Ind. : 84 m. N. E. by N. 
Indianapolis. 

Ciioptank river, MS.: a large stream of the Eastern 
Shore, which rises in two main branches — one from Dela- 
ware, and flowing in a course generally S., empties through 
a large estuary into Chesapeake Bay, between Tighlman's 
Island on the N. and Sharp's Island on the S. It is navi- 
gable for sloops for nearly 40 m. from its confluence with 
the bay. 

Chowan county, 2F. Car. Situate on Albemarle Sound, 
between Chowan and Perquinons rivers, and contains 21S 
sq. m. Surface low and level, with swamps ; soils sandy, 
but moderately fertile, producing corn and cotton. Farms 
344 ; manuf. 23 ; dwell. 613, and pop.— wh. 2,944, fr. col. 
104. si. 3,673— total 6,721. Capital : Edenton. 

Chowan river, JVI Car. : is formed by the union of the 
Nottaway, Meherrm, and Blackwater rivers, which rise and 
have their courses principally in Virginia. It flows into 
Albemarle Sound, a little N. of the mouth of the Eoanoke. 
It is navigable on the Mehcrrin branch for large vessels to 
Murfreesboro, near the Virginia State line. 

Christian county, III. Situate centrally, and contains 
560 sq. m. Drained by the South Fork and other tribu- 
taries of Sangamon r., which bounds it N. Surface chiefly 
undulating prairie, with frequent timber groves ; and soil 
everywhere fertile. Farms 434; manuf. 12 ; dwell. 555, and 
pop.— wh. 3,202, fr. col. 0— total 3,202. Capital : Taylors- 
ville. Public Works: Illinois Central E. E. 

Christian county, Ky. Situate W. on S. border, and 
contains 540 sq. m. Drained by Little r. and TV. fork of 
Eed r., tributaries of the Cumberland. Surface generally 
level, and the soils various — in the X. indifferent, but well 
timbered, and in the S. fertile, producing wheat, corn, and 
tobacco. Iron and bituminous coal abundant. Farms 
126 



1,190; manuf. 77; dwell. 1,965, and pop.— wh. 11,309, fr. 
col. 131, si. 8,140— total 19,5S0. Capital: Hopkinsville. 
PuUio Works : A railroad from Nashville, Tenn., to Hen- 
derson, on the Ohio (projected.) 

Christiana, p. v., New Castle co., Del. : on Christiana 
cr., 33 m. N. Dover. The Philadelphia, Wilmington, and 
Baltimore E. E. passes through the village. Its manufac- 
tures are comparatively large, and consist chiefly of flour, 
gunpowder, etc. The hund. of the same name contains 
22,560 acres, and 3,902 inhabitants. 

Christiana, t. and p. o., Dane co., Wise. : on the E. side 
of Eock er., 20 m. E. S. E. Madison. Pop. 1,054. 

Christiana river, Midi, and Ind. : a tributary of the St. 
Joseph r. ; it rises in the E. part of Cass co., and flowing 
S. TV. and S. passes into Indiana, where it joins the St. Jo- 
seph's at Elkhart village. It is a never-failing mill stream, 
and furnishes abundance of hydraulic power. 

Cheistiansburgh, p. v., Shelby co., Ky. 

Christiansburgh, p. v., and cap. Montgomery co., Virg. : 
167 m. TV. S. TV. Eichmond. The Virginia and Tennessee 
E. E. will pass through this village. 

Christiansburgh, p. v., Brown co., Ind. : on a branch 
of Salt cr., 46 m. S. Indianapolis. 

Christiansburgh, p. v., Champaign co., Ohio: in tho 
S. Vf . corner of the county, 57 m. TV. by N. Columbus. 

Christiansvtlle, p. v., Mecklenburg co., Virg. : 74 m. 
S. TV. Eichmond. 

Christjiasville, p. v., Carroll co., Term. : 97 m. W. by S. 
Nashville. 

Christy's Fork, p. o., Morgan co., Ky. 

Christy's Prairie, p. o., Clay co., Ind: : 10 m. TV. Bowl- 
ing Green, and 59 TV. S. TV. Indianapolis. 

Chuckathck, p. v., Nansemond co., Virg. : on Chucka- 
tuck cr., 8 m. above its confluence in James r., and 62 S. E. 
Eichmond. The village has several factories, and the river 
being navigable to this place, affords it considerable facilities. 

Chtjcky Bend, p. o., Jefferson co., Teivn. : on the N. side 
of Nolichucky r., 204 m. E. Nashville. 

Chuctantjnda creek, N. Y. : rises in Fulton and Sara- 
toga counties, and flows S. into Montgomery co., where it 
empties into the Mohawk r. at the village of Amsterdam. 

Chulafinne, p. o., Eandolph co., Ala. : 76 m. N. by E. 
Montgomery. 

Chulasky, p. o., Northumberland co., Penn. 

CmjLTAuoiiA, p. v., Marshall co., Miss. : 163 m. N. by E. 
Jackson. 

Cuuxenuggee, p. o., Maeon co., Ala. : 42 m. E. by S. 
Montgomery. 

CurNKEiviLLE, p. v., Lauderdale co., Miss.: 8S m. E. 
Jackson. 

Chtrcti Creek, p. o., Dorchester co., MS. : on Church 
cr., 5 m. from its confluence with Little Choptank r., and 
41 m. S. S. E. Annapolis. 

CnrRcn Grove, p. o., Knox co., Tenn.: 162 m. E. 
Nashville. 

Church Hill, p. o., Lowndes co., Ala. : 30 m. TV. S. W. 
Montgomery. 

Cnup.cn Hell, p. o., Luzerne co., Penn. : 88 m. N. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Church Hill, p. o., Queen Anne co., Md. : at the head 
of South-East cr., 8 m. from its confluence with Chester r., 
31 m. E. by N. Annapolis. It has 3 churches, an academy, 
about 60 dwellings, and 250 inhabitants. The Episcopal 
church, built 1726, is an old English structure of brick, large 
and massive, and capable of containing 1,000 persons, and 
has a chancel and vestry-room adjoining. 

Church Hill, p. o., Christian co., Ky. : 163 m. S. TV. 
Frankfort. 

Church Hill, p. o., Jefferson co., Miss. : on the E. side 
of the Mississippi, about 3 m. distant from the river, and 72 
m. S. TV. Jackson. 

Chtrch Hill, p. o., Trumbull co., Ohio : 143 m. N. E. 
Columbus. 



CHU 



CIN 



Church Hill, p. o., Halifax co., Virg. : near the conflu- 
ence of Bircli cr. with Dan r., 110 m. S. W. Eichmond. 

Church's Store, p. o., Wilkes co., 2T. Car.: 146 m. 
W. by N. Baleigh. 

Churchtown, p. v., Lancaster co., Perm. : 48 m. E. by S. 
Harrisburg. 

Churchtown, p. o., Columbia co., iK Y. : 48 m. S. by E. 
Albany. 

CiroT.CHViLLE, p. v., Monroe co., 2f. Y. : on the line of the 
Buffalo and Bochester E. E., 62 m. from Buffalo, and 266 
m. from Albany. It is a neat village of some 500 inhabit- 
ants. 

Chot.chvtlle, p. v., Augusta co., Virg. : 94 m. W. by N. 
Eichmond. 

Ciiurchvtlle, p. v., Harford co., 3rd.: on the E. side 
of Bynham's r., 46 m. N. Annapolis. 

Churubusco, p. v., Franklin co., Ala. : 184 m. N. W. 
Montgomery. 

Churubusco, p. v., Anderson dist., S. Car.: 109 m. 
W. N. W. Columbia. 

Churubusco, p. v., "Whitley co., Ind. : 109 m. N. N. E. 
Indianapolis. 

Cicero, p. v., Hamilton co., Ind. : on Cicero cr. of "White 
r., 26 m. N. by E. Indianapolis. The Peru and Indianap- 
olis E. E. passes a little eastward of the village. 

Cicero, t. and p. v., Onondaga co., HT. Y. : on the S. W. 
side of Oneida Lake, 123 m. "W. by N. Albany. Chitte- 
nango r. flows along its E. border. The village has about 
500 inhabitants. Pop. 2,9S0. 

CiNcrNiTATr, post city, port of entry, and cap. Hamilton 
co., Ohio : on the N. side of the Ohio r., directly opposite 
the mouth of Licking r., and distant by river course from 
Pittsburg 465 m., from Louisville 132 m., from the mouth 
of Ohio r. 494 m., and from New Orleans 1,447 m., and in 
direct line 113 m. S.W. Columbus. Lat. 39° 05' 54" N., and 
long. 84° 27' W. from Greenwich, or 7° 25' W. from Wash- 
ington. It is the largest inland city of the United States, 
and in point of population is only exceeded by Boston, 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and New Orleans. In 
1800 it had about 750 inhabitants ; in 1810, 2,540 ; in 1820, 
9,642 ; in 1830, 24,831 ; in 1840, 46,338 ; and in 1S50, 115,436. 

The city is located in a beautiful valley of about 12 m. in 
circumference, surrounded by hills. This valley is divided 
almost centrally by the Ohio r. It was first settled on the 
24th Dec, 17SS, by a party of men sent out under Mathias 
Denman and Eobert Paterson, to improve a portion of the 
purchase made by the Hon. John Cleves Symmes. This 
purchase embraced a tract of 311,682 acres, lying between 
the Great and Little Miami rivers, and extending along the 
Ohio r. a distance of 37 m. One square mile in each town- 
ship was reserved for school purposes, and section 29 in 
each for the support of religious societies. 

This party landed opposite the mouth of Licking r., and 
laid out a village called Losantiville, a name shortly after- 
ward abandoned for that of Cincinnati. In Feb., 17S9, 
another party, under Symmes himself, landed at North 
Bend, and there laid out what was intended to be a large 
city, to which they gave the name of Symmes. Soldiers 
were now sent out to protect the settlers at the Bend ; but 
Port Washington having been established, they were re- 
moved to Cincinnati subsequently, and the rivalry of the 
two places succumbed in favor of Cincinnati as the chief 
seat of business. The fort stood on what is now Arch-street, 
between Third and Fourth-streets, and east of Broadway. 
In 1790 General Harrison marched hence against the In- 
dians, and in the next year General St. Clair started for the 
same place on his ill-fated expedition. The fort was suc- 
cessively commanded by Ziegler, Williamson, and Harrison, 
the latter of whom became subsequently President of the 
United States. In 1792 the first church was erected on 
what is now corner of Maine and Fourth-streets, and occu- 
pied by the First Presbyterian Church. In the rear of it 
are many graves of the pioneers. In 1793, the first paper, 



called the " Sentinel of the North-west Territory," north of 
the Ohio r., was established at Cincinnati by William Max- 
well. On the 11th Jan., 1794, a line of two keel boats, with 
bullet-proof covers and port-holes, and provided with can- 
non and small arms, was established between Cincinnati 
and Pittsburg, each making a trip once in four weeks. 
During this period, the town progressed but slowly, while 
idleness, drinking, and gambling prevailed in the army, 
and was to a great extent participated in by the citizens. 
The population at various periods is shown above. From 
1S00 to 1810 it progressed pretty rapidly, and considerable 
trade was carried on with New Orleans in keel boats, which 
returned laden with foreign goods. The passage to New 
Orleans then occupied about 25 days, and the return 65 . 
days. In 1819 the city was incorporated, since which 
period its progress in population and material wealth has 
been uninterrupted and rapid in an astonishing degree, 
considering the difficulties it had to contend with before the 
establishment of steam navigation on the rivers and rail- 
roads throughout the country. It would be Invidious to 
compare the early career of Cincinnati with that of Chica- 
go, Milwaukie, and some others ; they were founded under 
quite different auspices ; the one in the midst of a country; 
bare of population, without a road, and scant of river facil- 
ities, and the others with every facility of travel perfected, 
and a tide of immigration unceasingly pouring npon them. 
Cincinnati occupies the whole of the first bank of the 
river, called the Bottom, and the second, called the Hill, 
which is 108 feet above low water mark, and 60 feet above 
the first bank. The streets are so graded as to render the 
communication between the two parts easy, and many of 
them are adorned with fine edifices, and beautiful shade 
trees. It extends back to a third range of hills, a distance 
on Main-street of about two miles, and in the western part 
perhaps more, and along the Ohio about three miles. Ex- 
cepting on the margin of the river, the city is regularlylaid 
out in streets and alleys, crossing each other at right angles. 
The streets running E. and W., proceeding from the river, 
are denominated First, Second, etc., while those running 
N. and S. are named after the indigenous forest trees, as 
Wamut, Sycamore, etc. Main-street extends from the 
steamboat landing, on the river, directly north to the north- 
ern bounds of the city. The streets are generally paved, 
and the foot-paths flagged. The city contains about 16,000 
houses, 80 churches, many of them very fine edifices; 3 
colleges, 4 medical schools, a law school, a female college, 
several female seminaries, 6 classical schools, a large num- 
ber of finely-built public schools, 4 banks, with resources 
amounting to $3,963,371 ; and 17 insurance companies, etc. ; 
several public halls, the county and city courts, a mercantile 
exchange, and numerous libraries, and literary, philosoph- 
ical and charitable institutions, an observatory, 4 theatres, 
a museum, gas-works, water-works, etc. In fact, it has all 
the appliances necessary for the physical, intellectual, and 
moral enjoyment of a large population ; and in its manu- 
factures, commerce, and general wealth, is pre-eminent 
among the cities of the world. 

The manufactures of Cincinnati embrace almost every 
department of industrial employment. It would be impos- 
sible to enumerate them in the compass allowed to this 
article ; but there are some industries that so distinguish 
the city, that their enumeration is necessary. It has 6 
distilleries; 140 bakeries; 12 bell and brass foundries: S3 
blacksmith shops ; 10 boiler yards ; 15 book-binderies ; 374 
boot and shoe factories ; 31 breweries ; 60 brick yards ; 20S 
mason shops ; 121 butchers' shops ; 284 carpenter and build- 
er shops ; 24 carriage factories ; 63 coopers' shops ; 42 cop- 
per-plate printing establishments ; 18 beef and tongue curing 
establishments ; 4 cutleries ; 32 daguerreotype establish- 
ments ; 16 domestic liquor manufactories ; 15 dye houses ; 
19 edge tool factories ; 14 engraving establishments ; 14 
feed and flour mills ; 44 founderies and engine shops ; 136 
furniture factories ; 10 gilding establishments ; 2 glass 

127 



CIN 



CIN 



works ; 6 gunsmith shops ; 40 hat factories ; 14 ice-packing 
establishments ; 5 iron rolling-mills ; 3 iron safe factories ; 5 
iron railing factories ; 10 lever lock factories ; 4 lithographic 
establishments ; 7 looking-glass factories ; 12 machinist 
shops ; 5 marble works ; 6 mathematical and optical instru- 
ment factories ; 10 upholsteries ; 60 millineries ; 7 morocco 
leather factories; 6 musical instrument factories; 1 castor 
oil factory ; 34 oil, lard, and stearine factories ; 3 linseed oil 
mills ; 72 paint and glazing shops ; 9 paper mills ; 14 patent 
medicine factories ; 7 plane factories ; 1 planing machine 
factory ; 6 platform scale factories ; 6 plow factories ; 16 
plumbing shops ; 14 potteries ; 33 pork, beef, and ham- 
curing factories (employing 2,450 hands, and producing 
annually $5,760,000) ; 12 publishing houses ; 40 saddleries ; 
25 sash, blind, etc., factories ; 22 sausage factories ; 15 saw 
mills ; 2 saw factories ; 5 sheeting, etc., factories ; 15 shirt 
and stock factories ; 38 soap and candle factories ; 7 steam- 
boat building yards ; 3 stereotype founderies ; 22 stone- 
cutting yards ; 36 stone mason yards ; 93 tailor establish- 
ments ; 30 tanneries ; 62 tobacco, cigar, and snuff factories ; 
30 turners' shops ; 2 type founderies ; 26 vinegar factories ; 
42 wagon factories ; 40 wine manufactories ; 5 wire-work- 
ing establishments ; 33 whisky distilleries, etc. There are 
180 several industries pursued, and the total number of all 
manufacturing and industrial establishments in the city was 
about 3,400. The total number of hands employed, about 
32,S50, and the annual value of products, $43,500,000. 

There are few cities of the Union so well furnished with 
facilities of locomotion. It has one of the finest rivers 
in the world fronting it, and railroads and canals stretch- 
ing in every direction for thousands of miles. These form 
its great avenues of commerce. The Miami Canal, and 
the Ohio division of the "Wabash and Erie Canal, con- 
nect the Ohio r. and Lake Erie, a distance of 251 m. The 
principal completed railroads are, the Little Miami E. E. 
and its connections to Cleveland, 255 m. ; the Cincinnati, 
Hamilton, and Dayton, and its connections to Sandusky, 
21S m. ; the Cincinnati and Hillsboro' E. E. to Parkers- 
burg, 179 m. (now open to Hillsboro' 60 m.) ; and a number 
of others completed, in progress, and projected, passing to 
every part of the State, and into all the neighboring States, 
and connecting Cincinnati with all the principal cities of 
the lakes, the sea-board, and the West and South. Cincin- 
nati, in fact, is the chief centre of the railroad system of the 
West. It has direct railroad connection with every lake- 
port from Chicago to Niagara; with Albany, Boston, New 
York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and will soon have 
communication with Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, New 
Orleans, and St. Louis. Eailroads are being constructed in 
all these directions, and when completed will build up 
Cincinnati, and make it a competitor for the wealth of 
commerce second to no other city of the world. It has 
already had the foretaste of its future, and is now stretching 
out its arms to gather in the vast, illimitable wealth with 
which nature has surrounded it. It has also telegraphs, 
giving it instantaneous communication with every large 
city from Maine to Florida, and from the Atlantic to beyond 
the Mississippi. 

The river trade is commensurate with the vast internal 
trade centering at this point, and with the manufacturing 
industry of the city. It is carried on chiefly in steamboats 
plying hence to Pittsburg and New Orleans, and the places 
intermediate. Its steamers also penetrate all the great 
rivers of the West — the tributaries of the great father of 
waters. The arrival of steamboats, in the year ending 31st 
Aug., 1S50, numbered 3,693 ; of these 2S3 were from New 
Orleans. 65S from Pittsburg, 214 from St. Louis, and 2,538 
from other ports ; and the departures amounted to 3,29S, 
of which 249 were for New Orleans, 547 for Pittsburg. 222 
for St. Louis, and 2,274 for other ports. For the detailed 
statistics of the commerce of the port, for the year above 
named, the reader is referred to Hunt's Merchants'' Mag- 
azine, for Oct., 1S51. The shipping owned within the 
12S 



district of Cincinnati, in 1850, was 17,1S1 tons, of which 
16,906 were navigated by steam-power. 

The city is governed by a mayor, recorder, and 3 coun- 
cilors for each of the wards into which it is divided. It has 
a separate judiciary, and also a commercial court, specially 
instituted to try causes arising between merchants. The 
amount of taxes collected for city purposes, for the year 
ending 20th March, 1S51, was $438,345, viz. : for general 
purposes, $130,172 ; for interest on debt, $66,888 ; for House 
of Eefuge, $60,079 ; for Poor-house, $51,268 ; for support 
of watch, $40,053 ; for support of common schools, $87,220 ; 
and colored schools, $2,664. The debt of the city at the 
same period, was $1,840,000, and the value of its property 
amounted to $2,230,543. 

The newspaper and periodical press of Cincinnati con- 
sists of S daily papers, all of which issue weekly editions, 
and one a tri-weekly edition ; of 22 weekly papers ; of 1 
semi-monthly, and 14 monthly periodicals. The daily 
papers are the " C. Gazette" (whig), the " C. Commercial" 
(indep't.), the " C. Enquirer" (dem.), the " Chronicle and 
Atlas" (whig), the "C. Times" (indep't.), the "Dispatch 
and Democrat" (dem.), the " Democratic Journal" (dem.), 
and the " Nonpareil." These circulate a weekly average 
of 2,000 to 22,000 copies each. The weekly papers are, 
" Cist's Weekly Advertiser" (commercial), the " Pictorial 
Advertiser," the " Columbian" (lit.), the " Price Current" 
(commercial), the " Western Police Gazette," " Life in Cin- 
cinnati," the "Screw-Driver," the "Warning Bell" (fire- 
man's), the " Proclamation Eeformer," the " Phonetic Ad- 
vocate," the " Star of the West," the " Presbyterian of the 
West," the " Journal and Messenger" (relig.), the " Youth's 
Friend," the " Catholic Telegraph," the " Christian Age," 
the " Western Christian Advocate," the " Christian Apolo- 
gist," the " Western Fountain" (temperance), the " Central 
Christian Herald," the " Wahreet's Freund" (Germ.), the 
" Der Deutshe Eepublikaner" (Germ.), the " Democratiches 
Wochenblatt" (Germ.), and the " Yolksblatt" (Germ.) The 
" Sunday School Advocate" is published semi-monWy. 
The montlily periodicals are, the "Ladies' Eepository," 
the "Templar's Magazine," the " Counterfeit Detector," the 
" Masonic Eeview," the " Western Lancet" (med.), the 
" Dental Eegister," the " Law Journal," the " Crisis" (lib- 
erty ?), the " Congress Hall," the " School Friend" (edu- 
cation), the " Eclectic Medical Journal," the " Golden 
Eule," the " United Presbyterian," and " Goodman's Coun- 
terfeit Detector." Thus it would appear that politics, re- 
ligion, science, literature, etc., have their special advocates, 
and that all the great interests of the people has a special 
organ to herald their peculiarities to the world. Many of 
the above are conducted with great energy and talent, and 
have a circulation beyond their own locality. 

At a short distance from the city, on the hills, in its back 
ground, are two beautiful villages, Mount Auburn and Wal- 
nut Hills, which are mostly occupied as country seats by 
persons doing business in Cincinnati. Walnut Hills is the 
seat of Lane Seminary, a theological institution under the 
New School Presbyterians. Four miles N. W. of the city, 
are two fine cemeteries — " Spring Grove Cemetery," con- 
taining about 100 acres ; and the " Wesleyan Cemetery," 
containing about 40 acres. Both are beautifully located, 
and have been greatly improved. For miles about Cincin- 
nati the cultivation of the grape, for which the soil and 
climate are well adapted, is carried on extensively, and the 
vineyards form, perhaps, the most delightful portions of 
the scenery. The wine here produced is said to be equal 
to the wines of France, in flavor and body, and are now 
manufactured for commerce. 

Cincinnati, p. v., Balls co., Mo. : on the N. bank of Salt 
r., 78 m. N. N. E. Jefferson City. 

Cincinnati, p. v., Walker co., Tex. : on the S. W. side 
of Trinity r., 172 m. E. by N. Austin City. 

Cincinnatcs, t. and p. v., Cortland co., 2f. Y. : on Ot- 
selic r., 10S m. W. Albany. The village is a thriving 



CIN 



CLA 



settlement, and has several mills, tanneries, etc. Pop. 
1,206. 

Cinnaminson, p. v., Burlington co., Jf. Jer. 

Ciecleyille, p. v., and cap. Loudon co., Virg. : 112 m. 
N. Richmond. 

Clrcleville, t., p. v., and cap. Pickaway co., Ohio : on 
the E. branch of the Scioto r., 26 m. S. by E. Columbus. 
The village occupies the site of ancient fortifications, and 
has a fine fertile neighborhood. Its streets are laid out at 
right angles, and it has several circular and triangular areas 
devoted to public uses. The principal buildings are a hand- 
some court-house, of brick, and in form octagonal, the 
market-house, the public offices, several handsome church 
edifices and school-houses, and the buildings belonging to 
the Ohio Canal, which passes through the village, and at 
this point crosses the river by a fine aqueduct. The rail- 
road from Cincinnati to Wheeling also intersects it. Four 
periodicals are published here — the " C. Herald" (whig), 
the "C. "Watchman" (dem.), the "Eeligious Telescope," 
and " Busy Martha" (religious.) In the village a consider- 
able manufacturing business is engaged in, and the town 
has several furnaces, tanneries, etc. As a commercial de- 
p6t it occupies a place second to none of the interior towns, 
and its progress is onward. Pop. of v. 3,411. — of t. 3,842. 

Ciecleville, p. v., Tazewell co., III. : 48 m. N. Springfield. 

Cmco, p. o., Monroe co., Term. : on Citico cr., 156 m. 
E. S. E. Nashville. 

City, p. o., Duchess co., 2f. Y. : 62 m. S. by E. Albany. 

City island, if. Y. : an island in the East r., in the town 
of Pelham, "Westchester County. It is 2 m. long and about 
a mile wide. 

City Point, p. v. and port, Prince George co., Yirg. : on 
the S. side of James r., on a point formed by the confluence 
of Appomattox r., 19 m. S. E. Richmond. James r. is nav- 
igable for large ships to this point, which is the port of 
Petersburg, with which city it is connected by a railroad 
10 m. long. Several lines of steam packets sail between 
this and New York, touching at Norfolk, etc. 

Clackamas county, Oreg. Situate centrally, and con- 
tains 141,000 sq. m., but this area comprises a large unoccu- 
pied territory eastward. The county proper is of much less 
extent, and lies S. of Columbia r., and E. of "Willamette r. 
It is drained by Sandy r. of the Columbia, and the Clacka- 
mas and other tributaries of the "Willamette r. The surface 
is generally level, and the soils of extraordinary fertility, 
covered with dense forests. Coal and iron exist in abund- 
ance, and building material is plentiful. Earms 150 ; 
manuf. 13; dwell. 368, and pop.— wh. 1,836, fr. col. 23— 
total 1,S59. Capital : Oregon City. 

Claiborne parish, La. Situate N. "W., and contains 
1,080 sq. m. Drained E. by the forks of Bayou D'Arbone, 
"W. and S. W. by creeks of the Bayou Dorcheat and Black 
Lake cr. Surface varied, but generally level or rolling. 
Most of the parish consists of light pine land, but on the 
streams there are hard woods, and the soils are of good qual- 
ity, suitable for cotton. Farms 554; manuf. 3; dwell. 842, 
and pop— wh. 4,949, fr. col. 0, si. 2,522— total 7,471. Capi- 
tal: Homer. 

Claiborne county, Hiss. Situate S. "W., on Mississippi 
r., and contains 4S0 sq. m. Black r. washes its N. line, and 
it is drained chiefly by Bayou Pierre, and branches. Sur- 
face varied and uneven, and back from the streams the soils 
are light and sterile. Cotton and Indian corn are the chief 
products. Farms 310 ; manuf. 19 ; dwell. 659, and pop.— 
wh. 3,449, fr. col. 42, si. 11,450— total 14,941. Capital: 
Port Gibson. Public Works: Grand Gulf E. E. 

Claiborne county, Tenn. Situate between Clinch r. and 
the N. line of the State, and contains 5S0 sq. m. Drained 
by Powell's r. and numerous creeks of Clinch r. Mountain 
prevails in the N. and N. "W., but the surface in other parts 
is pleasantly varied, and has extensive valleys. Iron is 
abundant. The principal agricultural products are corn, 
wheat, and oats, also pork. Farms 944 ; manuf. 24 ; dwell. 

E 



1,425, and pop.— wh. 8,609, fr. col. 100, si. 660— total 9,369. 
Capital: Tazewell. 

Claiborne, p. v., and cap. Monroe co., Ala. : on the E. 
side of Alabama r., at the head of schooner navigation, 90 
m. S. "W. Montgomery. 

Claiborne, p. v., Jasper co., Miss.: 72 m. E. S. E. 
Jackson. 

Claibornesville, p. v., Yazoo co., Miss. : on a cr. of Big 
Black r., 29 m. N. "W. Jackson. 

Clairville, p. v., "Winnebago co., Wise. : 88 m. N. E. by 
N. Madison. 

Clapps, p. o., Guilford co., 2f. Car. : 78 m. "W. N. "W. 
Ealeigh. 

Clappville, p. v., "Worcester co., Mass. : on the N. side 
of "Westfield r., and on the line of the "Western E. E., 9 
m. "W. from "Worcester and 81 m. "W. by S. Boston. 

Clara, t. and p. o., Potter co., Perm. : 132 m. N. "W. 
Harrisburg. 

Clare county, Mich. Situate centrally on Lower Penin- 
sula, and contains 576 sq. m. Erected since 1S50. 

Claremont, t and p. v., Sullivan CO., N. Bamp. : on the 
E. side of Connecticut r., 46 m. "W. by N. Concord. Iron 
and limestone are found in the town, and the \illage on 
Sugar cr. has several manufactures ; and a newspaper, the 
" National Eagle" (whig), is issued weekly. The town is 
connected with Concord by railroad. Pop. 3,606. 

Claremont, p. v., Pickens co., 8. Car. : 121 m.. N. "W 
Columbus. 

Clarence, t. and p. v., Erie co., N. Y. : on the S. of Ton- 
awanda cr., 244 m. "W. Albany. The Canandaigua and 
Niagara Falls E. E. passes through the town. Pop. 2,727. 

Clarence, p. v., Greene co., Wise. : 42 m. S. by "W. 
Madison. 

Clarence, t. and p. o., Calhoun co., Mich. : 28 m. 
S. by "W. Lansing. Numerous lakelets are found in this 
town, and are the sources of streams flowing S. toward the 
Kalamazoo r. and N. toward Black r. Pop. 4S3. 

Clarence Centre, p. o., Erie co., A 7 ". Y : 242 m. "W. 
Albany. 

Clarendon, p. v., Monroe co., Ark. : on the E. bank of 
"White r., where it is formed by Cach6 r., 56 m. E. Little 
Eock. 

Clarendon, t. and p. v., Calhoun co., Mich.: on St. Jo- 
seph's r., 44 m. S. by "W. Lansing. The village lies on the 
N. bank of the river. Pop. 669. 

Clarendon, t. and p. v., Orleans co., N. Y. : 218 m. 
"W. by N. Albany. The village contains about 250 inhabit- 
ants. Pop. 1,309. 

Clarendon, p. v., Sumter dist., 8. Car. 

Clarendon, t. and p. v., Eutland co., Verm. : on Otter 
cr., 53 m. S. by "W. Montpelier. The village lies on the 
Eutland and Burlington E. E., 6 m. S. Eutland, and the 
"Western Vermont E. E. also passes through the town, 46 
m. from North Bennington. Agriculture is the chief em- 
ployment of the inhabitants. Pop. 147,. 

Clarendon Springs, p. v., Eutland co., Verm. : 55 m. 
S. by "W. Montpelier. Here is a chalybeate spring, contain- 
ing also corbonate of lime, which is resorted to by invalids 
for its medicinal properties. 

Claridon, t. and p. v., Geauga co., Ohio : on Cuyahoga 
r., 146 m. N. E. Columbus. Pop. 1,006. 

Clarion county, Perm. Situate N. "W. centrally, and 
contains 5S0 sq. m. Drained by Clarion and Toby's rivers 
and creeks of Alleghany r. and Eed Bank r., the former of 
which washes its S. "W. and the latter its S. borders. The 
N. part of the co. is rough and uneven ; in the S. the sur- 
face is moderately undulating and fertile, with abundance 
of timber. It contains large deposits of iron ore, which are 
extensively worked. Farms 1,726 ; manuf. 246 ; dwell. 
4,00S, and pop.— wh. 23,448, fr. col. 117— total 23,565. Cap- 
ital: Clarion. 

Clarion, t K , p v., and cap. Clarion co., Penn. : on the 
S. E. side of Clarion r., 152 m. "W. N.-W. Harrisburg. The 

129 



CLA 



CLA 



village is situate on the Susquehanna and Waterford turn- 
pike, 1 m. E. of the river. Its site, previous to 1840, was 
covered with pine woods ; it is now one of the most im- 
portant places of the interior, and has a population of about 
1,200 inhabitants. Two newspapers are published in the 
town, the " C. Eegister" (whig), and the " C. Democrat" — 
both weekly. 

Clarion, p. t., Grundy co., III. : 126 m. N. N. E. 
Springfield. 

Clarion river (or Great Toby's er.), Perm. : an affluent 
of Alleghany r., from the 1ST. E., and about TO m. long. It 
is navigable for boats for 50 or 60 m., but is principally used 
to float down timber to Pittsburg, etc. 

Clark, p. o., Mercer co., Penn.: 204 m. W. N. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Clarke county, Ala. Situate S. W., between the Alaba- 
ma and Tombigbee rivers, and contains 1,832 sq. m. The 
Interior is drained by a large number of creeks falling into 
the border rivers. Surface uneven, but generally low. 
Soils indifferent, except on the streams, and there the lands 
are frequently inundated. Cotton and corn are the princi- 
pal agricultural products. Farms 456; manuf. 16; dwell. 
873, and pop.— wh. 4,901, fr. col. 9, si. 4,876— total 9,7S6. 
Capital: Clarksville. 

Clakke county, Ark. Situate S. W. centrally, and con- 
tains 684 sq. m. Drained by Washita r., which runs on its 
E. border, and its numerous tributaries — one, the Little Mis- 
Bouri r., forming its S. and TV. borders. The surface is 
hilly and broken, and the soils, except on the margins of 
the streams, sterile. The chief products are cotton and 
Indian corn. Farms 362 ; manuf. 2 ; dwell. 537, and pop.— 
wh. 3,113, fr. col. 7, si. S75— total 3,995. Capital : Arkadel- 
phia. 

Clarke county, Ga. Situate N. centrally, and contains 
414 sq. m. Drained by the tributaries of Oconee r., which 
traverse it from N. to S. Surface elevated and undulating. 
Soils fertile, producing cotton, Indian corn, wheat, etc., 
abundantly. Farms 400; manuf. 55 ; dwell. 1,024, and pop. 
— wh. 5,515, fr. col. 15, si. 5,5S9— total 11,119. Capital : 
Athens. Public Works : Athens Branch of Georgia E. E., 
extending from Union Point, 40 m. 

Clarke county, III. Situate E., and contains 46S sq. m. 
Drained by Embarras r. and tributaries of "Wabash r., which 
forms its E. border. Surface chiefly rolling prairie— in the 
E. somewhat hilly and broken. Soils fertile. Farms 636 ; 
manuf. 14 ; dwell. 1,621, and pop.— wh. 9,494, fr. col. 38— 
total 9,532. Capital: Marshall. Public Works : Terre 
Haute and Alton E. E. 

Clarke county, Ind. Situate on Ohio r., and contains 
400 sq. m. Surface usually rolling, but nowhere hilly, ex- 
cept the Ohio bluffs, and the chain of " Knobs" on the TV. 
and N. TV. borders. Silver cr. and Fourteen Mile cr., 
with some lesser streams, drain the soils, which are chiefly 
calcareous, and very productive. In the N. part of the co. 
are some wet lands, which are more fit for grasses than the 
cereals. Farms 1,04S ; manuf. SS ; dwell. 2,757, and pop.— 
wh. 16,246, fr. col. 5J2— total 16.S2S. Capital : Charlestown. 
The Jefferson ville and Columbus E. E., and the New Albany 
and Salem E. E. traverse the county. 

Clarke county, la. Situate S., and contains 432 sq. m. 
Drained by the head waters of Chariton r., and numerous 
tributaries of Des Moines r., of which TVhite Breast cr., 
Otter cr., Squaw cr., and South r. are the principal. The 
S.TV. corner is drained by the head waters of Crooked Fork 
of Grand r. Surface elevated, and in the middle of the co. 
forms the watershed between Des Moines and Grand rivers. 
Soils fertile and deep. Farms — ; manuf. — ; dwell. 14 
and pop.— wh. 79, fr. col. 0— total 79. Capital: . 

Clarke county, Ky. Situate E. centrally, and contains 
812 sq. m. Drained by Upper and Lower Howard creeks, 
and Three Mile cr., tributaries of Kentucky r., which forms 
the S. line of the co. Surface generally level, and soils 
good, producing largely Indian corn, hemp, and tobacco, 
180 



and immense numbers of live-stock are kept by the farm- 
ers. Farms 792 ; manuf. 17 ; dwell. 1,364, and pop. — wh. 
7,709, fr. col. 134, si. 4,840— total 12,6S3. Capital : Win- 
chester. Public Works: Knoxville and Cincinnati E. E. 

Clarke county, Miss. Situate S. E., on the Alabama 
State line, and contains 756 sq. m. Drained by the Chicka- 
sawha and its numerous tributaries ; it has immense water- 
power. Surface generally level, and the soils of average 
fertility, with much that is the best, producing cotton and 
corn abundantly, with some rice. Farms 500 ; manuf. 7 ; 
dwell. 631, and pop.— wh. 3,823, fr. col. 6, si. 1,648— total 
5,497. Capital: Quitman. Public Works: Mobile and 
Ohio E. E. 

Clarke county, Mo. Situate N. E., and contains 520 
sq. m. It is bounded on the E. by the Mississippi r., and on 
the N. E. by the Des Moines, and is drained chiefly by Fox 
and Wyaconda rivers and their tributaries. Surface mod- 
erately uneven, and covered partially with timber. Soils 
fertile. Farms 425 ; manuf. 12 ; dwell. S05, and pop. — wh. 
5,013, fr. col. 10, si. 504— total 5,527. Capital : Waterloo. 

Clarke county, Ohio. Situate toward S.W., and contains 
412 sq. m. Drained by Mad r., Beaver cr., and Bucks cr., 
which afford extensive hydraulic power. Surface somewhat 
uneven. Soils fertile and well cultivated. Wheat, Indian 
corn, and Sats are the staple grain crops. Cattle and sheep 
are raised in large numbers. Farms 1,39S ; manuf. 156 ; 
dwell. 3,753, and pop.— wh. 21,855, fr. col. 323— total 22,178. 
Capital : Springfield. Public Works : Mad Eiver and 
Lake Erie E. E. ; Little Miami E. E. ; Springfield, Mount 
Vernon, and Pittsburg E. E. ; Ohio Central E. E., etc. 

Clarke county, Oreg. Situate on the N. E. side of the 
Columbia r., and contains 40,000 sq. m. Cowlitz r. bounds 
it on the N. W., and receives, with the Columbia, the drain- 
age of the co. by a number of large streams. There are 
several isolated peaks in the co., as Mount St. Helens, and 
Cape Horn, the latter on the N. bank of Columbia r. ; tho 
surface, otherwise, is beautifully diversified, well wooded, 
and has fine soils. There are several small lakes near its 
W. border. Farms 7 ; manuf. 4 ; dwell. 95, and pop. — wh. 
592, fr. col. 51— total 643. Capital : Columbia City. 

Clarke county, Yirg. Situate N. E., and contains 230 
sq. m. Drained by Opequan r. and tributaries of Shenan- 
doah, which runs centrally through it. The surface is 
uneven, and on the E. mountainous, the Blue Eidge form- 
ing its E. border. Soils of good quality, producing wheat, 
corn, and oats largely. The mountain region forms excel- 
lent pasture for sheep and cattle. Farms 271 ; manuf. 48 ; 
dwell. 636, and pop.— wh. 3,615, fr. col. 123, si. 3,614— total 
7,352. Capital: Berryville. 

Clarks, t. and p. o., Coshocton co., Ohio: on White 
Woman's r., 62 m. N. E. Columbus. Pop. 833. 

CLARKSBOROtrGn, p. v., Gloucester co., N. Jer. : 37 m. 
S. S. W. Trenton. Chiefly inhabited by the Quakers. 

Claeksburgh, p. v., Decatur co., Ind. : 48 m. E. S. E. 
Indianapolis. 

Clarksbt/rgh, p. v., and cap. Lewis co., Ky. : on Salt 
Lick cr., 4 m. S. of the Ohio r., and 91 m. E. N. E. 
Frankfort. 

Clakksburgh, p. v., Indiana co., Penn. : 126 m. W. by N. 
Harrisburg. 

Clarksbct.gh, p. v., Montgomery co., Md. : on the E. 
side of Little Seneca cr., 52 m. W. N. W. Annapolis. 

CLAEKSBUEGn, p. v., Erie co., K. T. : 256 m. W. Al- 
bany. 

Clarksburge, p. v., Monmouth co., K. Jer. : 16 m. E, 
Trenton. 

CLARKSBL-RGn, p. v., Eoss co., Ohio : on the N. line of 
county, 35 m. S. by W. Columbus. 

CLARKSBLT.Gn, p. v., and cap. Harrisou co., Yirg.: on 
Monongahela r., 192 m. N. TV. Eichmond. It is a thriving 
village, has two newspapers, the "Harrison Eepublican" 
(whig), and the " C. Democrat," published weekly, and will 
shortly have great commercial facilities by th.3 Xorth-west- 



CLA 



CLA 



era E. B., which will pass through or near it. Pop. about 
1,200. 

Clark's Corners, p. o., Ashtabula co., Ohio: 162 m. 
N. E. Columbus. Pop. 1,454 

Clark's Factory, p. o., Delaware co., K Y. : 67 m. S.W. 
Albany. 

Clarksfield, t. and p. v., Huron co., Ohio: on Vermil- 
lion r., SS m. N. by E. Columbus. 

Clark's Fork, p. o., York dist., S. Car.: 63 m. N. 
Columbia. 

Clark's Fork, p. o., Cooper co., Mo. : on Clark's Fork 
of Little Saline r., a tributary of the Missouri, 34 m. W. N. W. 
Jefferson City. 

Clark's Green, p. o., Luzerne co., Perm. 

Clark's Mills, p. o., Moore co., N. Car. : on Lumber r., 
61 m. S. W. Baleigh. 

Clark's Mills, p. o., Hempstead co., Ark. : 118 m. S.W. 
Little Eock. 

Clark's Mills, p. o., "Washington co., Virg. : 252 m. 
"W. S. W. Eichmond. 

Clark's Eiver, p. o., Callaway co., Ky. : on the r. so 
called, 216 m. S. W. Frankfort. 

Clarksok, t. and p. y., Monroe co., K. Y. : on the S. side 
of Lake Ontario, and drained by Salmon and Sandy creeks, 
210 m. W. by N. Albany. The v. situate on the Eidge 
Eoad, has several manufactures. Pop. of t. 4,556. 

Clarkson, p. v., Columbiana co., Ohio: 123 m. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Claekson Centre, p. v., Monroe co., N. Y.: 212 m. 
"W. by N. Albany. 

Clarkston, p. v., Oakland co., Mich. : on a small lake 
forming one of the sources of the N. branch of Eouge r., 59 
m. E. Lansing. 

Clarkstown, t., p. v., and cap. Eockland co., N. Y. : on 
the W. side of Hudson r., 102 m. S. Albany. The t. contains 
a small lake (called Eockland Lake, so famous for its ice), 
which empties into Hackensack r. New City is the name 
of the village in which the co. buildings are located. Pop. 
8,111. 

Clarksvtlle, p. v., and cap. Clarke co., Ala. : on the N. 
of Jackson's cr. of Tombigbee r., 96 m. S.W. Montgomery. 

Clarksvtlle. p. v., and cap. Johnson co., Ark. : on a 
cr. of the Arkansas, 3 m. N. of that r., and 84 m. N. W. 
Little Eock. 

Clarksvtlle, p. v., and cap. Habersham co., Ga. : on 
Tugaloe r., a tributary of the Savannah, 113 m. N. Milledge- 
ville. It is a v. of some 300 inhabitants. 

Clarksville, p. v., Anne Arundel co., Md. : 37 m. N.W. 
Annapolis. 

Clarksvtlle, p. v., Pike co., Mo. : on the W. bank of the 
Mississippi r., 8S m. N. E. Jefferson City. 

Clarksvtlle, p. v., Hunterdon co., N. Jer. : on Spruce 
Eun, at the E. base of Musconetcong Mountain, 42 m. N. by 
W. Trenton. Iron and other ores are found in the whole 
district. The New Jersey Central E. E. passes through the 
v., 47 m. from Elizabcthport, and 17 from Easton. 

Clarksvtlle, p. v., Albany co., SI;6m.TT. by S. 
Albany. 

Clarksville, p. v., Clinton co., Ohio : on Todd's cr. of 
the Little Miami r., 63 m. S. W. Columbus. It is a consid- 
erable v., and lies on the railroad route from Cincinnati to 
Zanesville. 

Clarksville, p. v., Greene co., Penn. : at the junction 
of the N. and S. forks of Ten Mile cr. of the Monongahela 
r., 168 m. W. by S. Harrisburg. 

Clarksvtlle, p. v., and cap. Montgomery co., Term. : on 
the N. side of Cumberland r., at the mouth of Eed r., 40 m. 
N. W. Nashville. It is a large and important v., and has a 
large trade. There are published here the " Jeffersonian" 
(dem.), the " C. Chronicle" (whig), and the " Ledger" 
(whig), weekly, and the " Monthly Visitor" (literary). The 
E. E. from Nashville to Henderson, will pass through 
Clarksville. 



Clarksvtlle, p. v.,; and cap. Eed Eiver co., Tex. : 336 
m. N. E. Austin City. 

Clarksville, p. v., Mechlenburg co., Virg. : on the S. 
side of Dan r., 92 m. S. W. Eichmond. 

Clarksvtlle, p. v., Spartanburg dist., S. Car. : 73 m. 
N. N. W. Columbia. 

Clarksvtlle, p. v., Hamilton co., Ind. : 24 m. N. by E. 
Indianapolis. 

Clarksville, v., Clarke co., Ind. : on the N. bank of the 
Ohio r., about equi-distant between New Albany and Jeffer- 
sonville, 100 m. S. by E. Indianapolis. Once a thriving 
village, Clarksville has been supplanted in business by its 
more enterprising neighbors. 

Clartsville, p v., Sullivan co., K Y. : 90 m. S. S. W. 
Albany. 

Clatsop county, Oreg. Situate on the Pacific, imme- 
diately S. of Columbia r., and contains 6,000 sq. m. Drained 
S. by Killamook r., flowing to the ocean, and the Tualatin 
r., a tributary of Willamette r., and in the N. W. by tribu- 
taries of the Columbia r. The surface is generally roEing, 
but barely wooded. Coal has been found in several parts. 
Farms 24 ; manuf. 2 ; dwell. 91, and pop.— wh. 458, fr. coL 
4— total 462. Capital: Astoria. 

Clatjselvtlle, p. v., Monroe co., Ala. : 86 m. S.W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Clatjssville, p. v., Lehigh co., Penn. : 69 m. E. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Claverack, t. and p. v., Columbia co., N. Y. : on Clav- 
erack cr., 31 m. S. by E. Albany. The v. is about 4 m. E. 
of Hudson City, and is intersected by the Hudson and 
Berkshire E. E. The Harlem Extension E. E. also traverses 
the t. in its E. part. Pop. 3,208. 

Claverack river, N. Y. : rises in Columbia co., and runs 
into Kinderhook cr., near its .mouth. It is a good mill- 
stream. 

Clay county, 111. Situate S. centrally, and contains 468 
sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Little Wabash r. Surface 
level prairie, and soils fertile — wood along the streams. 
Farms 237 ; manuf. 6 ; dwell. 715, and pop.— wh. 4.26S, fr. 
col. 21— total 4,2S9. Capital : Maysville. Public Works : 
Cincinnati and St. Louis E. E. 

Clay county, Ind. Situate W., and contains 360 sq. m. 
Eel r. and its tributaries drain the lands. Surface generally 
level. Soils good, and timber abundant. In the S. W. are 
some beautiful prairies. Coal and iron are found in all 
parts. Farms S29 ; manuf. 10 ; dwell. 1,326, and pop. — 
wh. 7,926, fr. col. IS— total 7,944 Capital : Bowling Green. 
Public Works : Terre Haute and Eichmond E. E., and 
Wabash and Erie Canal. 

Clay county, la. Situate N. W., and contains 576 sq. m. 
Taken from Pottowattomee co. in 1851. 

Clay county, Ky. Situate S. E., and contains SS0 sq. m. 
Drained by Sturgeon, Sexton's, Goose, Eed Bird, and other 
creeks of the S. fork of Kentucky r. Surface generally 
undulating. Soils of average fertility. Salt springs and 
bituminous coal contribute much to the wealth of the county. 
Farms 511 ; manuf. 11 ; dwell. 7S2, and pop. — wh. 4,739, fr. 
col. 167, si. 515— total 5,421. Capital : Manchester. 

Clay county, Mo. Situate N. W., and contains 432 sq. m. 
Drained by Smith's Fork of Platte r., and by Fishing and 
other creeks of Missouri r., which bounds the co. on the 
S. Surface undulating, and soils of the most fertile descrip- 
tion. The products are Indian corn, oats, and tobacco. 
Farms 944 ; manuf. 42 ; dwell. 1,352, and pop.— wh. 7,5S5, 
fr. col. 5, si. 2,742— total 10,332. Capital: Liberty. 

Clay, p. v., Yancey co., N. Car. : 204 m. W. Ea- 
leigh. 

Clay, p. v., La Salle co., 111. : 129 m. N. N. E. Spring- 
field. 

Clay, t. and p. o., Onondaga co., If. Y. : on the E. side 
of Oswego r., 12S m. W. by N. Albany. The Oneida and 
Seneca rivers unite in this t., forming Oswego r. The p. o. 
is located in the v. of Belgium. Pop. of t. 3,402. 

181 



CLA 



CLE 



Clay, p. v., St. Clair co., Mo. : 98 m. TV. S. TV. Jefferson 
City. 

Clay, p. r., "Washington eo., la. : 36 m. S. by TV. Iowa 
City. 

Clay Hill, p. o., Marengo co., Ala. : 89 m. E. Mont- 
gomery. 

Clay Hill, p. o., York dist., S. Car. : 66 m. N. Co- 
lumbia. 

Clay Lick, p. o., Owen eo., Ky. : 23 m. N. Frankfort. 

Clay Pool, p. y., Kosciusko co., Ind. : on a small lake 
which forms the head of a tributary of Tippecanoe r., 90 m. 
N. by E. Indianapolis. 

Clay3yille, p. v., Marshall co., Ala. : on the X. side of 
the Tennessee r., 126 m. N. Montgomery. The r. at this 
point has its extreme S. bend. 

Claysville, p. v., Boone eo., Mo. : "2S m. N. by TV. 
Jefferson City. 

Claysyille, p. r., "Washington co., Ind. : on Lost cr., 76 
m. S. by W. Indianapolis. 

Claysville, p. v., Harrison eo., Ky. ; on the "W. side of 
Licking r., 4S m. N. E. Frankfort. 

Claysyille, p. v., "Washington co., Perm. : 187 m. "W. 
Harrisburg. 

Claysyille, p. v., "Wood co., Yirg. : 240 m. "W. N. "W. 
Eichmond. 

Claysyille, p. v., Guernsey co., Ohio : in the S. "W. part 
of the eo., 6S m. E. Columbus. 

Clayton county, la. Situate "W. of Mississippi r., in the 
N. E., and contains 75S sq. m. Drained chiefly by Turkey 
cr. and its tributaries. Surface elevated, undulating, and 
about equally divided between prairie and woodland. 
Soils of exhaustless fertility. Farms 200 ; manuf. 12 ; dwell. 
72S, and pop.— wh. 3,871, fr. col. 2— total 3,S73. Capital : 
Garnavillo. 

Clayton, p. v., and cap. Barbour co., Ala. : on the high 
land forming the watershed between Pea r. and Chatta- 
hoochee r., 60 m. S. E. Montgomery. 

Clayton, p. v., Berks co., Penn. : 58 m. E. N. E. Har- 
risburg. 

Clayton, p. v., and cap. Eabun co., Ga. : in a hilly 
region, at the S. base of the Blue Eidge, and about 3 m. N. 
of Tullalah r., a tributary of the Savannah r., 122 m. N. 
MiUedgeville. 

Clayton, p. v., Adams co., III. : on the Quincy and 
Mount Sterling road, 72 m. "W. N. "W. Springfield. 

Clayton, t. and p. v., Jefferson co., X. Y. : on the E. side 
of St. Lawrence r., 153 m. N. W. Albany. Chaumont r. and 
French cr. drain the t. The v. lies immediately on the 
banks of the St. Lawrence. Pop. 4,191, 

Clayton, p. v., Lenawee co., Mich. 

Clayton, p. v., Montgomery co., Ohio: 74 m. "W. by S. 
Columbus. 

Claytona, p. y.. Morgan co., Ohio : 66 m. E. S. E. 
Columbus. 

Claytonville. p. v., Henderson co., A 7 ! Car. : on the W. 
side of French Broad r., 228 m. "W. S. "W. Ealeigh. 

Clay Tillage, p. v., Shelby co., Ky. : on the Louisville 
and Frankfort post road. 12 m. "W. Frankfort 

Clayville, p. v., Oneida co., X. Y. : in the S. E. part 
of the co., 76 m. W. X. W. Albany. 

Clayville. p. v.. Providence CO., P. I. 

Clear Branch, p. o., "Washington CO., Yirg. : 254 m. 
W. S. TV. Eichmond. 

Clear Creek, p. o., Mechlenburg co., X. Car.: 122 m. 
TV. S. W. Raleigh. 

Clev. Creek, p. o., Daviess co., Mo. : on a cr. of Grand 
r. so called. 123 m. X. TV. Jefferson City. 

Clear lake. A". Y. : is one of a cluster of small lakes, lying 
in the t. of Alexandria, Jefferson co. 

Clear Creek, p. v., Chautauque co., X. Y. : on Clear cr. 
of Conewango cr., 273 m. TV. S. TV. Albany. 

Clear Creek, p. o., Greene co., Tenn. : 224 m. E. Nash- 
ville. 

132 



Clear Ceeek, t. and p. o., Fairfield co., Ohio : 29 m. S. by 
E. Columbus. 

Clear Creek Landing, p. o., Alexander eo., III. : on 
Clear cr., in the N. TV. part of the co., 178 m. S. Spring- 
field. 

Clearfield county, Penn. Situate TV. centrally, and 
contains 1,425 sq. m. Drained by numerous creeks and 
tributaries of the TV. branch of Susquehanna r., which tra- 
verses the county from S. TV. to N. E. "With some excep- 
tions the surface is rough and the soils only moderately 
fertile. Some iron is produced. The agricultural staples 
are grain and some provisions. Farms 2,317 ; manuf. 122 ; 
dwell. 2,157, and pop.— wh. 12,4S2, fr. col. 104— total 12,536. 
Capital: Clearfield. 

Clearfield, p. v., and cap. Clearfield co., Penn. : on the 
S. side of the TV. branch of Susquehanna r., 100 m. N. TV. 
Harrisburg. It is a flourishing place, and has a weekly 
newspaper, called the " Country Dollar" (dem.), which has a 
circulation of 700 copies. 

Clearfield Bridge, p. o., Clearfield co., Penn. : on 
Clearfield cr., 104 m. N. TV. Harrisburg. Clearfield cr. is a 
considerable tributary of the W. branch of the Susquehanna 
r., which it joins near the v. of Clearfield. 

Clear Fork, p. o., "Whitley co., Ky. : on Clear cr. of 
Cumberland r., 122 m. S. S. E. Frankfort, 

Clear Fork, p. o., Tazewell co., Yirg. : on Clear Fork 
of Sandy r., 247 m. TV. by S. Eichmond. 

Clear Fork Mills, p. o., Johnson co., Mo. : on Clear 
Fork of Black "Water r., 76 m. TV. Jefferson City. 

Clear Lake, p. o., Fort Bend co., Tex. : 159 m. S. E. 
Austin City. 

Clearmont, p. v., "Warren co., Tenn. : 56 m. S. E. 
Nashville. 

Clear Point, p. o., Hart co., Ky. : 93 m. S. TV. Frank- 
fort, 

Clear Spring, p. o., Greenville dist., S. Car. : 112 m. 
N. TV. Columbia. 

Clear Spring, p. o., Kosciusko co., Ind. : 95 m. N. by E. 
Indianapolis. 

Clear Spring, p. o., Chickasaw co., Miss. 

Clear Spring, p. o., Granger co., Tenn. : 1S3 m. E. 
Nashville. 

Clear Spring, p. o., Washington co., Md. : at the E. 
base of North Mountain, 78 m. N. TV. Annapolis. The 
" Clear Spring Sentinel" (whig) is published at this place 
weekly. 

Clearsvllle, p. v., Bedford co., Penn. 

Clear Water, p. o., Chippewa co., Wise. : on the N. 
side of L'Eau Claire cr. of the Chippewa r., 165 m. N. W. 
Madison. 

Cleaveland county, X. Car. Situate S. W., and con- 
tains 640 sq. m. Drained by tributaries of Broad r., which 
crosses the S. W. corner of the co. ; these afford good 
water-power. Surface somewhat uneven. In the S. E. 
comer is King's Mountain, an isolated hill, noted as the 
scene of a famous battle. Farms 961 ; manuf. 13 ; dwell. 
1,526, and pop.— wh. 8,592, fr. col. 57, sL 1,747— total 10,396. 
Capital: Shelby. 

Cleaveland, p. v., and cap. Bradley co., Tenn. : on the 
East Tennessee and Georgia E. £.., 123 m. S. E. Nashville, 
and 30 m. from Dalton. 

Cleaveland, p. v., Oswego co., X. Y. : on the N. side of 
Oneida Lake, 122 m. TV. N. TV. Albany. It is a busy vil- 
lage and has some manufactures. 

Clement, p. v., Hancock co., Ohio: 81 m. N. N. TV. 
Columbus. 

Clemmonsvtlle, p. v., Davidson co., X. Car. : on the E. 
side of Yadkin r., 102 ro. TV. by N. Ealeigh. 

Clendenin, p. o., Canawha co., Yirg. : 23S m. TV. by N. 
Eichmond. 

Clermont county, Ohio. Situate S. W., and contains 
4?4 sq. m. Drained by the E. fork of Little Miami r., and 
Stone Lick and other creeks tributary- to it. The S. and S. W. 



CLE 



CLI 



parts of the county are drained by several creeks running 
to the Ohio r., which forms its borders in those directions. 
Along the Ohio the surface is hilly and broken ; in other 
parts chiefly level, and occasionally wet ; soils rich and fer- 
tile, and timber plentiful in the bottoms. Products v/heat, 
corn, and tobacco, with pork and beef. Farms 2,098; 
manuf. ITS ; dwell. 5,437, and pop.— wh. 30,044, fr. col. 411 
—total 30,455. Capital : Batavia. Public Works : Cincin- 
nati and Hillsboro' B. E., Little Miami E. E., etc. 

Clermont, p. v., Eichland co., III. : 114 m. S. E. Spring- 
field. 

Clermont, t. and p. o., Columbia co., N. Y. : on the W. 
of Ancram cr., 38 m. S. by E. Albany. The v. lies on the 
post road, between Albany and New York. Pop. 1,130. 

Clermont, p. v., Marion co., Ind. : on Eagle cr., 9 m. 
W. N. W. Indianapolis. 

Clermont Mills, p. o., Harford co., Md. 

Clermontville, p. v., M'Kean co., Perm. : 132 m. N.W. 
Harrisburg. 

Cleveland, p. city, port of entry, and cap. Cuyahoga co., 
Ohio: on Cuyahoga r., where it discharges into Lake Erie, 
126 m. N. N. E. Columbus. Lat. 41° 31' 07" N., and long. 81° 
45' 57" W. Cleveland is the commercial emporium of north- 
ern Ohio, and second only to Cincinnati in population and 
general progress. It possesses great facilities for the transit 
of goods and passengers : the Ohio Canal, extending to the 
Ohio r. at Portsmouth, 309 m., has its northern terminus 
here, and another canal, branching off from it at Akron, 
connects it with Pittsburg. It is connected with all the 
ports of Lake Erie by the lake shore chain of railroads 
extending from Niagara Falls to Milwaukie; with Pitts- 
burg, by the Ohio and Pennsylvania E. E., and the Cleve- 
land and Pittsburg E. E. ; and with Cincinnati by the Cleve- 
land, Columbus, and Cincinnati E. E. : these, uniting with 
the various railroads running to the sea-board at Boston, 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, etc., to the southward 
into Kentucky, Tennessee, etc., to Charleston, Savannah, 
Mobile, and New Orleans, and to the westward to and 
beyond the Mississippi r., give it access to every part of the 
settled portion of the Union, and serve as conduits of the 
vast commerce which centres at this point. And besides 
these great avenues, it has numerous plank and macadam- 
ized roads leading from it in all directions ; and its telegraphic 
connections extend to every important city from the British 
Provinces to New Orleans, and from the Atlantic to the 
utmost western bounds of civilization. Eegular lines of 
steamboats ply to Dunkirk, to Buffalo, to Detroit, to Toledo, 
and Sandusky, and to the upper lake country. 

Cleveland is one of those great cities of the "West that 
have risen up as if by magic within the past twenty years. 
In 1S30 the place contained less than 1,000 inhabitants ; in 
1S40 it had 6,071, and in 1850 its population amounted to 
17,034. It derives its name from General Moses Cleveland, 
an agent of the Connecticut Land Company, who accom- 
panied the first surveying party upon the Connecticut 
Western Eeserve. The place on which the city now stands 
was surveyed under his direction in 1796. In 1799 there 
was but one family residing here, and even in 1825 there 
were under 500 persons within its limits. In 1814 Cleve- 
land was incorporated as a village, and in 1836 it received 
a city charter. 

The city, except a small portion of it immediately on the 
river, is built on a gravelly plain, 80 feet above Lake Erie, 
of which it has a commanding prospect. The location is 
dry and healthy, and the view of the meanderings of the 
Cuyahoga r., and of the steamboat and lake craft ever 
entering or leaving the harbor, or on the waters of the 
lake to the horizon, presents a fine picture of commercial 
activity. The country around is replete with rich scenery, 
and for miles around is under a high state of cultivation. 

The plan of the city is rectangular, the streets being 
usually 80 feet wide, except Main-street, running through 

the middle of the city which is 120 feet wide. Near the 



centre there is a public square of 10 acres, divided into 
four equal parts by intersecting streets, neatly inclosed and 
adorned with shade trees. The Court House fronts on this 
square. The city contains numerous well-built churches 
of all denominations, public institutions, schools, etc. Many 
of the private dwellings are expensive and tasteful. The 
harbor is one of the best on the lake ; it is formed by the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga, and improved by a pier on each 
side, extending 425 yards into the lake, 200 feet apart, and 
faced with substantial masonry. The natural advantages 
of the harbor are unsurpassed in the West. There is a 
light-house on the high bank of the lake, and another at 
the entrance to the harbor. The coast-wise commerce of 
Cleveland, in the year 1S50, amounted in value to 
$13,8S6,531, of which $7,030,957 represented the imports, 
and $6,S55,556 that of the exports. The shipping oirned in 
the district was 35,315 tons, of which 9,994 tons were nav- 
igated by steam-power. The shipping bui'.t within the 
year was 6S6 tons. Cleveland has also considerable com- 
merce with Canada. The great bulk of its commercial 
material, however, is now conveyed on the railroads and 
canals, to and from the sea-board, etc., but the exact amount 
can not be ascertained. 

Manufacturing, though in its infancy, is carried on to 
some extent. Most of the engines, and other equipments 
for the steamboats and railroads of the neighborhood, are 
manufactured at the Cuyahoga Steam Furnace ; and there 
are also two large flouring mills here, one worked ty &t<,am, 
and the other by the surplus water of the Ohio Canal. Of 
the ordinary mechanical trades there is a fair representa- 
tion, and among them are several extensive establishments. 
The public schools of the city are numerous, and are 
nnder efficient management. The buildings are generally 
of brick ; that on St. Clair-street is an ornament to the city. 
The course of instruction is graduated, and when the 
scholars are sufficiently advanced, they are promoted to the 
high school, in which they are instructed in several branch- 
es of natural science. There are also many highly eflcient 
private schools and seminaries ; and the city has several 
literary associations and reading rooms. At the Lyceum 
lectures are delivered during the winter evenings. There 
are three musical halls in the city. The public press of the 
city consists of three daily newspapers (which issu«, also, 
weekly editions), and two weekly newspapers. The dailies 
are, the " C. Herald" (whig), the " C. Plaindealer" (dem.), 
and the " True Democrat" (free soil) ; and the weeklies 
are, the " C. Advertiser" (neutral), and the " C. Germania" 
(Germ, dem.) 

Ohio City, on the opposite side of the Cuyahoga r., is 
virtually a part of Cleveland ; but it has a separate incorpo- 
ration. It is in the same position as New York City and 
Brooklyn, distinct corporations, with interests alike. The 
municipal authorities of Cleveland consist of a mayor, 
and one alderman and three councilmen for each vard. 
The police arrangements of the city are excellent, end the 
cleanliness and order of the place are remarkable. 

Cleves, p. v., Hamilton co., Ohio : on the Miami r., and 
about a mile from the Ohio, at North Bend, 113 m. 8. W. 
Columbus. It is a thriving v., and has about S00 inhabit- 
ants. 

Clifford, p. v., Susquehanna co., Pmvn. : 124 m. N. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Clift Mills, p. o., Fauquier co., Virg. : 82 m. N. by W. 
Eiohmond. 
Clifton, p. v., Madison co., Flor. 
Clifty Creek, Md. : a small stream in Jefferson co., 
which falls into the Ohio ". a mile below Madison. It is 
remarkable for its cascades, at one of which the v,-ater falls 
over 100 feet within a short distancs. The dark, deep gulf 
and rugged cliffs present much picturesque scenerj, etc. 

Clifton, p. v., King George co., Tirg. : 86 m. N. N. E. 
Eichmond. 
Clifton, p. v., Greene co., O/ido : at the falls of the Little 

133 



CLI 



CLI 



Miami r., 46 m. S. by W. Columbus. The v. enjoys im- 
mense hydraulic power, and has several important manu- 
factures. The country in the neighborhood is one of the 
finest agricultural districts in the State. Pop. 252. 

Clifton, p. v., Luzerne co., Perm. : 118 m. N. E. Harris- 
burg. 
Clitton, p. t., Penobscot co., Me. 
Clifton, p. t.. Monroe co., 27. Y. : 194 m. W. by N. 
Albany. 

Cloton, p. v., Wayne co., Tenn. : 84 m. S. W. Nash- 
ville. 

Clifton, p. v., Jefferson co., Mo. : on the W. bank of the 
Mississippi r., 102 m. B. by S. Jefferson City. 

Clifton Forge, p. v., Alleghany co., Tirg.: 148 m. 
W. by N. Richmond. 

Clifton Mills, p. o., Breckenridge co., Ky. : 90 m. 
W. by S. Frankfort. 

Clifton Park, t, and p. v., Saratoga co., N.Y.: on the 
N. side of Mohawk r., 10 m. S. of Balston Spa, and 22 m. 
N. W. Albany. Pop. 2,86S. 

Clifton Springs, p. v., Ontario co., 2T. Y. : on the line 
of the Rochester and Syracuse E. P., 216 m. W. Albany. 
The sulphur springs at this place have become celebrated 
for their medicinal properties, and are occasionally resorted 
to by invalids. 

Cliftt, p. v., Decatur co., Ind. : on Clifty cr., 40 m. S. E. 
Indianapolis. 

Cliftt creek, Ind. : a tributary of "White r., which it 
joins 3 m. below Columbus. It is 50 m. long. The Indian 
name of this stream was Es-the-nou-o-ne-ho-maque, or Cliff 
of Rocks River. 

Climax Prairie, p. o., Kalamazoo co., Mich. : 52 m. 
S. W. Lansing. 

CLiNcn river, Tirg. and Tenn. : rises in Virginia and 
passes into Tennessee, and after a course of about 200 m. 
unites with Holston r. at Kingston, thus forming Tennessee 
r. It is navigable for boats throughout the greater part of 
its course. 

Cline's Mills, p. o., Augusta co., Ylrg. : 104 m. W. N. W. 
Richmond. 

Clingman, p. v., Cleaveland co., 271 Car. : 159 m."W. S. W. 
Raleigh. 

Clinton county, III. Situate S. W. centrally, and con- 
tains 468 sq. m. Drained by creeks of Kaskaskia r., which 
flows through it and forms the W. half of its S. border. Sur- 
face chiefly prairie with rich bottoms, and soils of extraor- 
dinary fertility, producing grains in abundance, and sup- 
porting much live stock. Farms 62S; manuf. S; dwell. 
947, and pop.— wh. 5,002, fr. col. 137— total 5,139. Cap- 
ital: Carlyle. Public Works: Cincinnati and St. Louis 
R. R. 

Clinton county, Ind. Situate N. W. centrally, and con- 
tains 432 sq. m. The streams are the middle and south 
forks of "Wild Cat r., Sugar cr., and others. Surface, except 
near the "Wild Cat r., level or undulating, and the whole, 
with the exception of some small prairies, is heavily tim- 
bered ; soils alluvial with a clay substratum. Wheat is 
produced largely, and much attention is given to the rais- 
ing of cattle and hogs. Farms 1,411 ; manuf. 21 ; dwell. 
2,001, and pop.— wh. 11,845, fr. col. 24— total 11.869. Cap- 
ital : Frankfort. Public Works : Lafayette and Indian- 
apolis R. R. 

Clinton county, la. Situate E. on Mississippi r., and 
contains 64S sq. m. The Wapsipinicon r. forms its S. border 
and also crosses the S. "W. part of the county, and with its 
tributaries drains a large surface. The N. is drained by 
tributaries of Makoqueta r., and the E. by creeks of the 
Mississippi. Surface undulating, and about equally cover- 
ed by wood and prairie; soils excellent, deep, and rich. 
Farms 306 ; manuf. 10 ; dwell. 499, and pop.— wh. 2,802, fr. 
col. 20— total 2,S22. Capital: De "Witt. Public Works: 
Lyons and Iowa City R. R., and Camanche and Iowa City 
R. R. (both projected as yet). 
134 



Clinton county, Ky. Situate on the Tennessee State 
line, and contains 234 sq. m. Beaver, Otter, Little Indian, 
Obey's, and other creeks of Cumberland r., drain the in- 
terior. Surface diversified ; soils fertile. The products are 
Indian corn, oats, wheat, tobacco, etc. Farms 499 ; manuf. 
3 ; dwell. 774, and pop.— wh. 4,591, fr. col. 36, si. 262— total 
4,889. Capital: Albany. 

Clinton county, Mich. Situate on lower peninsula cen- 
trally, and contains 576 sq. m. Drained by Maple r., Stoney 
cr., Looking-glass r. ; and other tributaries of Grand r. flow 
in a direction from E. to "W. Grand r. crosses its S. W. 
corner. Surface level ; soils usually good. Farms 614 ; 
manuf. 13 ; dwell. 946, and pop.— wh. 5,100, fr. col. 2— total 
5,102. Capital: De Witt. 

Clinton county, Mo. Situate N. W., and contains 416 
sq. m. Drained by Castile cr. and Smith's fork of Platte r., 
and by Shoal cr. of Grand r., with other streams tributary 
to the Missouri r. Surface level, two-thirds prairie ; soils 
fertile, producing the grains, tobacco, etc. Farms 334; 
manuf. ; dwell. 560, and pop.— wh. 3,346, fr. col. 1, si. 439 
— total 3,7S6. Capital: Plattsburg. 

Clinton county, If. Y. Situate N. E. corner of the 
State, on the W. shore of Lake Champlain S. of 45° N. lat., 
and contains 933 sq. m. Drained by the Saranac, the 
Chazy, and the Au Sable, and other rivers, all of which 
empty into the lake, and in their courses afford extensive 
water privileges. There are several small lakes within the 
county, of which Chateaugay and Chazy lakes are the 
largest. The surface is beautifully diversified — in the S. and 
W. hilly; soils of an average fertility, and much of the sur- 
face is yet covered with forest. Iron ore of an excellent 
quality is found in the S. W., and has been extensively 
worked ; black marble exists near Plattsburg, and granite 
and gneiss are the prevailing rocks, except a narrow strip 
of limestone formation along the lake shore. There are 
sulphur and carbonic acid springs at Beekmantown. The 
products of the county are wheat, corn, and pork. Farms 
2,095; manuf. 461; dwell. 6,713, and pop.— wh. 39,935, fr. 
col. 112— total 40,047. Capital: Plattsburg. Public Works: 
Northern E. R. ; Plattsburg and Montreal R. R. ; and Cham- 
plain and St. Lawrence R. R. 

Clinton county, Ohio. Situate toward S. W., and con- 
tains 430 sq. m.. Drained by several forks and other trib- 
utaries of Little Miami r., which affords good water-power. 
Surface chiefly level or undulating ; soils deep and fertile, 
with timber in sufficiency. The products are Indian corn, 
wheat, and grasses, which feed immense numbers of live 
stock. Salt is found in the S. W. district. Farms 1,366 ; 
manuf. 83 ; dwell. 3,245, and pop.— wh. 18,247, fr. col. 591 
—total 18,S3S. Capital: Wilmington. Public Works : Cin- 
cinnati, Wilmington, and Zanesville R. R., etc. 

Clinton county, Penn. Situate centrally in W., and 
contains S40 sq. m. Drained by creeks and tributaries of 
the W. branch of Susquehanna r., which flows through its 
middle. Surface rugged and hilly — in the S. mountainous; 
soils of moderate fertility, and in some parts sterile. Iron and 
bituminous coal very abundant and extensively wrought. 
The agricultural products are wheat, oats, com, etc. Farms 
63S ; manuf. 149 ; dwell. 1,930, and pop.— wh. 11,055, fr. col. 
1 52— total 11,207. Capital : Lock Haven. Public Works : 
Sunbury and Erie R. R. 

Clinton, p. v., De Witt co., Tex. : 80 m. S. by E. Austin 
City. 

Clinton, p. v., and cap. Van Buren co., Ark. : at the 
mouth of Archer's cr. of Little Red r., 60 m. N. by W. Little 
Rock. 

Clinton, p. v., Henry co., Mo. : on the N. side of Big 
creek of the Osage r., 89 m. W. by S. Jefferson City. 

Clinton, t. and p. o., Middlesex co., Conn. : on the N. 
of Long Island Sound, 36 m. S. S. E. Hartford. Pop. 
1,344. 

Clinton, p. v., Greene co., Ala. : on a cr. of Little Tom- 
bigbee r., 93 m. W. by N. Montgomery. 



I 



CLI 



CLO 



Clinton, p. v., and cap. Jones co., Ga. : on Walnut cr. 
of the Oekmulgee r., IS m. W. Milledgeville. 

Clinton, p. v., Vermillion co., Ind. : on the W. side of 
Wabash r. and canal, 65 m. W. by S. Indianapolis. It is a 
point from which considerable produce is shipped. 

Clinton, p. v., and cap. Do Witt co., III. : on the N. side 
of Salt cr. of Sangamon r., 46 m. N. E. Springfield. 

Clinton, p. v., Hickman co., Ky. : near the centre of the 
county, on the N. side of the Bayou Desha, 243 m.W. S. W. 
Frankfort. It is probable that the line of the Mobile and 
Ohio E. B. will pass through or near this village. 

Clinton, p. v., East Feliciana par., La. : on the E. side 
of Conute cr., 83 m. N. E. Baton Eouge. The Clinton and 
Port Hudson E. E. terminates here, 24 m. from Port Hud- 
son on the Mississippi r. 

Clinton, t. and p. v., Kennebec co., Me. : on the E. side 
of the Kennebec r., 22 m. N. by E. Augusta. The v. is 
situate on Sebasticook r., which runs through the t., and 
affords extensive water-power. Mills and manufactories of 
various kinds are numerous. Pop. oft. 1,748. 

Clinton, p. v., Lenawee co., Mich. : on the E. side of 
the N. branch of Eaisin r., 53 m. S. E. Lansing. It is a 
flourishing v., and has some manufactures and milling, also 
an iron foundry, etc. 

Clinton, p. o., Hinds co., Miss. : on the line of the Vicks- 
burg, Brandon, and Jackson E. E., 10 m. W. Jackson. The 
Mississippi College, founded in 1S30, is located here. 

Clinton, t. and p. v., Eock co., Wise. : on the S. of Tur- 
tle cr. of Eock r., 46 m. S. E. Madison. The v. is located 
on the post road, 10 m. E. from Beloit. Pop. 1,176. 

Clinton, p. v., and cap. Sampson co., K. Car. : on a 
branch of Black r., 54 m. S. S. E. Ealeigh. 

Clinton, p. v., Hunterdon co., K. Jer. : on the S. branch 
of Earitan r., 81 m. N. by W. Trenton. It has an immense 
hydraulic power, and will become a manufacturing v. of 
importance. The New Jersey Central E. E. passes it, 44 
m. from Elizabethport and 20 from Easton. 

Clinton, t., Duchess co., N. Y. : 60 m. S. by E. Albany. 
Pop. 1,795. 

Clinton, p. v., Oneida co., N. Y. : on both sides of Oris- 
kany cr., and on the line of the Chenango Canal, 86 m. 
W. N. W. Albany. It is a flourishing v., and has both 
manufactures and trade, for which its position on the river 
and canal peculiarly adapts it. It is noted for its fine sem- 
inaries, and about a mile W. of the v. is Hamilton College, 
the buildings of which are conspicuously situate on an 
eminence. 

Clinton, p. v., Worcester co., Mass. : on the N. side of 
Nashua r., and on the line of the Worcester and Nashua 
E. E., 16 m. from Worcester and 30 m. W. Boston. 

Clinton, t. and p. v., Summit co., Ohio : on Indian cr. of 
Tuscarawas r., 97 m. N. E. Columbus. The v. lies on the 
Ohio Canal, and is a place of considerable trade. Pop. 
1,196. 

Clinton, p. v., Alleghany co., Perm. : 178 m. W. Harris- 
burg. 

Clinton, p. v., and cap. Anderson co., Term. : on the 
N. branch of Clinch r. of the Tennessee, 144 m. E. Nash- 
ville. 

Clinton College, p. o., Smith co., Term. : 44 m. E. N. E. 
Nashville. 

Clinton Corners, p. o., Duchess co., A 7 ". Y. : 62 m. 
8. by E. Albany. 

Clintondale, p. v., Ulster co., K. Y. : 64 m. S. by W. 
Albany. 
Clinton Furnace, p. v., Clarion co., Perm. 
Clinton Hollow, p. o., Duchess co., A 7 ; Y.: 63 m. 
8. by E. Albany. 

Clinton river, Mich. : has its source in the numerous 
small lakes scattered over the central parts of Oakland co., 
and after collecting their waters, passes out of the county 
in a N. E. direction, and flowing thence S. E. and E., dis- 
charges into the N. part of Lake St. Clair- opposite the 



mouth of St. Clair r. It is about 50 m. long. Its principal 
tributaries are North Fork, Stony cr., and Paint cr., which 
discharge from the N. side, and Bed r. on the S. side. It is 
boatable to Eochester 20 m., and after removing the bar at 
its mouth, vessels of the largest class can come to Mt. 
Clemens, 6 m. from the lake. In its course it waters a beau- 
tiful country and furnishes many mill sites. 

Clintonville, p. v., Bourbon co., Ky. : 36 m. E. Frank- 
fort. The line of the railroad from Knoxville to Covington 
will pass through or near to this village. 

Clintonville, p. v., Clinton co., N. Y.: cm. the N. side 
of Au Sable r., 10 m. W. of Port Kent on Lake Champlain, 
and 100 m. N. Albany. Immense deposits of iron ore exist 
at this point, and furnaces and rolling mills have long been 
in successful operation. The v. contains about 1,200 in- 
habitants. 

Clintonville, p. v., Venango co., Perm. : 172 m.W. N.W. 
Harrisburg. 

Clintonville, p. v., Greenbrier co., Yirg. : 158 m. 
W. by N. Eichmond. 

Clintonville, p. v., Franklin co., Ohio : on the Cleve- 
land, Columbus, and Cincinnati E. E., 5 m. N. Columbus. 
Clio, p. v., Wayne co., Ky. : 96 m. S. Frankfort. 
Clio, p. v., Marlborough dist., & Car: : 87 m. N. E. 
Columbia. 
Clio, p. v., Greene co., Ohio : 59 m. W. S. W. Columbus. 
Clockville, p. v., Madison co., N. Y. : 84 m. W. by N. 
Albany. 

Cloket, p. o., Washington co., Perm. : 190 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Clopton's Mills, p. o., Putnam co., Ga. : on Little r„ a 
tributary of Oconee r., 13 m. N. W. Milledgeville. The 
Eatonton E. E. passes near by the mills. 

Cloutieeville, p. v., Naehitoches par., La. : on the E. 
side of Old r., 127 m. N. W. Baton Eouge. 
Clove, p. o., Sussex co., A 7 ! Jer. : 5S m. N. Trenton. 
Clove, p. o., Duchess co., K. Y. : on Clove Kill, a tribu- 
tary of Fishkill, 80 m. S. by E. Albany. 

Clover, p. v., Clermont co., Ohio : 92 m. S. W. Co- 
lumbus. 
Clover, p. v., Blair co., Perm. 

Clover Bend, p. o., Lawrence co., Ark. : 102 m. N. N. E. 
Little Eock. 

Clover Bottom, p. o., Sullivan co., Term. : 244 m. 
E. by N. Nashville. 

Clover Creek, p. o., Highland co., Virg.: on a cr. so 
called, 134 m. W. N. W. Eichmond. 

Cloverdale, p. o., Putnam co., Ind. : on Doe cr., a tribu- 
tary of Mill cr., 36 m. W. S. W. Indianapolis. 

Cloverdale, p. o., Botetourt co., Virg. : 136 m. W. 
Eichmond. 

Cloverdale Hotel, p. o., Bath co., Yirg. :122 m.W. N.W. 
Eichmond. 

Clover Garden, p. o., Orange co., A 7 ; Car. : 32 m. N. W. 
Ealeigh. 

Clover Green, p. o., Spottsylvania co., Yirg. : 46 m. N. 
by W. Eichmond. 

Clover Hill, p. o., Hunterdon co., A 7 ; Jer. : 82 m. N. 
Trenton. 

Clover Hill, p. o., Blount co., Term. : 146 m. E. by S. 
Nashville. 

Clover Hill, p. v., and cap. Appomattox co., Yirg. : 70 
m. W. by S. Eichmond. 

Clover Hill, p. v., Green co., Ky. : 69 m. S. W. Frank- 
fort. 

Clover Land, t. and p. v., Clay co., Ind. : on the Na- 
tional Eoad, 58 m. W. by S. Indianapolis. 

Clover Orchard, p. o., Orange co., K. Car. : 36 m. N.W. 
Ealeigh. 

Clover Port, p. v., Breckenridge co., Ky. : on the S. side 
of the Ohio r., at the mouth of Clover cr., 100 m. W. by S. 
Frankfort. It is an important point for shipping tobacco, 
and has about 750 inhabitants. There is flue coal in tho 

135 



CLO 



COE 



vicinity, and 4 m. in the interior are the "White Sulphur, 
Breckenridge, and Tar Springs. 

Clover Poet, p. v., Hardeman co., Tenn. : 143 m. S. W. 
Nashville. 

Clovesville, p. v., Delaware co., If. Y. : 62 m. S. W. 
Albany. 

Olotd's Ceeek, p. o., Blount co., Tenn. : 145 m. E. by S. 
Nashville. 

Clyattsytlle, p. o., Lowndes co., Ga. : 14S m. S. 
Milledgeville. 

Clyde, p. v., Wayne co., If. Y. : on the Clyde r., 15S m. 
W. Albany. It has a large number of mills, factories, and 
mechanic shops ; and a newspaper, the " C. Telegraph," is 
published weekly. The Erie Canal, and the Rochester and 
Syracuse (direct) R. R. pass through it. 

Clyde, p. v., Whitesides co., III. : 134 m. N. Springfield. 

Clyde river, If. Y. : this stream is formed by the union 
of Flint and Mud creeks in Wayne co., and flows E. 20 m., 
falling into Seneca river. 

Clymajt, t. and p. v., Dodge co., Wise. : 42 m. N. E. Mad- 
ison. The t. is watered by several fine creeks falling into 
Eock river. Pop. 735. 

Clymee, t. and p. v., Chautauque co., If. Y. : on Broken 
Straw cr., 306 m. W. S. W. Albany. Pop. 1,127. 

Clymee Centee, p. v., Chautauque co., If. Y. : 308 m. 
W. S. W. Albany. 

Coahoma county, Miss. Situate N. W. on Mississippi r., 
and contains 82S sq. m. Drained by Sunflower r. and its 
branches. Surface low and level, liable to inundation ; soils 
very fertile, producing largely cotton and corn. Farms 161 ; 
manuf. ; dweU. 260, and pop.— wh. 1,387, fr. col. 2, si. 1,391 
—total 2,780. Capital : Delta. 

Coal creek, Ind. : a fine mill stream, mostly in Fontaine 
co., about 45 m. in length, and emptying into the Wabash, 
near the N. line of Parke co. An immense coal bank exists 
near its mouth, where it is crossed by the Wabash and Erie 
Canal. 

Coal Geove, p. o., Lawrence co., Ohio : on the W. bank 
of the Ohio r., 104 m. S. S. E. Columbus. 

Coal Hill, p. o., Goochland co., Yirg. : 14 m. N. W. 
Richmond. 

Coal Mines, p. v., Chesterfield co., Yirg. See Black- 

HETH. 

Coal Mountain, p. o., Forsyth co., Ga. : 9S m. N. N.W. 
Milledgeville. 

Coal Poet, p. v., Indiana co., Perm. : 124 m. W. by S. 
Harrisburg. 

Coal Eiver Marshes, p. o., Ealeigh eo., Yirg. : 214 m. 
W. Richmond. 

Coal Run, p. o., Washington co., Ohio : S6 m. S. E. 
Columbus. 

Coalsmocth, p. v., Kanawha co., Yirg. : on the S. side 
of Kanawha r., at the mouth of Coal r., 242 m. W. by N. 
Richmond. 

Coal Valley, p. o., Alleghany co., Perm. 

Coate's Tavern, p. o., York dist., S. Car. : 72 m. N. 
Columbia. 

Coatesville. p. v.. Chester co., Penn. : on the W. branch 
of Brandywine cr., 56 m. E. S. E. Harrisburg. The v. has 
numerous manufactures, as paper, cotton, nails, etc. ; and 
in its vicinity there is a noted chalybeate spring. 

Cobaltville, p. v., Middlesex co., Conn, 

Cobb county, Ga. Situate X. W. centrally, and contains 
520 sq. m. Drained in the N. by the head streams of Coosa 
r. and in the E. by the tributaries of Chattahoochee r., 
which traverses the E. border. Products chiefly cotton and 
Indian corn. Farms 931; manuf. 10; dwell. 1,918, and 
pop.— wh. 11,56S, fr. col. 3, si. 2,272— total 13,843. Capital: 
Marietta. Public Works : Western and Atlantic R. R. 

Cobbessecontee waters, Me. : is a fine sheet of water, lying 

W. of Ilallowell, and connected with a number of smaller 

ponds. Its outlet is a r. of the same name, which enters 

the Kennebec at Gardiner. These waters afford a great 

136 



hydraulic power, an abundance of fish, and much delightful 
scenery. 

Cobb's Fork, p. o., Decatur co., Ind. : 62 m. S. E. by E. 
Indianapolis. 

Cobb's Mills, p. o., Cherokee co., Ala. : 132 m. N. by E. 
Montgomery. 

Cobeely'6, p. o., Union co., Ohio : 37 m. N. W. by W. 
Columbus. 

Cobham, p. v., Albemarle co., Yirg. : 69 m. N. W. 
Richmond. 

Cobleskill, t. and p. v., Schoharie co., If. Y. : on Cobles- 
kill cr., 3S m. W. Albany. In this t. there is a mill-stream 
issuing from a natural well, the depth of which has never 
been ascertained ; it then enters a subterranean passage, 
and disappears for 7 m., when it again rises and flows on 
the surface. Pop. 2,229. 

Cobscook bay, Me. : a large bay, the recipient of a num- 
ber of large ponds on the S. W. side of Eastport, in Passa- 
maquoddy Bay. 

Cobttrn's Stoee, p. o., Mechlenburg co., If. Car. 

Cocalico, p. v., Lancaster co., Pewn. 

Cochecton, t. and p. v., Sullivan co., If. Y. : on the E. 
side of Delaware r., 76 m. S. W. Albany, and drained by 
Collicoon and Ten Mile creeks, tributaries of Delaware r. 
The Erie E. R. traverses the W. line of the t., and inter- 
sects the village, which lies on the Delaware, 141 m. from 
New York. 

Cochesett, p. o., Plymouth co., Mass. 

Cochttttate, p. v., Middlesex co., Mass. 

Cochran's Ceoss Roads, p. o., Harris co., Ga. : 106 m. 
W. by S. Milledgeville. 

Cochran's Grove, p. o., Shelby co., III. : 5S m. E. S. E. 
Springfield. 

Cochran's Landing, p. o., Monroe co., Ohio : 110 m. E. 
by S. Columbus. 

Cochran's Mills, p. o., Pickens co., Ala. : 104 m. 
W. N. W. Montgomery. 

Cochransvtlle, p. v., Chester co., Perm. : 54 m. E. S. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Cocheansville, p. v., Marshall co., Term. : 46 m. S. 
Nashville. 

Cocheanton, p. v., Marion co., Ohio : 4S m. N. N. W. 
Columbus. 

Cocke county, Term. Situate on the E. State line, and 
contains 374 sq. m. Smoky Mountains, one of the Alle- 
ghany ridges, bounds it on the E., and divides the State 
from North Carolina. Drained by French, Broad, and Big 
Pidgeon rivers, tributaries of Tennessee r., which runs 
along its N. border. The surface is elevated and broken, 
and the soils thin. Indian corn is the chief product, and 
some beef and pork is produced for market. Farms S36 ; 
manuf. So ; dwell. 1,295, and pop.— wh. 7,502, fr. col. 79, si. 
719— total 8,300. Capital : Newport. 

Cockneysville, p. v., Baltimore co., Md. : on the line 
of the Baltimore and Susquehanna E. R., 14 m. N. Balti- 
more, and 40 m. N. by W. Annapolis. A weekly paper, 
the "Baltimore County Advocate," is published at this 
place. 

Cockettm, p. o., De Soto co., Miss: 168 m. N. Jackson. 

Coddingyille, p. v., Medina co., Ohio : 96 m. N. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Codoeus, p. v., York co., Perm.: on Codorus cr., 30 m. 
S. Harrisburg. Codorus cr. rises in Frederick co., Md., and 
after a circuitous course of 30 m., enters the Susquehanna, 
near the v. of New Holland, in Perm. 

Coelk. p. o., Livingston par., La. : 42 m. E. Baton Rouge. 

Coe Ridge, p. o., Cuyahoga co., Ohio : 123 m. N. E, 
Columbus. 

Coesse, p. v., Whitley co., Ind. : on the S. of Eel r., 102 • 
m. N. N. E. Indianapolis. 

Coeymans, t. and p. v., Albany co., If. Y. : on the W. 
side of the Hudson r., 13 m. S. Albany. Coeymans creek 
and other tributaries of the Hudson drain the t The v. 



COE 



COL 



contains several manufacturing establishments and exten- 
sive brick yards. The Albany steamboats stop here, and 
considerable trade is carried on by means of schooners and 
sloops navigating the Hudson. Pop. 3,050. 

Coeymaks Hollow, p. v., Albany co., N. Y. : 19 m. S. 
Albany. 

Cofee, p. o., Hardin co., Ky. : 72 m. "W. by S. Frankfort. 

Coffadeliah, p. v., Neshoba co., Miss. : 69 m. N. E. 
Jackson. 

Coffee county, Ala, Situate S. E., and contains 1,008 
sq. m. Drained by Pea r. and its branches. Surface level, 
but undulating — partially wooded ; and soils rich and well 
drained. The agricultural staples are cotton and corn. 
Farms 604 ; manuf. 9 ; dwell. 893, and pop.— wh. 5,3S2, fr. 
col. 1, si. 55T— total 5,940. Capital : Wellborn. 

Coffee county, Term,. Situate centrally, and contains 
276 sq. m. Drained by the head waters of Duck cr. Sur- 
face undulating, inclining to the W., and the soils of aver- 
age fertility. The principal products are Indian corn and 
wheat, with some tobacco and cotton. Farms 485 ; manuf. 
19; dwell. 1,179, and pop.— wh. 7,061, fr. col. 23, si. 1,267 
— total 8,351. Capital: Manchester. Public Works: 
M'Minnville Branch of the Nashville and Chattanooga E. E. 

Coffee, p. v., Clay co., Ind. : 56 m. "W. S. W. Indian- 
apolis. 

Coffee Corner, p. o., Coffee co., Ala. : S9 m. S. by E. 
Montgomery. 

Coffee Creek, p. o., Porter co., Ind. : on the E. side of 
Coffee cr., about 2 m. above its confluence with Calumic r., 
and not far from the line of Northern Indiana E. E., 136 m. 
N. N. W. Indianapolis. 

Coffee Landing, p. o., Hardin co., Term. : 107 m. S. W. 
Nashville. 

Coffee Bun, p. o., Huntingdon co., Perm. : 79 m. W. 
Harrisburg. 

Coffeeville, p. v., Clark co., Ala. : on the E. side of 
Tombigbee r., Ill m. W. S. W. Montgomery. 

Coffeeville, p. v., and cap. Yallabusha co., Miss. : on a 
creek of Yallabusha r., 116 m. N. by E. Jackson. Pop. 
600. The " Southern Appeal" (whig) is published weekly. 

Coffin's Geove, p. o., Delaware co., la. : 55 m. N. 
Iowa City. 

Coghill, p. o., M'Minn co., Team,. : 132 m. E. S. E. 
Nashville. 

Cogswell, p. v., M'Henry co., 111. : 1S3 m. N. N. E. 
Springfield. 

Cohasset, t. and p. v., Norfolk co., Mass. : facing N. E. 
on Massachusetts Bay, 16 m. S. E. Boston. The coast is 
here rocky and dangerous ; it has a considerable amount 
of shipping, chiefly engaged in coasting and in the fish- 
eries, and the v. is important as the E. terminus of the 
South Shore E. E., 11 m. from Braintree. It has a fine sum- 
mer climate, and the shore is a favorite resort for invalids 
and fashionables. Pop. 1,775. 

Cohoes, p. v., Albany co., N. Y. : on the S. W. side of 
Mohawk r., 8 m. N. Albany, a little below the Falls, and 
near the jftnction of the Champlain and Erie Canals. The 
water-power of the place is very extensive, and is used for 
various manufacturing purposes. It contains 7 churches, 
about 300 houses, and 2,600 inhabitants. A railroad is now 
in course of construction from Albany to this point to ac- 
commodate the manufacturing interest. The " Cohoes 
Cataract" (neutral) is published weekly. The name of this 
v. has lately been changed to that of Eockton. 

Cohoes falls, K. Y. : immediately above Cohoes village, 
2 m. from the mouth of Mohawk r. The surrounding 
scenery is romantic, and when the r. is full the falls present 
a grand appearance. Besides a rapid above and below 
the falls, the r., here from 300 to 400 feet broad, has a per- 
pendicular fall of 70 feet. Half a mile below the falls is a 
bridge across the r. 800 feet long, from which the view of 
the cataract is seen to advantage. This fall is always an 
object of interest to travelers, and, if inferior to the gran- 

S 



deur of Niagara, has much to attract and please in its 
varied scenery. 

Cohtjttah Speing, p. o., Murray co., Ga. : at the base 
of Cohuttah Mounlain, in the N. E. corner of the co., 164 
m. N. N. W. Milledgeville. The spring is on the S. side of 
a small stream issuing from the mountain, which joins the 
Connesauga cr., 6 m. below. This is one of the most val- 
able mineral springs in this section of the country. 

Coila, p. o., Carroll co., Miss. : 84 m. N. by E. Jackson. 

Coila, p. v., "Washington co., K. Y. 

Coinjook, p. v., Currituck co., K. Car. : 160 m. E. N. E. 
Ealeigh. 

Coitsville, t. and p. v., Mahoning co., Ohio: in the 
N. E. corner of the co.. 146 m. E. N. E. Columbus. Beaver 
r. and the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal run through its 
S. "W. portion. 

Cokek Ckeek, p. o., Monroe co., Term. : on the creek so 
called, 153 m. E. S. E. Nashville. 

Cokesbukgh, p. v., Hunterdon co., K. Jer. : 26 m. N. 
Trenton. 

Cokesbuky, p. v., Abbeville dist, 8. Car. : on the "W. side 
of and 2 m. from Saluda r., and on the line of the Green- 
ville and Columbia E. E., 94 m. from Columbia. The 
Abbeville Branch E. E. diverges from the main road at 
this point. 

Colaparchee, p. o., Monroe co., Ga. : 52 m. "W. 
Milledgeville. 

Colbtville, p. v., Clark co., Ky.: 39 m. E. S. E. 
Frankfort. 

Colohestek, t. and p. v., New London co., Conn: : 21 
m. S. S. E. Hartford. Surface uneven ; soils of average 
fertility. Drained by Salmon r. in the N. W. and in the E. 
by head branches of Yantic r. The v. is pleasantly sit- 
uated on the high ground near the centre of the t., and is 
the site of Bacon Academy, founded in 1800 by the dona- 
tion of $35,000 from the gentleman whose name it perpetu- 
ates. The building is of brick, three stories high, 75 feet 
long and 34 wide. It usually has from 90 to 100 scholars. 
The t. is esseutially an agricultural district, and has severaS 
saw and grist mills. Pop. 2,468. 

Colchester, t. and p. o., Chittenden co., Yerm. : on 
Lake Champlain, into which it projects in the form of a 
peninsula, forming on each side extensive bays. Lamoille 
r. runs through it and discharges into the lake. "Winooski 
City, a flourishing manufacturing v., is partly within this 
t, the other part being on the opposite side of the river of 
the same name, which is spanned by a covered bridge 
The t. is traversed by the Vermont Central E. Pop. 2,575, 

Colchester, t. and p. o., Delaware co., Jf. Y. : 76 m. 
S. W. Albany. The Papacton branch of Delaware r. form? 
the N. boundary of the t. and Beaver Kill drains it in the 
S. Pop. 2,184. 

Cold Brook, p. o., "Warren co., HI. : 88 m. N. W. Spring- 
field. The Peoria and Oquawka E. E. passes through the 
t. 23 m. from Oquawka on the Mississippi r. 

Cold Brook, p. v., Herkimer co., A 7 ! Y. : on a cr. of 
same name, 76 m. N. "W. Albany. There are several mills 
on the cr., and the v. has about 300 inhabitants. 

Colden, t. and p. v., Erie co., 2f. Y. : on Cazenove cr., 
28 m. S. E. Buffalo and about 245 "W. Albany. There are 
several mills at the v. or settlement. Pop. 1,344. 

Coldenham, p. v., Orange co., K. Y. : 74 m. S. Al- 
bany. 

Colden lake, Essex co., K. Y. : a short distance below 
Avalanche Lake, the waters of which it receives after a 
descent of 50 feet. It is one mile in length and half a mile 
wide, and has an elevation above the tide water of Hudson 
r. of 2,S50 feet. It is a most romantic sheet of water, sur- 
rounded by high mountain peaks. 

Cold Eun, p. o., Cass co., Ga. : on a cr. of Etowah r., 
132 m. N. W. Milledgeville. 

Cold Spring, p. o., Pottowattomee co., la. : 212 m. "W. 
by S. Iowa City. 

137 



COL 



COL 



Cold Sprisg, p. v., Fairfield co., Corm. 

Cold Spuing, p. o., Shelby eo., III. : 52 m. S. E. by E. 
Springfield. 

Cold Spring, p. v.. Harrison co., Ohio : 100 m. E. by N. 
Columbus. 

Cold Spuing, p. v., Campbell co., Ky. : 62 m. N. N. E. 
Frankfort. 

Cold Spring, p. o., "Wilkinson co., Miss. : on the E. side 
of Homochitto r., 97 m. S. W. Jackson. 

Cold Spring, p. v., Cape May co., 2f. Jer. : near the S. 
extremity of the State, equidistant on three sides from the 
waters of the Atlantic, 84 m. S. by E. Trenton. It is a v. 
of some 150 inhabitants. 

Cold Spring, p. v., Putnam co., K. Y. : on the E. bank 
of the Hudson r., about a mile N. of "West Point. It is ro- 
mantically situated in the Highlands. The Hudson River 
B. E. passes through it, 54 m. N. of New York City and 96 
m. S. of Albany. The West Point Foundery, one of the 
most extensive iron founderies and machine shops in the 
Union, is located here. Pop. about 1,600. 

Cold Spring, p. o., Polk co., Tex.: 178 m. E. by N. 
Austin City. 

Cold Spring, p. o., Edgefield dist., g. Car. : 42 m. W. 
Columbus. 

Cold Spring, t. and p. v., Jefferson co., Wise. : on a 
branch of Eock r., 3S m. E. S. E. Madison. The Milwau- 
kie and Mississippi E. E. passes through the S. part of the 
township. Pop. 568. 

Cold Spring Harbor, p. v., Suffolk co., JvT Y. : at the 
head of the bay so called, 116 m. S. by E. Albany. The 
bay sets up between Queen's and Suffolk counties, being an 
arm of Oyster Bay, and the v. lies around its head in the 
form of a crescent. It is a port of entry, has several ships 
engaged in whaling, and has a considerable coasting trade. 
Shipping owned in the district, 3,855 tons, of which 2,376 is 
registered tonnage. Its situation and scenery render it a 
desirable residence during the summer months. Pop. 
about 600. 

Cold Stream, p. v., Hampshire co., Yirg.: on the E. 
6ide of Cacapon r., 134 m. N. N. W. Eichmond. It has 
several factories and mills, worked by water-power supplied 
by the river, and has about 400 inhabitants. 

Cold Water, t., p. v., and cap. Branch co., Mich. : on 
Cold Water r. and its branches, 58 m. S. S. W. Lansing. It 
has numerous mills on its streams. The v. is situate on the 
line of the Michigan Southern E. E., 92 m. from Monroe 
and 156 from Chicago. The " C. Sentinel," a weekly news- 
paper, is published here. Pop. 2 166. 

Cold Water, p. o., Marshall co., Miss. : 173 m. N. 
Jackson. 

Cold Water, p. o., Elbert co., Ga. : on a cr. of Savan- 
nah r. so called, 7S m. N. N. E. Milledgeville. 

Cold Water, p. o., "Wayne co., Ohio: 86 m. N. E. 
Columbus. 

Cold Water, p. o., Mercer co., Ohio : 97 m. W. N. W". 
Columbus. 

Cold Well, p. o., White co., Ark. : 43 m. N. N. E. Little 
Eock. 

Cole county, Mo. Situate centrally, and contains 440 sq. 
m. The Missouri r. washes the county on the N. and the 
Osage r. on the E. — the interior being chiefly drained by 
Moreau cr. and its branches. Surface somewhat uneven ; 
soils generally fertile. Farms 63S ; manuf. 28 ; dwell 9S4, 
and pop.— wh. 5,699, fr. col. IS, si. 979— total 6,696. Cap- 
ital: Marion. Public Works: Pacific E. K. 

Colebrook, t. and p. v., Litchfield co., Conn. : on the W. 
branch of Farmington r., 2S m. N. W. Hartford. Drained 
by Colebrook r., a tributary of the before named. Surface 
hilly, and soils gravelly, but good grazing lands. It has 
some few manufactures. Pop. 1,364. 

Colebrook. t. and p. o., Coos co., K. Harnp. : on the E. 
side of the Connecticut r., 106 m. N. Concord. It is drain- 
ed by the Mohawk and Beaver rivers, and has much fine 
138 



intervale lands on the Connecticut, It is entirely agricul- 
tural in its industry. Pop. 908. 

Colebrook Dale, t. and p. o., Berks co., Perm. : 67 m. 
E. Harrisburg. 

Colebrook ErvER, p. o., Litchfield co., Conn. : on the r. 
so called, 27 m. N. W. Hartford. 

Cole Camp, p. o., Benton co., Mo. : on Cole Camp cr., a 
tributary of Osage r., 58 m. W. S. W. Jefferson City. 

Cole Creek or (Coal creek), p. o., Fountain co., Ind : 72 
m. W. N. W. Indianapolis. Coal cr. is a fine mill stream, 
about 45 m. in length, and,enters the Wabash near the N. 
line of Parke co., after passing through a splendid agricul- 
tural country. It has numerous tributaries from the E. The 
best coal bank that has been found in the State is near the 
mouth of this stream, where the Wabash and Erie Canal 
crosses it. 

Cole Creek, p. o., Columbia co., Penn. : 67 m. N. E. 
Harrisburg. 

Coleman's Cross Eoads, p. o., Edgefield dist. S. Car. 

Colemansvtlle, p. v., Harrison co., Ky. : on the W. side 
of the "W. branch of Licking r., 42 m. E. N. E. Frankfort. 

Colerain, l, and p. v., Franklin co., Mass. : on a branch 
of Deerfield r., which affords water-power, 92 m. W. N. W. 
Boston. The surface is hilly, and furnishes fine grazing 
lands ; the t. has also several important manufactures, con- 
sisting of cotton goods, iron castings, leather, hats, earthen- 
ware, and agricultural implements. It was first settled by 
a colony from the North of Ireland in 1736. 

Colerain, p. v., Bertie co., N. Car. : on the W. bank of 
Chowan r., 143 m. E. N. E. Ealeigh. 

Colerain, t. and v., Hamilton co., Ohio : on the E. side 
of Great Miami r., 100 m. S. W. Columbus. Pop. 3,125. 

Colerain, t. and p. v., Belmont co., Ohio : on the N. side 
of Indian Wheeling cr., a tributary of Ohio r., 114 m. E. by 
N. Columbus. The surface is hilly, but the soils are rich 
and productive. Pop. 1,321. 

Colerain, t. and p. v., Lancaster co., Penn. : 52 m. S. E. 
Harrisburg. It has several large manufacturing establish- 
ments, furnaces, etc. 

Colerain Forge, p. o., Hunterdon co., Penn. : on Spruce 
cr., S3 m. W. Harrisburg. 

Coles county, M. Situate E., and contains 864 sq. m. 
Drained by Kaskaskia and Embarras rivers, which furnish 
extensive mill power. Surface chiefly prairie, moderately 
undulating, and soils of excellent fertility. Farms 996; 
manuf. ; dweU. 1,571, and pop.— wh. 9,299, fr. col. 36— 
total 9,335. Capital: Charleston. 

Colesbhrgh, p. v., Potter co., Penn. : 122 m. N. N. "W. 
Harrisburg. 

Colesburgh, p. v., Delaware co., la. : in the N. E. corner 
of co., 67 m. N. by E. Iowa City. 

Cole's Mills, p. o., Delaware co., Ohio. 

Colesvtlle, p. v., Stokes co., K. Car. : on the N. of Snow 
cr. of Eoanoke r., 108 m. N. W. Ealeigh. 

Colesville, p. v., Sussex co., K. Jer. : 62 m. N. Trenton. 

Colesvtlle, p. v., Montgomery co., Md. : on one of the 
head streams of the Eastern Branch of Potdmac r., 29 m. 
"W. by N. Annapolis. 

Colesville, t. and p. v., Broome co., K. Y. : on the W. 
side of the Unadilla r., 98 m. S. W. Albany. Chiefly drained 
by creeks flowing into that stream. The surface is gen- 
erally hilly; near the river, however, are alluvial flats of 
great fertility. Pop. 2,S67. 

Coleta, p. o., Talladega co., Ala. : 74 m. N. by E. 
Montgomery. 

Collamer, p. v., Copiah co., Miss. : 39 m. S.W.Jackson. 

Collamer, p. v., Chester co., Penn. : 73 m. E. by S. 
Harrisburg. 

Collamer, p. v., Windham co., Corm. : 41 m. E. by N. 
Hartford. 

Collamer, p. v., Cuyahoga co., Ohio: 120 m. N. N. W. 
Columbus. 

Collamer, p. v., Kane co., III. : 155 m. N. N. E. Spring- 



COL 



COL 



field. It lies on the edge of a beautiful prairie drained by 
a branch of Sycamore r. 

Collamek, p. v., Onondaga co., 2f. Y. : 112 m. W. by N. 
Albany. 

Collamer, p. v., Whitley co., Ind. : 94 m. N. N. E. 
Indianapolis. 

Collamer, p. v., Saulc co., Wise. : on the N. side of Wis- 
consin r., 26 m. N. W. Madison. 

College Corner, p. v., Butler co., Ohio : in the N. W. 
corner of the co., and on the line of the Junction E. E., 102 
m. W. by S. Columbus. 

College Green, p. o., Cecil co., Md. : 55 m. N. E. 
Annapolis. 

College Hill, p. v., Lafayette co., Miss. : 149 m. N. N. E. 
Jackson. 

College Hill, p. v., Hamilton co., Ohio : 100 m. S. W. 
Columbus. 

College Mound, p. o., Kauffman co., Tex. : 21T m. 
N. N. W. Austin City. 

College op St. James, p. o., Washington co., Md. : 6 m. 
S. E. Hagerstown, 4 m. N. E. Williamsport, and 76 W. N. W. 
Annapolis. The college belongs to the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church, and has a grammar-school attached to it. The 
college buildings, and the residences near them, make a 
goodly-sized village. One of the main buildings was erected 
by General Einggold, as his private mansion, nearly 60 years 
ago; the others have been erected since 1842, when the 
institution was first opened. It was chartered in 1S44. 
There are 5 resident professors, 3 lecturers, and several 
tutors, etc., and in 1S50 it had 110 students. The annual 
expense for tuition, boarding, etc., is $225. The country in 
the neighborhood is fertile and healthful ; the population, 
chiefly Germans, very industrious, frugal, and moral. 

Collegeville, p. v., Saline co., Ark. : 16 m. S. W. Little 
Eock. 

Colleton district, S. Car. Situate S., and contains 2,100 
sq. m. Drained by the Ashley, Edisto, Ashepoo, and Com- 
bahee rivers, the latter of which forms its S. W. border, and 
all fall into the Atlantic Ocean, which washes it on the 
S. E. Numerous islands line the coast, of which Edisto 
Island is the largest. Surface entirely level, and mostly 
swamp ; soils productive of rice and cotton. Farms S8S ; 
manuf. 10 ; dwell. 1,515, and pop.— wh. 7,404, fr. col. 330, 
el. 31,771— total 39,505. Capital: Walterborough. Pub- 
lic Works: South Carolina E. E. 

Colleton, p. v., Fayette co., Term. : 168 m. S.W. by W. 
Nashville. 

Collettsvtlle, p. v., Caldwell co., N. Car. : on the E. 
side of Mulberry cr. of New r., 157 m. W. by N. Ealeigh. 

Collier's, p. o., Edgefield dist., S. Car. : S7 m. W. 
Columbia. 

Collterstown, p. v., Eockbridge co., Yirg. : 117 m. W. 
Eichmond. 

Colliersville, p. v., Shelby co., Term. : on the line of 
the Memphis and Charleston E. E., 31 m. E. Memphis, 
and 176 m. W. S. W. Nashville. 

Collin county, Tex. Situate N., and contains 860 sq. 
m. Drained by numerous and wide-spreading tributaries 
of the Elm fork and of the E. fork (or Bois d'Arc r.) of 
Trinity r. Surface elevated and very diversified ; soils ex- 
cellent. Farms 218 ; manuf. ; dwell. 311, and pop. — wh. 
1,816, fr. col. 0, si. 134— total 1,950. Capital: M'Kinney. 

Collins, p. o., Manitouwoc co., Wise. 

Collins, p. o., Columbia co., Flor. 

Collins, t. and p. o., Erie co., A r . Y. : on the N. side of 
Cattaraugus cr., 262 m. W. Albany. Drained by creeks 
flowing into that stream and Lake Erie. The t. contains 
several factories and mills. Pop. 4,001. 

Collin's Centre, p. v., Erie co., N. Y. : 259 m. W. 
Albany. 

Collin's Dep&t, p. o., Hampton co., Mass. 

Collin's Settlement, p. o., Lewis co., Yirg : 212 m. 
W. N. W. Eichmond. 



Collinsville, p. v., Hartford co., Ccnm. : on both sides 
of Farmington r., 14 m. W. by N. Hartford. A branch of 
the New Haven and Northampton E. E. from Plainville, 11 
m., terminates here. It is a flourishing v., manufacturing 
chiefly axes and other edged tools. Pop. about 1,500. 

Collinsville, p. v., Madison co., III. : 80 m. S. by W. 
Springfield, and about 10 m. from Illinoistown, on the 
Mississippi r. 

Collinsyille, p. v., Lewis co., N. Y. : on the W. side of 
Black r., 102 m. N. W. Albany. Pop. about 200- 

Collinsville, p. v., Butler co., Ohio : on the E. side of a 
branch of Miami r., 89 m. W. S. W. Columbus. 

Collieene, p. o., Lowndes co., Ala. : 27 m. S. W. Mont- 
gomery. 

Collumsville, p.v., Lycoming co., Perm. : 78 m. N. N.W. 
Harrisburg. 

Colly Swamp, p. o., Bladen co., N. Car.: on a cr. of 
South r. so called, 1S4 m. S. by E. Ealeigh. 

Coloma, p. v., Cherokee co., Ala. : 129 m. N. N. E. 
Montgomery. 

Colon, t. and p. o., St. Joseph co., Mich. : on the S. of 
St. Joseph's r., 66 m. S. W. Lansing. The t. has several 
small lakes within it which supply numerous streams, and 
furnish immense water-power. Pop. 847. 

Colonel's Fork, p. o., Picken's dist, S. Car. : on a 
branch of Tullulah r., 116 m. N. W. Columbia. 

Colony, p. o., Knox co., Mo. : 106 m. N. Jefferson 
City. 

Colorado county, Tex. Situate toward S., and contains 
S20 sq. m. Drained centrally by affluents of Colorado r., 
which passes through it from N. to S. ; on the E. by San 
Bernardo r., and on the W. by the head waters of Navidad 
r. Surface rolling ; soils of the highest fertility, and suit- 
able for cotton and sugar. Farms 116 ; manuf. 2 ; dwell. 
283, and pop.— wh. 1,584, fr. col. 0, si. 723— total 2,257. 
Capital : Columbus. 

Colorado river, Utah and Ifeio Mex. Ter. : a vast river 
extending from its sources in the Eocky Mountains, near 
the head waters of the Columbia, the Missouri, Arkansas, 
and the Del Norte rivers, to the Gulf of California. Its 
tributaries are gathered from the Cordilleras, through a 
range of 6 degrees of latitude. Green r., which rises in a 
number of small lakes at the base of Fremont's Peak, in 
lat. 43°, is its most northern constituent ; farther south it 
receives the Yampa, the head waters of which almost inter- 
lock with those of the north fork of Platte r. ; the Uintah r. ; 
the White r. ; Grand r., equal in volume to the Upper Col- 
orado itself; the Navajo r. ; the Yaquilla r. ; the Eio Ver- 
gen, and others of considerable magnitude. The general 
course of the river is S. and S. W., receiving the largest and 
most voluminous of its constituents from the East Mountain 
country. In about lat. 33° the Eio Gila meets it, and these 
two rivers enter the Gulf through a common estuary. The 
topography of the country through which the Colorado 
passes is as yet little known ; but it is averred by those 
who have traversed the country, that the streams are navi- 
gable for hundreds of miles, and that the country is one 
well adapted to the support of a dense population, its agri- 
cultural capacities being equal to the finest lands of the 
States east of the Cordilleras. Along the banks of the river 
are found numerous ruins of cities, attributed to the Aztecs, 
and which in their architecture discover a high state of 
civilization in the builders. At the present day the whole 
region is a wilderness, inhabited only by the wild Indian. 

Colorado river, Tex. : one of the great rivers of the 
country, extending from its source in the Guadalupe 
Mountains, in an E. and S. E. direction to Matagorda Bay 
and the Gulf of Mexico, a distance of about 600 miles. It is 
navigable to Austin City for small steamboats, and is 
capable of great improvements in its whole length. At and 
near its mouth it is obstructed by rafts. About 8 m. above 
Austin, a rocky ledge extends entirely across the stream, 
and obstructs navigation. The river has worn in this ledge 

139 



COL 



COL 



many deep, narrow channels, through which the water 
rushes with the velocity of a mill-race. The current of the 
river is usually rapid throughout, and the waters quite 
limpid and pure, but when swollen by heavy rains, they 
sweep down immense volumes of red mud, sand, and 
silicious pebbles, from which fact the name Colorado has 
been derived. The country along the banks of this river is 
now thickly settled by farmers chiefly from Germany and 



other European States. The German settlements are 
models of economy and scientific farming. 

Colosse, p. o., Oswego co., N. Y. : 128 m. "W. N. "W. 
Albany. 

Colqutt, p. v., Montgomery eo., Ga. : 77 m. S. S. E. 
Milledgeville. 

Colt's Neck, p. v., Monmouth co., 271 Jer. : 32 m. E. 
Trenton. A place of considerable business. 



THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

The District of Columbia, the seat of the Government of the United States, originally occupied a square of ten miles, 
on both sides of Potomac River, and comprised portions of Virginia and Maryland, ceded to the United States for the 
use of the federal government. In 1S46, however, that portion of the Territory south of the river was retroceded to 
Virginia, and hence the present territory lies altogether on its north bank, and contains only 60 square miles. 

The Maryland act of cession was passed on the 23d December, 17SS, and that of Virginia on the 3d December, 17S9. 
Subsequent acts were passed by these States confirming the location. 

This District was established in pursuance of a clause of the Constitution of 17S9 (Sec. vxn. — 17), which declares that 
Congress shall have power " to exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding 
ten miles square), as may by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the 
Government of the United States;" and further, in pursuance of an Act of Congress, approved 16th July, 1790, which 
declared "that a district of territory, not exceeding ten miles square, to be located as hereafter directed, on the river 
Potomac, at some space between the moulhs of the Eastern Branch and Conecocheague, be, and the same is hereby 
accepted, for the permanent seat of the Government of the United States; and that the President be authorized to 
appoint three Commissioners to survey, and by proper metes and bounds define and limit, a district of territory under 
the limitations above mentioned." 

By a proclamation of the President, dated 30th March, 1791, the following were defined as the boundaries of the 
territory : " Beginning at Jones' Point, being the upper cape of Hunting Creek, in Virginia, and at an angle of 45 
degrees west of the north, and running in a direct line ten miles for the first line ; then beginning again at the same 
Jones' Point, and running another direct line, at a right angle with the first, across the Potomac, ten miles, for the second 
line ; then from the terminations of the said first and second lines, running two other direct lines of ten miles each, the 
one crossing the Eastern Branch and the other the Potomac, and meeting each other in a point." The diagonal lines of 
this square run north and south, east and west, and, consequently, its angles are formed at the cardinal points. 

The District of Columbia, as now demarked, contains only one county, that of "Washington ; and in this are comprised 
the cities of "Washington and Georgetown, and what are denominated the country parts. The statistical condition of 
this county, etc., in 1850, as exhibited in the census of that year, is as follows : 

Civil Divisions. Dwellings. Families. Population. Farms. Manuf. 

"Washington City, 1st "Ward 940 991 5,543 — .... 



2d 
3d 
4th 
5th 
6th 
7th 



1.057 1,063 

9S2 9S2 

1,216 1,216 

716 769 



6,934 
5,908 
8,780 
4,137 



Total. 



645 

7S9 

6,345 

Georgetown, N. "W. part 461 

" other parts 713 

Total 1,174 

Country— E. of Turnpike 222 

" W. " 176 

Total 39S 

Grand Total 7,917 



661 3,714 

892 4,9S5 



6,679 

4S2 
733 

1,215 



40,001 29 

3,329 6 

5,017 3 



8,366 

222 1,956 

176 1,364 

398 3,320 



9 
130 



226 



8.292 



31,887 264 



10 
72 
116 
101 
21 
17 
18 



The following exhibits the caste and sexes of the population in the several civil divisions : 

White Persons. Free Colored. Slave. 



Civil Divisions. Wale. 

Washington, 1st "Ward 1.609. 



Female. 

. 1,893.. 



2d 
3d 
4th 
5th 
6th 
7th 



.. 2.432.... 2.599... 

.. 2.345.... 2,401... 

. . 3.491.... 3.409... 

.. 1.262.... 1.453... 

.. 1,664.... 1,746... 

.. 1,775.... 1,731... 



Total. 

2,502... 
5,031... 
4,740... 
6.900... 
2,720... 
. 3.410... 
3,506... 



Male. 
746. 

603. 
353. 
547. 
491. 
73. 
549. 



Female. 

..1,044. 

.. 938. 

.. 52S. 

.. 7SS. 

.. 66S. 

.. 69. 

.. 676. 



Total. 

..1,790. 
...1,541. 
... S81. 

..1,335. 

..1,159. 

.. 142. 

..1,225. 



Male. 

. 90. 
.107. 
.. 83. 
.201. 
. 90. 
. 62. 
.100. 



Female. 

. 161.. 

. 255.. 

. 19S.. 

. 344.. 

. 16S.. 

. 100.. 

. 154.. 



Total. 

. 251. 

. 862. 

. 2S1. 

. 545. 

. 258. 

. 162. 

. 254. 



Ag'te 
Popula. 

.. 5,543 
.. 6,934 
.. 5.90S 
.. 8,780 
.. 4,137 
.. 3,174 
.. 4.9S5 



Total 14,578. . . .15,237. . . .29,S15 



3,362 



4,711 8,073 733 1,330 2,113 40,001 



Georgetown, N. "W. part 1,225.... 1,364.... 2.5S9.... 1S9.... 252.... 432.... 119.... 209.. 

" other parts 1,679.... 1,813 8,592.... 487.... 641. ...1,128. ...123.... 274.. 



328. 
397. 



3.349 
5,017 



Total 2,904.... 8,177.... 6,081.... 667. 



.1,560.... 242.... 483.. 



795. 



3,366 



THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 



White Persons. Free Colored. Sia 



CiTil Divisions. Male. Female. Total, Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total. Popul. 

Country— E. of Turnpike 582.... 596.... 1,178.... 121.... 111.... 232... 294.... 252.... 516.... 1.956 

" W. " 434.... 469.... 953.... 60.... 48.... 108... 153.... 150.... 303.... 1,864 

Total 1,066.... 1,065.... 2,131.... 181.... 159.... 340... 447.... 402.... 849.... 3,320 

Grand Total. . .18,548. . . .19,479 . . . .38,027. . . .4,210. . . .5,763. . . .9,973. . .1,422. . . .2,265 . . . .3,687 . . . .51,687 

DECENNIAL MOVEMENT OF POPULATION. 

Date of White Total 

Census. Persons. Free Col. Slave. l'opula. 

1S0O 10,066 7S3 3,244 14,093 

1S10 16,079 2,S49 5,395 24,023 

1S20 22,614 4,048 6,077 33,039 

1S30 27,563 6,152 6,119 39,834 

1840 30,657 8,361 4,694 43,712 

1850 38,027 9,973 3,687 51,687 

or if the County of Alexandria be included in the returns for 1S50 — and such, for comparison with former returns, will 
be necessary — the figures are as follows : 

45,240 11,386 5,069 61,695 

XThe number of persons in the District suffering from physical infirmities was, in 1850, as follows : 

White Persons. Free Colored. Slaves. Total 

•of all 



Infirmities. Male. Female. Male. Female. Male. Female. Classes. 

Deaf and dumb 7 9 2 2 1 21 

Blind 7 7 5 3 1 23 

Insane 10 3 4 4 1 22 

Idiotic 3 4 3 .1 11 

Total 27 23 14 10 2 1 77 

The employments of the District embrace almost every branch of national industry. Its manufactures and commerce 
are extensive, and its agriculture, though confined chiefly to the production of city-market products, is in a highly 
flourishing condition. In relation to these subjects, the census of 1S50 supplies the following returns : 

Occupied Lands, etc. — Improved lands, 16,267 acres, and unimproved lands, 11,187 acres, valued at $1,730,460. 
Number of farms, 264. Value of farming implements and machinery, $40,320. 

Live-Stock. — Horses 824, asses and mules 57, milch cows S13, working oxen 104, other cattle 123, sheep 150, swine 
1,635— valued in the aggregate at $71,643. 

Agricultural Products. — "Wheat, 17,370 bushels; rye, 5,509; Indian corn, 65,230; oats, 8,134; barley, 75; buckwheat, 
37S ; peas and beans, 7,754 ; Irish potatoes, 28,292 ; sweet potatoes, 3,497 bushels ; tobacco, 7,800 pounds ; hay, 2,279 
tons ; clover seed, 3 bushels ; hops, 15 pounds ; wine, 803 gallons ; value of the products of orchards, $14,843 ; and 
of market-gardens, $67,222 ; beeswax and honey, 550 ; wool, 525 pounds ; butter, 14,S72 pounds ; cheese, 1,500 pounds ; 
and the value of animals slaughtered, $9,038. Value of home-made manufactures, $2,075. 

Manufactures. — Aggregate capital invested, $1,000,000 ; value of raw material, fuel, etc., consumed, $1,000,000 ; average 
number of hands employed, 1,000 ; males 500, and females 500 ; average monthly cost of male labor, $10,000, and of 
female labor, $5,000 ; annual value of products, $1,000,000. The whole number of manufacturing establishments, 
producing to the value of $500 and upward annually, was 427, and of these one was engaged in the manufacture of cotton 
goods, one in that of woolen goods, and two in making castings of iron — the remainder being distributed to a variety of 
handicrafts. The statistics of the specified manufactures were as follows : 

Cotton. Woolen. Cast Iron. 

Capital invested dollars.. 85,000 700 14,000 

Value of raw materials " 67,000 1,630 1S,100 

Hands employed, males number 41 2 27 

" females " 103 — — 

Average monthly wages dollars 1,400 60 529 

Value of products " 100,000 2,400 41,696 

Cotton consumed bales 960 — — 

Sheeting, etc., produced yards 1,400,000 — — 

Wool " pounds — 5,000 — 

Cloth, manufactured yards — 10,000 — 

Pig iron — — 545 

Mineral coal — — 80 

Castings made tons — — 518 

Commerce, Internal Commimication, etc.— The foreign commerce of the District is limited. In the year ending 80th 
June, 1S50, the exports and imports were as follows: Exports— domestic produce— in American vessels, $72,175; in 
foreign vessels, $8,213 : total domestic produce, $80,3SS ; foreign produce— in American vessels, $200 : total exports, 
$S0,5SS. Imports— in American vessels, $59,219 ; in foreign vessels, 600 : total, 59,S19— balance in favor of exports, $20,769. 
The number of vessels entered during the year was nine, of an aggregate burden of 1.414 tons ; and the number 
cleared, ten vessels, of 1,720 tons. Of the vessels entered, two, and 154 tons, were foreign, and of those cleared, two, and 200 
tons— the remainder being American. Georgetown is the only port. Alexandria, formerly a district city, has eight times 
the amount of foreign commerce, owing probably to its being the eastern terminus of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. 

141 



COL 



COL 



The tonnage owned within the District is 1T,010 tons, of which 2,79G is registered, and the remainder enrolled and 
licensed, and employed in the coasting trade and on the canal. The steam marine measures 1,949 tons. During the 
year 1849-50, there were built S sloops and canal boats of 2S8 tons burden. 

The District is connected with the interior by numerous fine turnpikes, and by railroads diverging from the neighbor- 
hood on both sides of the Potomac, and also through that river and its several branches. The Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal has its terminus at Georgetown, and extends to a western terminus at Cumberland, to which point and along tho 
whole line of its route an active commerce with the District is carried on. The railroads of the District are the Washing- 
ton Branch B. E., connecting it with Baltimore, and the West and South ; and diverging from Alexandria, which is 
virtually a part of the metropolis, are the Orange and Alexandria E. E. (which connects at Gordonsville, its S. terminus, 
with the Virginia Central E. E.) ; and the Manassas Gap E. E., which extends into the heart of elevated valleys beyond 
the first ridge of the Alleghanies. These avenues open to the national capital a respectable sphere of commerce, and 
when completed will be the means of greatly enlarging the trade and general interests of the place. 

Government, etc. — The government of the District is vested solely in Congress. It has no representation, nor any voice in 
the election of federal officers. The only fundamental laws, beyond the Constitution of the United States, to which its govern- 
ors are subject are those which were in force in Maryland at the period of the cession of the jurisdiction of that State in 17SS. 

Washington and Georgetown are the cities of the District : these are described under their proper captions. 



Columbia county, Flor. Situate N., and contains 2,400 
sq. m. Drained E. by creeks of St. Mary's and St. John's 
rivers, and W. by tributaries of Suwanee r., which forms 
its boundary in that direction. It contains several small 
lakes and springs, the sources of its streams. Surface gen- 
erally level, covered with pines, and in many parts swampy. 
Okefinokee Swamp extends from Georgia into this county. 
The soils are sandy and mostly unfit for cultivation, but 
there are exceptions. Farms 475; manuf. 3; dwell. 569, 
and pop— wh. 3,541, fr. col. 1, si. 1,266— total 4,S08. Cap- 
ital: Alligator. 

Columbia county. Get. Situate E., and contains 5S0 sq. 
m. Drained by Little r. and other tributaries of Savannah 
r., which rise on its N. E. border. Surface undulating, and 
Boils generally fertile. The chief products are cotton, In- 
dian com, and other grains. Gold is also a production of 
the county, but in no large quantities. Farms 4S9 ; manuf. 
7 ; dwell. 751, and pop.— wh. 8,617, fr. col. 72, si. 8,272— 
total 11,961. Capital : Appling. Public Works : Georgia 
E. E. 

Columbia county, K Y. Situate E. between Hudson r. 
and the State line of Massachusetts, and contains 624 sq. m. 
Drained by Kinderhook, Claverac, Copake, and other 
creeks of Hudson r. Surface varied, chiefly consisting of 
two longitudinal valleys ; soils highly fertile. Pine, hickory, 
oak, maple, elm, and chestnut are the principal forest trees. 
Iron, lead, manganese, zinc, marble, and other building 
stone are abundant. Mineral springs, sulphurous and 
chalybeate, are found in Lebanon and Stockport. The 
county has great facilities for commerce, and in manufac- 
tures has made great progress. Its agricultural products 
are the cereals, potatoes, butter, cheese, and wool. Farms 
250 ; manuf. 208 ; dwell. 7,029, and pop.— wh. 41,771, fr. col. 
1,802— total 43,073. Capital: Hudson City. PublicWorks : 
Hudson Elver E. E. ; Harlem E. E. ; Albany and West 
Stockbridge (western) E. E. ; Hudson and Berkshire E. E. ; 
Lebanon Springs E. E., etc. 

Columbia county, Perm. Situate N. E. centrally, and 
contains 6S0 sq. m. Drained by Fishing, Cattawissa, Big 
Soaring, and other creeks of the E. branch of Susquehanna 
r., which traverses it from N. E. to S. W. Surface b